(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh"

4.C-52. 







TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 



SfXn. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY 



OF 



EDINBURGH. 



VOL. LI. 




EDINBURGH : 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 
AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCCXVII. 



\o. I. Published September 23, 1915. N 


o. XV. Published August 14, 1916. 


1 1. 


September 22, 1915. , 


XVI. 


April 25, 1916. 


III. 


November 19, 1915. 


XVII. 


August 21, 1916. 


IV. 


November 29, 1915. , 


, XVIII. 


, September 16, 1916 


V. 


November 30, 1915. 


XIX. 


August 29, 1916. 


VI. 


December 10, 1915. , 


XX. 


, November 6, 1916. 


VII. 


, December 14, 1915. , 


XXI. 


November 8, 1916. 


VIII. 


January 17, 1916. , 


XXII. 


November 29, 1916 


IX. 


January 31, 1916. 


, XXIII. 


January 17, 1917. 


X. 


December 31, 1915. , 


, XXIV. 


, February 27, 1917. 


XI. 


December 28, 1915. 


XXV. 


April 21, 1917. 


XII. 


, January 15, 1916. , 


, XXVI. 


February 2, 1917. 


XIII. 


August 14, 1916. 


, XXVII. 


March 9, 1917. 


XIV. 


, August 11, 1916. 








CONTENTS. 



PART I. (1914-15.) 

NUMBER PAGE 

I. On the Zeolites and Associated Minerals from the Tertiary Lavas around 
Ben More, Midi. By W. F. P. M'Lintock, B.Sc, Royal Scottish 
Museum, Edinburgh. (Plates I-II1), ..... 1 

II. Spongiaires recueillis par la "Scotia" dans V Antarctique (1903-1904). 
Supplement. Par Emile Topsent, Professeur a la Faculte des Sciences 
de Dijon. Presente par le Dr. W. S. Bruce, . . . .35 

III. On Larvse of Lingula and Pelagodiscus (Discinisca). By J. H. Ash- 

worth, D.Sc, Lecturer in Invertebrate Zoology in the University of 
Edinburgh. (Plates IV and V), . . . . . .45 

IV. The Temperatures, Specific Gravities, and Salinities of the Weddell Sea 

and of the North and South Atlantic Ocean. By William S. Bruce, 
LL.D., Andrew King, F.I.C., and David W. Wilton, . . .71 

V. A Contribution to the Craniology of the People of Scotland. Part II. Pre- 
historic, Descriptive and Ethnographical. By Principal Sir William 
Turner, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.Soc.Ant.Scot., Emeritus Professor of 
Anatomy. ......... 171 

VI. The Morphology and Development of the Free-Swimming Sporosacs of the 
Hydroid Genus Dicoryne {including Heterocordyle). By J. H. Ash- 
worth, D.Sc, University of Edinburgh, and James Ritchie, M.A., 
D.Sc, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. (Plates VI-VIII), . . 257 



vi CONTENTS. 

PART II. (1915-16.) 

NUMBER PAQK 

VTT. Studies on the Development of the Horse. I. The Development during 
the Third Week. By J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S., Regius Professor of 
Natural History. University of Edinburgh. (Plates IX-XVIII and 
Twenty-one Text-figures), ...... 287 

VITT. Description of a- Reconstruction Model of a Horse Embryo Twenty-One 
Days Old. By Professors Arthur Robinson, M.D., and A. Gibson, 
M.B.,F.R.C.S. (Plate XIX, figs. 54-63. Text-figs. 22-26), . . 331 

IX. A Contribution to the Study of the Scottish Skull. By Matthew Young, 
M.D., Senior Demonstrator in Anatomy, University of Glasgow. 
(With Three Plates), . . . . . . 347 

X. Skiagrapliic Researches in Teratology. By Harry Rainy, M.D., 
F.R.C.P.E., and J. W. Ballantyne, M.D., F.R.C.P.E. (With Fifteen 
Plates), ......... 455 

XI. On a Small Collection of Terrestrial Isopoda from Spain, with Descrip- 
tions of Four New Sjwcies. By Walter E. Collinge, M.Sc., F.L.S., 
etc., Research Fellow of the University of St Andrews. (With Two 
Plates), ......... 461 

XII. The Lateral Sense Organs of Elasmobranchs : The Ampullary Canals 
of the Genus Raia. By Augusta Lamont, B.Sc, Baxter Scholar in 
Natural Science, University of Edinburgh. (With Eight Plates and 
Nine Text-figures), ....... 467 



PART III. (1915-16-17.) 

XIII. Contributions to the Geology of Benguella. By Professor J. W. Gregory, 

F.R.S., D.Sc. (With Two Plates), 495 

XIV. A Contribution to the Petrography of Benguella, based on a Rock 

Collection made by Professor J. W. Gregory. By G. W. Tyrrell, 
A.II.C.Sc., F.G.S., Lecturer in Geology, Glasgow University. (With 
One Plate), . . . . . . . .537 



CONTENTS. VI i 

NUMBKR PAGE 

XV. On some Cretaceous Brachiopoda and Mollusca from Angola, Portu- 
guese West Africa. By R. Bullen Newton, F.G.S., Geological 
Department, British Museum. (With Two Plates), . . . 5G1 

XVI. Note on an Algal Limestone from Angola. By Mrs M. F. Romanes, 
late Harkness Scholar, Newnham College, Cambridge. (With One 
Plate),. . . . . . . .581 

XVII. On some Cretaceous Echinoidea from the Neighbourhood of Lobito Bay. 

By Professor J. W. Gregory, F.R.S., D.Sc, . . . .585 

XVIII. Contributions towards a Knowledge of the Anatomy of the Lower 
Dicotyledons. I. The Anatomy of the Stem of the Papaveracex. 
By R. J. Harvey-Gibson, D.L., M.A., Professor of Botany, University 
of Liverpool ; and Minnie Bradley, M.Sc, Hartley Research Scholar, 
University of Liverpool. (With Three Plates), . . . 589 

XIX. Apractocleidus teretipes : A new Oxfordian Plesiosaur in the Hun- 
terian Museum, Glasgow University. By William R. Smellie, M.A., 
B.Sc. (With One Plate), . . . . . .609 

XX. Tlie Anatomy and Affinity of Platyzoma microphyllum, R. Br. By 
John M'Lean Thompson, M.A., B.Sc, Chief Assistant in Botany and 
Robert Donaldson Research Scholar, Glasgow University. (With 
Four Plates), . . . . . . .631 

XXI. On Leaf Architecture as illuminated by a Study of Pteridophyta. By 
F. 0. Bower, D.Sc, F.R.S., Regius Professor of Botany in the 
University of Glasgow. (With One Plate), .... 657 

XXII. Contributions to our Knoivledge of British Palseozoic Plants. Part I. 
Fossil Plants from the Scottish Coal Measures. By Dr R. Kidston, 
F.R.S. (With Three Plates), . . . . .709 

XXIII A Revision of the British Idoteidse, a Family of Marine Isopoda. By 
Walter E. Collinge, D.Sc, F.L.S., etc., Research Fellow of the 
University of St Andrews. (With Eleven Plates), . . . 721 



VUI 
NUHBIB 

XXIV. 



CONTENTS. 

On Old Red Sandstone Plants showing Structure, from the Rhynie 
Chert Bed, Aberdeenshire. Part I. Rhynia Gwynne-Vaughani, 
Kidston and Lang. By R. Kidston, LL.D., F.R.S., and W. H. 
Lang, D.Sc, F.R.S., Barker Professor of Cryptogamic Botany in the 
University of Manchester. (With Ten Plates), 



761 



XXV. The Prothallus of Tmesipteris Tannensis. By Professor A. 

Anstruther Lawson, D.Sc, F.L.S. (With Three Plates), . 785 



PART IV. (1915-16-17.) 

XXVI. The Ordovician and Silurian Brachiopoda of the Girvan District. 

By F. R. C. Reed, M.A., Sc.D., F.G.S. (With Twenty-Four Plates), 795 



XXVII. The Forest of Wyre and the Titterstone Clee Hill Coal Fields. (With 
Five Plates and Six Text-figures), ..... 

Introduction. By Dr R. Kidston, F.R.S. 

Part I : The Geology of the Forest of Wyre Coal Field. By T. C. 
Cantrill, B.Sc., F.G.S. — The Fossil Plants of the Forest of 
Wyre Coal Field. By Dr R. Kidston. 

Part II : The Geology of the Titterstone Clee Hill Coal Field. 
By E. E. L. Dixon, B.Sc., F.G.S.— The Fossil Plants of the 
Titterstone Clee Hill Coal Field. By Dr R. Kidston. 

With an Appendix on The Fossil Plants collected from the Core 
of the Claverley Trial Boring. By Dr R. Kidston. 



999 



Index, 



1085 



fW- 










TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

VOLUME LI, PART I.— SESSION 1914-15. 






CONTENTS. 



I. On the Zeolite* and Associated Minerals from the Tertiary Lavas around Ben More, Mull. By 
W. F. P. M'Lintock, B.Sc, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. Communicated by J. S. Flett, 
D.Sc., LL.D., F.R.S. (Plates I-III), ........ 1 

{Issued September 23, 1915.) 

II. Sponyiaires recueillis par la " Scotia" dans V Antarctique (1903 -190 J/.). Supplement. Par Emile 

Topsent, Professeur a la Faculte des Sciences de Dijon. Presente par le Dr. W. S. Bruce, . 35 

(Issued September 22, 1915.) 

III. On Larvse of Lingula and Pelagodiscus (Discinisca). By J. H. Ashworth, D.Sc, Lecturer in 

Invertebrate Zoology in the University of Edinburgh. (Plates IV and V), . . .45 

(Issued November 19, 1915.) 

IV. The Temperatures, Specific Gravities, and Salinities of the Weddell Sea and of the North and 

South Atlantic Ocean. By William S. Bruce, LL.D., Andrew King, F.I.C., and David 

W. Wilton, ........... 71 

(Issued November 29, 1915.) 

V. A Contribution to the Craniology of the People of Scotland. Part II. Prehistoric, Descrip- 
tive and Ethnographical. By Principal Sir William Turner, K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., 
F.Soc. Ant. Scot., Emeritus Professor of Anatomy, ...... 171 

(Issued November 30, 1915.) 

VI. The Morphology and Development of the Free- Swimming Sporosacs of the Hydroid Genus 
Dicoryne (including Heterocordtjle). By J. H. Ashworth, D.Sc, University of Edinburgh, and 
James Ritchie, M.A., D.Sc, Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. (Plates VI-VIII), . 257 

(Issued December 10, 1915.) 



EDINBUEGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 

AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCCXVI. 
Price Tioenty-fivs Shillings. 



■ 



TRANSACTIONS. 



I. — On the Zeolites and Associated Minerals from the Tertiary Lavas around 
Ben More, Mull. By W. P. P. M'Lintock, B.Sc, Eoyal Scottish Museum, 
Edinburgh. Communicated by J. S. Flett, D.Sc, LL.D., F.R.S. 

(MS. received May 17, 1915. Eead June 28, 1915. Issued separately September 23, 1915.) 

[Plates I-IIL] 

Introduction. 

The special features of interest attaching to the Tertiary igneous rocks of Mull 
have been made known to geologists mainly through the classic descriptions of 
Professor J. W. Judd and Sir Archibald Geikie. The point of view of these two 
investigators is, however, essentially geological, and they refer but little to the 
occurrence of minerals and rarely give precise localities. It is clear, too, that the 
late Professor M. F. Heddle did not make an exhaustive examination of many 
localities in Mull, for his collection in the Royal Scottish Museum contains very few 
specimens from that island. With a view to filling up this gap I have paid several 
visits to Mull, and this paper deals with some of the material which I collected. The 
officers of the Geological Survey who are at present mapping the island have helped 
me considerably with information and material ; and to Mr J. E. Richey, B.A., who 
has surveyed the area from which a large part of the material was obtained, I am 
particularly indebted for assistance in collecting specimens from somewhat in- 
accessible localities. 

The rocks around Ben More exhibit several peculiar characters which have been 
noted by Sir Archibald Geikie,* aud also by Professor Judd,! who gives a description 
of their petrographical characters and altered state, and notes the presence in them 
of veins and nests of green and pink epidote. Again, Mr James Currie has recorded! 

* Sir Archibald Geikie, The Ancient Volcanoes of Great Britain, 1897, vol. ii, pp. 184, 213. 

t J. W. Judd, "On the Propylites of the Western Isles of Scotland," Quart. Joum. Geol. Soc, 1890, vol. xlvi, 
pp. 368, 363. 

+ James Currie, "The Minerals of the Tertiary Eruptive Rocks of Ben More, Mull," Tram. Eclin. Geol. Soc, 
1898, vol. vii, p. 223. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 1). 1 



2 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

scolecite, epidote, heulandite, stilbite, prehnite, etc., from Maol nan Damb, a spur of 
Ben More running down to Loch Scridain. Mr Currie remarks upon the peculiar 
assemblage of lime-beariuQ- minerals in the cavities of the lavas and the absence of 
soda-bearing ones ; but, as I shall show later, albite is quite a common associated 
mineral at this locality and at many others in the vicinity. 

Apart from the points of interest already indicated, there is the further one that 
the lavas have been pierced by intrusive masses, and, as noted by Sir Archibald 
Geikie, have suffered in consequence considerable alteration — an alteration which is 
particularly prominent in the somewhat unstable minerals of the vesicles. In making 
a traverse of the country around Ben More one is forcibly impressed by the fact that 
for considerable distances around the plutonic centre the lavas differ entirely in 
character from those of the plateau-country far removed from the zone of intrusive 
rocks.* One of the most striking differences lies in the abundance of epidote in the 
cavities and veins of the central lavas, and its absence or extreme rarity in the 
basalts of the plateau. The central lavas, again, never show the spheroidal 
weathering to a brown loam so characteristic of the plateau-basalts, whilst there is 
the further difference, referred to by Mr Currie,! that the mineral association in 
the cavities is entirely different from that found in the normal lavas of the plateau. 
Different interpretations have been placed on these facts by Professor Judd and 
Sir Archibald Geikie. 

In the memoir already cited, the former observer groups the central lavas under 
the name of propylites, and he regards them as andesites of various types altered by 
solfataric action which "accompanied the intrusion of the acid masses." J This 
action was widespread, and he distinguishes it from the contact metamorphism 
locally induced in the rocks lying near the margins of the intrusions. As regards 
the date of the solfataric changes in the lavas, it is stated that in many places they 
have preceded the action of contact metamorphism, and in others the opposite may 
have taken place. § 

Sir Archibald Geikie, on the other hand, sees in the propylites merely the 
representatives of the plateau-basalts altered by contact metamorphism, || and he 
states that he was unable to find any trace of the solfataric action described by Judd. 
The point is of considerable geological siguificance, for upon it rest questions of 
interpretation of a complicated series of igneous rocks. ^[ 

It occurred to me that an examination of the minerals in the cavities of the 
lavas might throw some light on the question of the cause and date of the alteration 
of the rocks, and in the present communication I shall deal with a very well-defined 
zone of zeolite-bearing lavas which can be traced from areas free from contact 
metamorphism almost up to the margin of one of the large acid intrusions. This 

* Sir Archibald Geikie, loc. cit., p. 388. t James Currie, loc. cit, p. 226. 

I J. W. JUDD, loc. cit., p. 382. § J. W. Judd, loc. cit., p. 367. 

|| Sir A. Geikie, loc. cit., p. 185 (footnote), p. 388 (footnote). 1 J. W. Judd, loc. cit., p. 353. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 



zone occurs on An G earn a and Beinn Fhada, two ridges running from Ben More in 
a north-westerly direction, and also on Maol nan Damh, a spur running south-west 
from Ben More towards Loch Scridain. Its distribution is indicated on the accom- 
panying sketch-map (fig. 1), and, as the geology of the region is complex, I include 
here short descriptions of the localities, kindly furnished by Mr Richey, who surveyed 
An Gearna and Beinn Fhada, and Mr Anderson, who mapped Maol nan Damh :— 

"The parallel ridges of Beinn Fhada and An Gearna are situated at the western 




Fig. 1. — Map showing the distribution of the zeolite-bearing zone 
(dotted) and the granophyre (crossed). 

border of the Mull plutonic centre. Tertiary plateau lavas form the country rock 
which is intruded by plutonics, sheets and dykes. The lavas are olivine basalts 
making thick cappings to the hills. A large granopbyre mass (the Beinn a' Ghraig 
granophyre) cuts through Beinn Fhada and ends in the valley below, not reaching 
to An Gearna. Its junctions with the lavas, seen in extenso on the hill-face, slope 
steeply outwards, while the valley stream -sections show a like relation in detail. 
On the south-east end of Beinn Fhada part of an earlier granophyre is cut ofi' against 
the granophyre of Beinn a' Ghraig. 

" There are two series of sheets both intermediate between the granophyres in age. 
The belt of thin inclined sheets which encircles the Mull plutonic centre crosses 



4 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

Beina Fhada and cuts another series of thin basaltic sheets with a general westerly 
dip which arc distributed throughout the district. Still earlier sheet-like masses 
of coarse dolerite form small scattered patches, of which some at least are later than 
the early granophyre. 

" Some north-westerly dykes are earlier than the Beinn a' Ghraig granophyre, but 
the greater number of dykes belong no doubt to the north-west series proper and 
are the latest intrusions." 

" The shoulder of Ben More known as Maol nan Damh is composed in the main of 
flat or very gently inclined lavas. Those forming the lower slopes of the hill are 
more basic, but the difference in character is not very marked and they are rather 
difficult to separate from the overlying flows, although the former are mapped as 
basalts and the latter as andesites.* The screes which flank the western slopes are in 
the lower more basic lavas. 

" The largest intrusive mass is a flat sill of mugearite some 200 or 300 feet in 
thickness. This comes some 500 feet above the screes referred to. There are also a 
large number of minor intrusions, including porphyritic and non-porphyritic dolerite, 
and one or two that are more acid in character. As a whole, however, they are not 
so numerous as those which intersect the lavas in the higher portion of Ben More." 

The Minerals of An Gearna. 

One of the most convenient places for studying the mineralogy of the lavas is the 
ridge of An Gearna referred to above. On the north-eastern slope at a height of 
about 1200 feet, large amygdales, filled chiefly with a white fibrous zeolite, make their 
appearance in the screes and become plentiful at heights of 1300-1500 feet. The 
size of these amygdales is phenomenal, measuring, as they do, as much as 15 cm. x 
10 cm. It is noteworthy that the lavas of the upper part of the hill alone yield the 
zeolite-filled vesicles ; the amygdales in the lower lavas are small and are filled mostly 
with compact, massive albite. The fibrous zeolite is scolecite, and associated with it 
are epidote, prehnite, garnet, albite, and, much more rarely, hornblende, calcite, 
chabazite, and thomsonite. 

Scolecite has usually been considered one of the rarer Scottish zeolites, f but on 
An Gearna it occurs in profusion, whilst it is also common on Beinn Fhada and Maol 
nan Damh ; on Coire Bheinn, a hill lying two miles south-west of An Gearna, it is 
much rarer, although good specimens have also been got from there. It occurs in 
white fibrous aggregates and crystals, which in some cases reach a length of 10 cm., 
but, although many cavities have been broken open, no terminated crystal has been 
observed. In some cases when an amygdalc is broken across, the scolecite shows a 
series of perfectly sharp rectilinear cracks or veins with perfectly flat, lustrous 

* Microscopic examination has since shown that the lavas provisionally mapped as andesites are olivine basalts 
much like the underlying flows. 

t Of. J. G. Goodchild, " Natural History of Scottish Zeolites," Trans. Glas. Geol. Soc, 1903, vol. xii, suppt , p. 62. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 5 

walls which, when examined closely with a lens, show a fine set of striae formed by 
two sets of lines intersectino; at about 60°. There can be little doubt that these 
cracks were once filled with calcite, which has left its cleavage traces on the 
adjacent scolecite. The following analysis was made by Mr E. G. Eadley in 
the laboratory of the Geological Survey : — 











Calculated for Formula 










CaAl 2 Si 3 O 10 + 3H 2 0. 


Si0 2 . 


. 46-10 


per 


cent. 


45-9 


A1A . . . 


25-05 




>> 


26-0 


Fe 2 3 . 


•55 




» 




CaO . 


14-17 




>> 


14-3 


MgO . 


•32 




>> 




K,0 . 


•03 




> 


... 


Na 2 . 


trace 






... 


H 2 at 105° C. . 


•13 


per 


cent. 




H 2 above 105° C. 


. 1378 




;> 


13-8 




100-13 


per 


cent. 


ioo-o 



The mineral is thus a typical scolecite practically free from alkalies. 

The junction of the zeolite with the walls of the vesicle presents some interesting 
and unusual features. In place of the layer of green earth so frequently found under- 
lying the Scottish zeolites, there is often a confusedly crystalline layer of yellowish- 
green epidote which sends off small radiating groups of spear-like crystals into the 
scolecite. In addition to epidote there are also sometimes present in this layer 
prehnite, garnet, albite, hornblende, and chlorite. 




Fin. 2. — Crystal of epidote from An Geania, Mull. 

Epidote occurs invariably, however, in more or less abundance, and ranges in 
colour from blackish-green, which is rather rare at this locality, through various 
shades of yellowish-green to pale pink or almost colourless. It occurs in radiate 
groups of crystals which sometimes show the combination a(100), c(001), r(l01), 
6(010), n(lll) (fig. 2). Besides occurring in intimate association with scolecite, 
epidote is also found in cavities where that mineral is absent. For example, at the 
north end of An Gearna, on the west slope near the summit, there is a pale, greenish- 



G MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

gray lava the vesicles of which are lined with a beautiful pink epidote on the top of 
which is usually a layer of colourless, botryoidal prehnite. The epidote occurs in 
groups of divergent crystals which are sometimes green at the one end and grade off 
into pink at the other ; it frequently rests upon a layer of albite. 

The following analysis, made by Mr Radley, shows this variety to be a lime- 
epidote, poor in iron, and owing its colour, doubtless, to the small amount of 
manganese present : — 



Si0 2 

TiO, 

A1A 

Fe 2 3 

FeO 

MnO 

(CoNi)O 

CaO 

MgO 

K 2 

Na 2 

Li 2 

H 2 at 105° C. 

H 2 above 105° C. 



38-69 


•6405| 
•0015/ 


•12 


28-54 


•2793| 
•0435/ 


6-97 


•22 


•0030 


•29 


•0040 


nt. fd. 




23-78 


•4246 


•49 


•0121 


•03 




trace 


. . . 


trace 




•09 




•99 


•055 



Molecular Ratios. 

•6420 6-00 



•3228 



•4437 



3-01 



4-05 



•055 



•514 



100-21 



The above analysis gives the formula Ca 4 Al 6 Si 6 25 |H 2 0, in which the alumina is 
partly replaced by ferric iron and the lime by ferrous iron. The mineral obviously 
belongs to the somewhat rare series of epidotes poor in ferric iron referred to by 
Dr H. H. Thomas in his description * of an epidote from Inverness-shire ; it is also 
peculiar in having only half the normal percentage of water. Owing to the fibrous 
and poorly crystallised nature of the material an accurate determination of the 
optical characters was impossible ; but, by means of a solution of methylene iodide 
and benzene, the mean refractive index was found to be 1*720, which accords well 
with the values given by Dr Thomas. 

Prehnite is a fairly common mineral in the vesicles, and occurs in the usual 
botryoidal form ; sometimes it forms a dense white massive layer which is occasionally 
spotted with little yellowish or reddish masses of garnet. Typically it occurs in 
globular growths underlying the scolecite and seated upon epidote or albite. It is 
most plentiful at the locality previously noted in connection with the pink epidote. 
There, the geodes found in the screes are usually dull and weathered on the surface, 
but when broken open show beautiful rosettes of epidote projecting into massive 
white prehnite. In cavities in the latter mineral there occurs occasionally a pale 

* H. H. Tiioma.s, " On an Epidote from Inverness-shire," Minuralogical Magazine, vol. xiv, p. 109. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 7 

greenish clay-like substance which, when crushed and examined under the micro- 
scope, appears to consist of a mixture of prehnite and yellowish-brown isotropic 
chloritic material. 

Garnet. — This mineral is an unusual associate of zeolites, but on An Gearna it 
is of fairly frequent occurrence. Its presence has already been noted by Professor 
Judd,* who mentions it as occurring with epidote in the volcanic agglomerates of 
the Hebrides. Mr Currie, in the paper referred to above, notes its absence on Maol 
nan Damh, but there can be no doubt that Judd in his description had in mind the 
locality under consideration, although the rocks in which I have detected the mineral 
show none of the characters of volcanic agglomerates. The garnet varies in colour 
from pale yellow, or colourless, to deep brown, a beautiful wine-yellow tint being 




Fig. 3. — Crystal of garnet from An Gearna, Mull. 



commonest. It occurs usually in crystals — occasionally *5 cm. in diameter — 
studding the scolecite near the junction of that mineral with the underlying layer of 
epidote, prehnite, etc., although sometimes it is found well in the centre of the zeolite. 
The common form is the rhombic dodecahedron the faces of which are usually 
curved and irregular, but the form shown in fig. 3 has also been noted. In 
crystals of this shape it is of interest that the icositetrahedral faces show the unusual 
type of striation, parallel to the intersection of the icositetrahedron and the 
dodecahedron, noted by Professor Shand f in his description of the garnets from 
Corsie Hill Quarry. 

Besides occurring in direct association with scolecite, garnet has also been found 
with prehnite and albite, forming a layer between the two, and, rarely, imbedded 
in calcite. Much of the massive white prehnite found on the hill is spotted with 
garnet, and it is noteworthy that whenever the latter mineral occurs with scolecite, 
prehnite occurs in direct association with the two. 

* J. W. Jodd, "On the Secondary Rocks of Scotland," Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, vol. xxx, 1874, p. 241. 
t S. J. Shand, Proc. Perth. Soc. Nat. Sci, 1907, vol. iv, p. 210. 



8 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 



The following analysis was made by Mr Radley, and shows the mineral to be 
a typical lime-alumina garnet : — 



Si0 2 . 


37-66 


Ti0 2 . 


•12 


A1A . 


21-84 


Fe 2 3 . 


4-07 


FeO . 


•34 


MnO . 


•53 


(CoNi)O 


. nt. fd. 


CaO . 


33-06 


MgO . 


•45 


K 2 . 


•75 


Na 2 . 


1-17 


Li 2 . 


. nt. fd. 


H 2 at 105° C. 


nt. fd. 


H 2 above 105° C. 


•20 


Sp. g. = 3-61 


100-19 


at 7° C. 



Albite is not infrequently found in the vesicles in association with the minerals 
already described. It rarely shows crystal form and occurs usually as a massive 
layer of variable thickness underlying scolecite or prehnite. When scolecite is 
present the layer of albite is separated from it by an irregular layer of epidote, 
whilst when prehnite overlies the felspar a zone of garnet occasionally separates the two. 
Vesicles also occur lined, with albite upon which a layer of green epidote is seated, 
and albite-filled veins are of frequent occurrence in the lavas. The layer underlying 
the albite occasionally presents unusual features. In a few specimens it consists of 
white massive albite speared by long black fibrous crystals, measuring up to -5 cm. 
in length and consisting of augite which, under the microscope, has the purple tint 
typical of the Tertiary basaltic lavas. These crystals occasionally wander into the 
albite of the vesicle proper, but the point will be more fully discussed when the 
microscopic characters of the vesicle-minerals come under consideration. 

When crushed and examined under the microscope the albite is easily identified 
by the usual twinning, the symmetrical extinction angles on twin-lamellae, and by 
its mean refractive index, which, tested in oil, is approximately l - 534 ; it is rarely 
clear and transparent, being usually filled with inclusions. 

The lavas underlying the vesicular zone under consideration are much more 
compact and are characterised by much smaller amygdales which are filled with 
dense white or pink massive albite associated with epidote. 

Calcite. — From the mineral association so far described, one might have expected 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 9 

calcite to be of frequent occurrence in the amygdales, but, as a matter of fact, it is 
rare and has been noted on few specimens. On one of these it occurs in a fairly large 
hollow in scolecite as a white, crystalline, much-cleaved mass, studded with yellow 
garnets. It lies near the walls of the vesicle and is separated from the scolecite 
by a space partially filled with yellow epidote. The surface of the scolecite adjoining 
this space is flat and shows the characters possessed by the walls of the rectilinear 
cracks already described as occurring in this mineral. Support is thus lent to the 
view that these cracks were once occupied by calcite, which has since been removed. 

Chabazite and Thomsonite. — In addition to scolecite these are the only other 
zeolites which have been noted on An Gearna, and they are extremely rare. The former 
mineral has been found on only one specimen, where it occurs as simple rhombohedra 
lining a cavity in white, massive prehnite spotted with reddish-brown garnet ; albite 
and epidote are also present. Thomsonite has been noted in sheaf-like growths 
intimately associated with prehnite, albite, and scolecite. It has also been found 
on the north-east slope of Beinn Fhada associated with albite and prehnite, and with 
like associates on Coire Bheinn. 

Hornblende can be observed occasionally in hand-specimen as tufts or aggregates 
of acicular crystals always near the walls of the vesicle. It spears the scolecite and 
is intimately associated with epidote. As will be shown later, it is a common 
microscopic mineral in the amygdales. 

The Minerals of Maol nan Damh. 

To appreciate correctly the significance of the most unusual mineral association 
described above, it .is necessary to study the occurrences on the neighbouring hills. 
In the paper already quoted, Mr Currie records the presence of scolecite, epidote, 
calcite, celadonite, heulandite, and, much more rarely, stilbite, and prehnite from the 
upper lavas of the south-western side of Maol nan Damh, a spur of Ben More running 
in a south-westerly direction towards Loch Scridain (see fig. 1). He very kindly 
presented specimens to the Royal Scottish Museum, and from an examination of 
them I came to the conclusion that what had been determined as heulandite was 
in reality albite. In the course of correspondence with me Mr Currie very frankly 
stated that he, too, was now of the same opinion, and from an examination of 
specimens collected by Mr E. M. x4nderson and myself there can be no doubt that 
albite is of very frequent occurrence in the vesicular lavas at this locality. 

The zeolite-filled cavities are if anything larger and more abundant than those 
of An Gearna, and it is clear that here we are dealing with a similar set of rocks. 
Scolecite, as described by Mr Currie, is by far the most abundant mineral, and 
associated with it are epidote, chlorite, albite, calcite, and, more rarely, prehnite. 
Heulandite and stilbite are exceedingly rare and have been noted on only one 
specimen, where they fill up the spaces between a crystalline aggregate of quartz, 
albite, and epidote, whilst chabazite has been noted in a vesicle filled with an 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 1). 2 



10 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

aggregate of scolccite and prehnite. Cubes of pyrites have also been observed 
enclosed in massive prclmitc. 

One specimen of special interest shows a hollow vesicle lined with, apparently, 
dull, opaque icositetrahedra of analcite upon which are seated crystals of pale 
green epidote ; the icositetrahedra when crushed and examined under the microscope 
are seen to consist of albite which has replaced the zeolite. 

The typical vesicles filled with fibrous scolecite sometimes reach a phenomenal 
size, the largest one found measuring 15 cm. along its greatest length. They are 
usually closely packed with scolecite, terminated crystals of which are exceedingly 
rare: a few have been found, however, showing the combination b(010), ?n(ll0), 
cZ(101), o(lll). In the simplest cases the scolecite is seated upon a layer of chlorite, 
but such specimens are rather exceptional. A more common association is (beginning 
from the wall of the amygdale) chlorite with deep green epidote, then a layer of 
crystalline albite, white or pale pink in colour, and of variable thickness, and, lastly, 
scolecite which fills the vesicle ; a layer of prehnite sometimes intervenes between 
the scolecite and albite. Calcite occurs fairly frequently in crystalline, much-cleaved 
masses enclosed in the scolecite near the junction with the underlying minerals. 

Epidote is exceedingly abundant. When it occurs with scolecite it is always 
found near the walls of the vesicle in intimate association with chlorite. It forms 
groups of dark green radiating crystals which sometimes spear the scolecite and are 
occasionally completely enclosed by it. In a second type of vesicle, where scolecite 
is absent, it occurs in groups of divergent crystals seated upon albite, whilst in a 
third type the amygdale is packed with massive chlorite, in the centre of which is a 
kernel of fibrous epidote. 

Chlorite is universally present in the cavities and shows various interesting 
features, some of which have an important bearing on the question of the date of 
formation of the vesicle-minerals. It was obviously one of the first to be deposited, 
and forms a dark green, compact, and massive layer lining the walls of the amygdale. 
This layer varies considerably in thickness : in some cases, especially when the 
vesicle is small, it fills the cavity ; in others it forms a thin and patchy priming for 
the overlying minerals, which may be scolecite, albite. epidote, or prehnite. In many 
cases the chlorite is quite homogeneous, but it often contains crystals and grains 
of deep green epidote, whilst in a few specimens acicular crystals of black augite, 
measuring up to - 4 cm. in length, can be detected. These crystals occur usually 
at or near the junction of the chlorite with the rock, but occasionally they are found 
well within the chlorite layer and even wandering into the overlying epidote, 
albite, and prehnite. Sometimes they are arranged radially to the walls of the 
vesicle to which they are often attached, but in many instances they lie tangentially 
to the boundary and have no visible point of attachment to the rock. On one 
specimen the layer of chlorite and augite can be seen to connect with a vein packed 
with similar material which pierces the lava. The crystals of augite in the centre 



FKOM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 11 

of the vein are arranged roughly parallel to the walls. A few cavities have been 
found in which prehnite is specially abundant. The underlying layer consists 
of chlorite speared with acicular augite with which albite is intimately associated ; 
in such cases the augite is occasionally found enclosed in the immediately 
overlying prehnite. 

Owing to the dark colour of the chlorite and the frequent occurrence of fibrous 
epidote, it is difficult to detect these acicular augites in hand-specimen. They are 
best seen on the weathered surface of the chlorite, which is pale, and they can be 
readily identified by an examination of a little crushed material under the microscope, 
when the purple colour, cleavage, and positive optical sign distinguish the mineral 
at once from epidote. They are a prominent feature in sections cut through the 
junction of the rock with the vesicle, and their significance will be discussed when 
the origin of the zeolites comes to be considered. 

In addition to vesicles, the lavas also carry veins filled with albite in which 
are, occasionally, clear crystals of quartz and rhombohedra of chabazite. Veins 
filled with albite, solecite, and prehnite also occur, and there are other minerals 
which can only be detected under the microscope, and which will be described later. 

Meanwhile it is interesting to compare the differences, obvious in hand-specimen, 
between the minerals of Maol nan Damh and those from An Gearna. First, we may 
note that the dark green chloritic layer underlying the zeolites is much sharper and 
better developed on Maol nan Damh than on An Gearna, where its place is usually 
taken by a confused zone of yellow epidote with which tufts of green hornblende 
are sometimes associated. The second notable difference lies in the colour of the 
epidote predominant at the two localities. At Maol nan Damh it is typically of 
a deep, bottle-green shade, whilst at An Gearna it is usually pale yellow, brown, 
or pink ; the last variety has not been found at Maol nan Damh. A third difference 
lies in the abundance of garnet on An Gearna and its absence or extreme rarity at 
Maol nan Damh. On one or two specimens collected by myself I have noted very 
small crystals in microscopic section, whilst on another collected by Mr Anderson 
it is visible to the unaided eye ; Mr Currie notes its absence in the material 
collected by him. 

It is clear, therefore, that on An Gearna we are dealing with the somewhat 
metamorphosed representatives of the vesicle-minerals of Maol nan Damh, and it 
is interesting to trace this well-defined zone towards the large intrusive mass of 
granophyre which forms the centre of Beinn Fhada, a ridge running parallel to 
An Gearna at a distance to the north-west of about a mile. 

The Minerals op Beinn Fhada. 

On this hill, the cavities are neither so plentiful nor so large as those obtained 
at the localities previously described, but good specimens can be obtained from the 



12 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

selves at the north-western extremity of the ridge at heights of 1200-1500 feet. 
There the vesicles are filled with scolecite underlain by a layer of pale green or 
yellow epidote intimately associated with garnet, prehnite, and, frequently, albite. 
The boundary of this layer with the zeolite is highly irregular, and every now and 
then it sends oft" growths into the scolecite, tufted aggregates of which can often 
be seen enclosed in the prehnite and epidote. On some of the specimens there is 
a white massive mineral which occasionally merges into opaque, white tufts of 
zeolite. When examined under the microscope the massive mineral proves to be 
prehnite, which is clearly replacing the scolecite originally in the vesicle. Beautiful 
specimens also occur in which the scolecite is sprinkled with groups of crystals of 
epidote and garnet, pale pink, yellow, or even red in colour. 

A peculiar vesicular, pale gray lava has also been noted in which the vesicles 
present rather unusual features. They are lined with a thin layer of black chlorite, 
which is succeeded by epidote or stilbite, sometimes well crystallised, or by a massive 
aggregate of the two in which the epidote occurs as grains and crystals enclosed in 
the zeolite. When the stilbite is absent the epidote is abundant, and vice versa. 
Some of the vesicles, again, are lined with dull brown botryoidal material which, 
on examination, proves to be epidote coated with prehnite. A study of the vesicles 
in this rock strongly suggests that some of the epidote at least has been developed 
at the expense of the lime-bearing zeolite. 

Thomsonite is occasionally found on this part of the hill. It is underlain by the 
usual zone of epidote and prehnite, spotted and veined, however, with albite. 

Along the north-east slope of the hill the zeolites and, indeed, amygdales get 
much rarer as the junction of the granophyre with the lavas is approached, and, 
when found, they show unmistakable signs of having been baked and altered. At 
a point almost S.S. W. of the summit of Beinn a' Ghraig prehnite is of common 
occurrence in the vesicles and, occasionally, white fibrous masses are found which 
look like scolecite, but, on examination, prove to be prehnite, which is replacing it. 
On one or two specimens cleaved masses of white calcite occupy hollows in massive 
white prehnite, and at the junction of the two minerals there are exceedingly minute 
crystals of white, perfectly colourless garnet. 

Still nearer the granophyre the original character of the amygdales is completely 
changed ; the j miction with the walls loses its sharpness, and the material filling the 
cavities seems to merge into the surrounding rock. Prehnite veined and riddled 
with a pale yellow epidote and garnet, pale yellow to almost black in colour, is very 
common, whilst in other cases the vesicle is filled with a pale pink massive material 
which consists largely of a mixture of garnet and epidote. 

■It is thus clear from the field evidence that, the zeolites were formed before the 
intrusion of the granophyre and have been metamorphosed by it. Microscopic exami- 
nation of a scries of sections through the amygdales confirms this conclusion and 
n veals a number of interesting contact materials not visible in hand-specimen. But, 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 13 

to understand correctly the course of the metamorphism, it is necessary to find out 
what were the original minerals in the vesicles, and, if possible, the date of their 
formation. Interesting light is thrown on these questions by a study of tbe micro- 
scopic characters of the amygdales of Maol nan Damh, which also shows the relation- 
ships of the minerals to each other and to the lava in which they occur. 



The Origin and Relationships of the Vesicle-Minerals. 

I. Introduction. 

The question of the origin of the zeolites so frequently found filling the vesicles 
of lavas is one which has excited very great diversity of opinion. In modern works 
of reference on mineralogy they are usually classed as secondary minerals which owe 
their origin to the decomposition of the minerals of the lava at a date subsequent to 
its consolidation.* This view was strongly supported by the late Mr J. G. Goodchild, 
who expressed the opinion f that they were formed by the action of percolating 
surface waters upon the original minerals of the rock. He seems to have had doubts, 
however, about this explanation holding good for the occurrences under description, 
for he refers specially to the association in the centre of Mull as owing its origin 
perhaps to solfataric action.! In this he no doubt was following Professor Judd, who 
expresses that view in the memoir already cited. 

Dr A. Harker, in his description of the Tertiary igneous rocks of Skye, regards 
the zeolites as the products of the final phase of consolidation of the lavas,§ and states 
that the subsequent changes produced by the action of percolating meteoric waters 
are of a different order and readily distinguishable from the process of zeolite- 
formation. This view has been strongly advocated by Mr James Strachan, || who 
considers that zeolites, agates, green earths, etc., were formed during the last period 
of cooling of the lavas in which they occur. Similar explanations for certain 
occurrences of zeolites have been offered by Blumrich*[I and Pelikan,** whilst Dr 
J. S. FLETT,ff in his account of the teschenites of the Edinburgh district, states that 
some of the analcite in these rocks may be primary. 

Directly bearing upon the question of the origin of zeolites are the occurrences 
in the syenite pegmatite veins of the Norwegian syenites ascribed by Brogger XX to 

* Of. Hintze, Handbuch der Mineralogie, vol. ii, p. 1658. 

t J. G. Goodchild, "On the Genesis of Some Scottish Minerals," Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., 1899, vol. xiv, p. 190. 

\ hoc. cit., p. 211. 

§ A. Harker, Mem. Geol. Surv., "The Tertiary Igneous Rocks of Skye," 1904, p. 45. 

|| James Strachan, " The Carnmoney Chalcedony, its Occurrence and Origin (with a General Note on the 
Formation of Secondary Siliceous Minerals in Volcanic Lavas)," Proc. Belfast Nat. Field Club, 1906, vol, ii, appendices 
vii and viii, p. 336. 

IT J. Blumrich, Tschermak's Min. Pet. Mittheil, 1892, vol. xiii, p. 482. 
** A. Pelikan, ibid., 1906, vol. xxv, p. 113, and Sitz-Ber. Wiener Akad., 1901, iii, p. 341. 
tt Mem, Geol, Surv., "The Neighbourhood of Edinburgh," 1910, p. 296. 
XI "W. C. Brugger, Zeitschrift fiir Krist. u. Min., 1890, vol. xvi, p. 168. 



14 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

the taction of magmatic solutions. C. N. Fenner* has given fall descriptions of the 
mode of occurrence of zeolites and other minerals in the Watchung basalt, New 
Jersey. He shows how the minerals were deposited in a definite order from aqueous 
solutions and how the earlier anhydrous and slightly hydrous ones are succeeded and 
replaced by the later-formed, more hydrous compounds. He considers that the 
zeolites and their associates were deposited during the cooling of the basalt, but, from 
various facts connected with the occurrence, concludes that the water which caused 
the change was derived largely from the underlying sediments. f 

II. Petrography of the Vesicles. 

Confining ourselves for the present to the well-defined scolecite-bearing zone on 
Maol nan Damh, we find that, under the microscope, the rock proves to be a typical 
olivine basalt. Fresh olivine is absent, but chloritic pseudomorphs after it can be 
detected. The augite occurs in somewhat large sub-ophitic plates and is of the 
purple colour so common amongst the Tertiary basalts ; it is frequently altered to 
chlorite, but much of it is quite fresh. The felspar, which occurs in small laths 
piercing the augite, contains veins and inclusions of chlorite and has been albitised. 
Owing to the abundance of inclusions it is often difficult to apply the Becke test to 
the laths ; but whenever a determination could be made the refractive index was 
found to be below that of balsam, and the mineral appears in most cases to be albite 
or, at least, a very acid plagioclase. In the coarser portions of the basalt the 
albitisation is very pronounced, and sometimes — presumably when the original felspar 
was highly basic — crystals are now represented merely by a chlorite pseudomorph 
with or without an albite rim. This point has been observed in some of the rocks 
from Devonshire.! The peculiarity of albitisation is of general occurrence in the 
rocks around the plutonic centre in Mull, and, as epidote is also characteristically 
present, an interdependence of the two phenomena is suggested. 

In addition to the above-mentioned minerals, black oxide of iron is also present 
in fair quantity in the basalt. 

Sections cut through the junction of the rock with the amygdales show interesting 
features which not only reveal the order of events during the deposition of the 
vesicle-minerals, but also suggest that they were deposited during the cooling of 
the lava itself. The identification of the minerals is a comparatively simple matter, 
and, owing to the abundant development of the various species on the specimens 
selected, the determinations can usually be checked by an examination of the 
various powders in oils of suitable refractive index. In general the zeolites are 

* C. N. Fenner, " The Watchung Basalt aud the Paragenesis of its Zeolites and Other Secondary Minerals," 
Awn. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 1910, vol. xx, pp. 93-187. 

+ hoc. cit., p. 106. 

I K. Bisz, Neues Jahrbuch fur Mincraloyic, 1896, vol. i, p. 59 ; J. S. Flett, Mem. Geol. Surv., "The Geology of 
Newton Abbot," 1913, p. 60. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 15 

difficult to determine under the microscope, as in many cases they possess low 
refractive indices, weak double refraction, and anomalous optical characters which 
often make it impossible accurately to determine individual members by examination 
of thin sections alone. In the present case, however, the number of zeolites is 
limited and the individual species can be readily identified. 

Scolecite occurs in long fibrous crystals (refractive index, l - 5) which are weakly 
birefringent, extinguish obliquely, and have the zone of elongation negative. Trans- 
verse sections across the fibres have very low birefringence, and in many cases show 
the emergence of an acute, negative bisectrix with a low axial angle. These char- 
acters distinguish it at once from thomsonite (and natrolite), which shows much 
stronger birefringence, straight extinction, and the emergence of an acute, positive 
bisectrix perpendicular to the direction of elongation. The axial angle is large ; and 
the optic axial plane is perpendicular to the zone of elongation, which is consequently 
sometimes positive and sometimes negative : in the former case the section shows 
low birefringence and is perpendicular to the acute bisectrix. The only other zeolite 
observed in the slides is heulandite, and it is of rare occurrence. It shows good 
cleavage and can be always determined by the fact that cleavage flakes show the 
emergence of a positive, acute bisectrix. 

The prehnite is characterised by good cleavage, high refraction and birefringence, 
straight extinction and positive optical character. It occurs in large, compact, 
colourless plates and spherules which usually show wavy extinction under crossed 
nicols. They are often built up of sectors which radiate from a point in the plate, 
and, on being rotated under crossed nicols, the section shows two dark hyperbolae 
which close up and open out in directions at right angles to each other. Idiomorphic 
crystals with uniform extinction have not been found, but areas large enough to 
show the characteristic optical characters are quite common. 

The determination of the epidote and the albite offers no special difficulty, 
as they are quite typical. The albite, however, is sometimes so turbid that it is 
difficult to identify it, and in such cases the mineral was always separated from 
the hand-specimen, powdered, and examined in oil of refractive index 1*534 under 
the microscope. No attempt was made to identify the different kinds of chlorite 
present. The mineral varies in colour from pale yellowish-green to deep green, 
the latter variety being distinctly pleochroic. It occurs usually in small, vermicular 
growths, but is also found in fibrous and platy forms. 

With the help of the sections it* is possible roughly to divide the vesicles into 
two main types : — 

(a) Those vesicles whose junctions with the rock are sharp, and which 
do not contain any of the igneous minerals of the rock. 

(b) Those vesicles whose junctions are not so sharp, and which contain, 
especially in their outermost zones, igneous minerals similar to those found 
in the rock. 



16 MR W. F. P. M'LTNTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

(a) This type of vesicle tends to be common in the more finely grained portions of 
the lava, and, with exceptions, the larger specimens conform to it. In the simplest 
cases the amygdale is lined with a layer of chlorite containing an occasional lath 
of albite and succeeded by scolecite which is crowded by inclusions of chlorite 
for some distance from its highly irregular junction with that mineral [73]. # 

In the more complex types spherules of prehnite enclosing chlorite and, 
occasionally, minute greenish fibres, which may be augite, occur sporadically on 
the walls of the amygdale. They are succeeded by a zone of chlorite, enclosing 
crystals of turbid albite and an occasional irregular grain of yellow epidote, and this, 
in turn, gives way to a layer of cloudy albite ; the rest of the amygdale is packed 
with scolecite into which some of the albite occasionally wanders [74]. 

The spherules of prehnite are roughly hemispherical in shape, and under crossed 
nicols the black bar travels round the section when it is rotated. Not infrequently 
the extinction direction is continued into the rock so as roughly to complete the 
circle, and close examination shows that the albite laths of the rock in the 
complementary hemispherical area are replaced by prehnite which is optically 
continuous with the prehnite of the amygdale. Under high powers minute crystals 
of purple augite can be seen projecting into the spherules of the vesicles and converted 
at their tips to a green mineral which may be pyroxene or amphibole. The replace- 
ment of albite by prehnite is also shown by the fact that occasionally the spherules 
contain small rectangular turbid areas exactly similar in appearance to the albite 
laths, but which now consist of prehnite [113]. 

The same relationship of scolecite to albite is also exhibited. The junction 
between the two minerals is highly irregular, and the scolecite frequently contains 
corroded crystals of albite which it is clearly replacing. The further the. albite 
is removed from the junction the more it is corroded, until finally it is entirely 
replaced by scolecite, the only trace left of it being a turbid patch corresponding 
in outline to the original lath. 

When epidote occurs it is always greenish-yellow in colour and shows the usual 
pleochroism. It is found chiefly in the outer zone of the amygdale, and is frequently 
studded with inclusions of chlorite. Occasionally it encloses sharp, idiomorphic 
crystals of albite somewhat clearer than usual [71], and its junctions with that 
mineral are often quite sharp and well defined, although sometimes the albite 
exhibits outlines suggestive of corrosion [63]. 

The relationships of prehnite and scolecite to epidote offer some interesting 
features. In the case of prehnite one finds that the junctions between it and the 
epidote are not infrequently sharp, but often there are traces of corrosion of the 
epidote crystal. Particularly is this the case when the epidote is enclosed in 
the centre of the prehnite spherules, where it often occurs as a patch showing irregular 
and corroded junctions with numerous minute fibres projecting into the prehnite. 

* The numbers refer to a collection of slides in the Royal Scottish Museum. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 17 

When the epidote is bounded by scolecite, this peculiarity is even better shown. 
Large crystals of epidote end against the zeolite in a series of fibrous tufts, whilst 
the outline of the crystal is frequently interrupted by little rectangular patches 
filled with clear scolecite ; occasionally a large crystal has been dissected into 
a number of separate fragments which extinguish simultaneously under crossed 
nicols [113]. 

The junction of the prehnite with the scolecite is never a sharp one. The 
spherules of prehnite are separated from the zeolite by a band of fibrous, crystalline 
prehnite, which terminates against the scolecite in a highly irregular manner. 
Irregular patches of prehnite are also found well within the scolecite layer. 

The minerals in these vesicles were thus deposited in the following order : — 
(1) albite, (2) chlorite, (3) epidote, (4) prehnite, (5) scolecite, and there is distinct 
evidence that with changing; conditions some of the material formed in the first 
stages has been partly replaced by later- formed minerals. 

A marked feature in some of the slides is that the rock for some distance around 
the vesicle is very much altered and shows a large development of chlorite and 
black oxide of iron. This altered zone is sometimes vesicular, the vesicles being 
filled with epidote or chlorite, or a mixture of the two [67], and it grades off into 
the normal basalt. 

(6) This type of vesicle is best developed in the coarser basalt, and is usually 
characterised by a considerable amount of prehnite, although there is a good deal 
of variety in the way in which the minerals occur. In the simplest cases small 
cavities are filled with prehnite, which encloses prismatic crystals of purple augite, 
fresh and unweathered and similar in all respects, except habit, to the ophitic augite 
of the surrounding rock. Frequently they are clearly attached to the walls of the 
amygdale, but occasionally they are surrounded on all sides- by prehnite and occur 
well in the centre of the vesicle. The mode of occurrence of these crystals and their 
difference in habit from the augite of the rock show clearly that the vesicles were 
the seat of igneous crystallisation after they had been formed [107]. 

Some of the larger vesicles show similar crystals round their junctions with the 
rock. When chlorite forms the first zone of the amygdale, the long prismatic augites 
project into it and are sometimes completely surrounded by it. Their boundaries are 
clear and sharp, although occasionally there is evidence of corrosion and alteration 
to hornblende and chlorite ; but, generally, their fresh and unaltered condition 
contrasts rather forcibly with the decomposed state of much of the augite of the 
rock. The chlorite, which sometimes forms a layer of considerable thickness, may 
be succeeded by a confused, zone of chlorite, albite, and yellowish-green epidote with 
a few patches of muddy scolecite. Upon this is seated a layer of turbid albite, and 
scolecite fills the central portion of the vesicle. Prehnite may be present as small 
spherules occurring here and there around the walls ; it usually contains a fair 
amount of chlorite, and is frequently pierced by the large crystals of augite [65]. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 1). 3 



18 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

In another type of vesicle the wall is lined with a more or less well-developed 
layer consisting of large acicular purple augites with idiomorphic laths of albite 
which sometimes pierce the augite. This layer may be succeeded immediately by 
scolecitc intermingled with chlorite, which grades into a well-defined zone of chlorite 
upon which is seated scolecite, enclosing crystals of ycllowisb-green epidote. The 
purple augite usually projects from the augite-albite layer, but occasionally crystals 
are found surrounded by scolecite and at some distance from the walls of the vesicle ; 
a large projecting crystal has been noted in which a transverse fracture has been 
filled with scolecite. This augite is often quite fresh and unaltered, but sometimes 
it has been partially converted to green fibrous hornblende or yellow epidote similar 
to that found in the amygdales ; crystals have been noted of which the one half is 
purple augite, and the other, yellow epidote. The laths of albite are full of inclusions, 
and they, too, wander into the overlying scolecite [70]. 

The augite-albite layer is usually thin and patchy, but specimens occur in which 
it reaches a thickness of 1 cm. When it is well developed, chlorite is abundant in it 
and fills up the spaces between the large augite crystals which it frequently encloses. 
Sections across this layer show it to consist of crystals of purple augite, long skeletal 
crystals of magnetite, with albite, chlorite, and apatite. The augite is idiomorphic 
and has sharp junctions with the chlorite, although here and there it shows signs of 
corrosion and marginal alteration to chlorite and hornblende. When the lono- 
prismatic crystals are attached to the walls they project radially into the vesicle, but 
when they occur well within the layer they lie often with their long axes parallel to 
the walls. This layer may be succeeded by a zone of chlorite and epidote, the latter 
mineral showing the usual irregular junctions and full of chlorite inclusions ; a layer 
of turbid albite is the next deposit, then a layer of prehnite, and finally scolecite [23]. 
The prehnite in some cases is obviously replacing the turbid albite, for not only does 
it contain phantom crystals of that mineral but occasionally it occurs as veins cutting 
across the felspar, crystals of which are optically continuous on opposite sides of the 
vein. Some of the smaller amygdales show this phenomenon even better. The first 
layer is a well-defined zone of pegmatitic augite, albite, and chlorite, the augite 
showing the usual features of corrosion and, occasionally, occurring as detached 
crystals well towards the centre of the vesicle. This layer is succeeded by prehnite, 
more or less turbid and enclosing thoroughly corroded patches and phantom crystals of 
albite as well as a little chlorite. Scolecite comes next ; it, too, contains corroded albite 
and also patches of prehnite with little phantom albites near their centres [111]. 

Besides being highly vesicular, the lavas are sometimes traversed by white veins 
showing at their junction with the rock a very well-developed pegmatitic layer of 
augite, albite, and chlorite. Under the microscope this layer shows the features 
already described : namely, the long prismatic augites, often roughly parallel to the 
walls, the turbid albite, the magnetite, and the chlorite. Upon it is deposited a layer 
of turbid albite with some prehnite and small nests of scolecite. The latter mineral 



FROM THE TERTIARY L^VAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 19 

is clear and transparent and contains crystals of epidote, showing distinct signs of 
corrosioD, and also fibres and crystals of pale green slightly pleochroic augite [109]. 
These veins resemble in some respects the contemporaneous veins described by 
.Dr J. S. Flett * as occurring in the teschenite of the Barnton railway cutting, 
Midlothian. 

A few exceptional vesicles have also been noted. Mention has already been made 
of one lined with albite pseudomorphous after analcite. Under the microscope the 
pegmatitic layer of augite, albite, magnetite, and chlorite is seen to be well developed 
and is succeeded by the albite-pseudomorphs. A smaller vesicle underlies the main 
one and is filled with albite secondary after analeite, chlorite moulded upon the 
pseudomorphs and purple augite which occurs in large crystals lying around the walls 
or stretching across the vesicle and projecting into the larger amygdale through a 
canal which connects the two. The mode of occurrence of albite in this amygdale 
points to an increase in temperature which may have been caused by local circum- 
stances during the period of vesicle-infilling or by the injection of some intrusion 
long after the zeolite was formed. The absence of any other sign of metamorphism 
in the rock points to the former explanation being the probable one. 

Another specimen shows a fairly large vesicle filled with chlorite throughout 
which are scattered a number of white spots. In thin section the rock is a typical 
basalt showing the usual features, but the first mineral to be deposited in the 
amygdale was garnet. It occurs as a pale brown layer of variable thickness and 
exhibits signs of corrosion on its inner margin where it is overlain by scolecite or 
chlorite. In places signs of an hexagonal outline are visible in some of the grains 
lying away from the layer, but they are always corroded and tend to be circular. 
The further the grains are removed from the walls the more do they show signs of 
replacement, and in one or two instances they are represented by spots which are 
doubly refracting and which merge into the surrounding zeolite. The garnet is 
associated with yellow epidote, which seems to replace it in parts, and also with what 
is apparently diopside. The latter mineral occurs as prisms showing good cleavage, 
high refraction and birefringence, and an extinction angle of about 33° ; the mineral 
is positive. The scolecite occurs in the usual fibrous forms. It is sometimes quite 
clear, especially when it is adjacent to the garnet, but more often it is turbid ; it 
contains corroded grains of garnet, fibres of diopside, which also show signs of replace- 
ment, and epidote. Patches of heulandite are also present in the scolecite ; they 
contain grains of garnet and epidote and their junctions with the scolecite are highly 
irregular [78]. 

Grains of garnet have also been observed in a few other slides. In one of these 
[23] it occurs as minute crystals, six-sided in section, enclosed in clear scolecite or in 
chlorite ; in another slide there is a fairly well-defined band of greatly corroded grains 
lying between the rock and the overlying chlorite-scolecite zone [68] ; whilst in a 

* Mem, Gcol. Surv., " The Neighbourhood of Edinburgh," 1010, p. 208. 



20 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

third there is a small vesicle filled with chlorite, epidote, and clear albite with corroded 
grains of garnet enclosed in the albite and epidote [66]. 

A difficulty arises in the interpretation of these occurrences, for, as noted above, 
garnet is typically developed in the vesicles which have undergone metamorphism 
due to the intrusion of the granophyre. As will be shown later, however, the 
development of garnet in these circumstances is accompanied by other changes in the 
vesicles, none of which is shown in the slides described above. It may also be noted 
that the garnet in the Maol nan Damh slides always occurs practically at the walls 
of the amygdale, and shows obvious signs of corrosion and replacement. On the 
whole, the evidence points to the garnet and diopside being original vesicle-minerals, 
probably amongst the first to be deposited, which became unstable and experienced 
re-solution and replacement as the conditions changed and new minerals were de- 
posited. Fenner records the similar occurrence of garnet in the Watchung basalt, 
where it also shows signs of corrosion and replacement by later-formed minerals.* 

Thomsonite has not been detected in the vesicles on Maol nan Damh, but it occurs 
on the neighbouring hill of Coire Bheinn, which lies about two miles to the west. A 
section through one of the vesicles shows a thick layer of albite, which is only slightly 
turbid, succeeded by yellow epidote (in places), then prehnite, and finally thomsonite. 
The albite shows slight traces of corrosion against the epidote, but its boundaries 
with that mineral, though often rounded, are sharp and well defined. The epidote 
ends against the prehnite in a series of tufted aggregates and, when a plate of that 
mineral adjoins both albite and prehnite, the contrast between the two junctions 
is most marked. Albite shows corroded junctions with prehnite, which, in turn, has 
irregular outlines with thomsonite. The sequence is obviously (1) albite, (2) epidote, 
(3) prehnite, (4) thomsonite, and the earlier-formed minerals show signs of having 
been unstable towards the conditions under which the later ones were deposited. 

III. Sequence of Events in the Vesicles. 

In his summary of the characters of the occurrence under consideration, Mr Currie 
dwells upon the peculiar facies of lime-bearing minerals — a facies not recorded from 
any other locality in Scotland nor, as far as I am aware, from any locality hitherto 
described — and ascribes the origin of the vesicle-minerals to pneumatolytic action.f 
He did not examine the petrographical characters of the lava, but inferred from the 
minerals in the amygdales that it must have been originally a basalt containing a 
basic plagioclase, a pyroxene (either rhombic or monoclinic), and magnetite or olivine. 
Seasoning from the abundance of green earth, he also suggested the original presence 
of biotite. 

It is clear from an examination of numerous sections that the rock is a typical, 
ophitic olivine basalt, now, of course, in an altered condition and, neglecting mean- 
* C. X. Fenner, luc cit., p. 138. t Loc cit., pp. 227-28. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 



21 



while the exceptional cases, we may sum up the main features of the occurrence as 
follows : — 

1. The rock is an olivine basalt with the purple augite typical of most of the 
lavas in Mull. 

2. The felspars are albitised and veined with chlorite, and the olivine and augite 
also show alteration to that mineral. 

3. The magma was rich in gases at the time of its eruption, and hence the vesicles 
are large and plentiful. 

4. The cavities were sometimes the seat of igneous crystallisation subsequent to 
their formation, and, in the coarser portions of the rock, the vesicle-minerals have 
grown upon a pegmatitic layer of augite, albite, magnetite, and chlorite ; crystals from 
this layer are occasionally enclosed in the contents of the amygdales. 

5. With the exceptions of chlorite and albite, the vesicle-minerals have lime for 
their principal base ; zeolites containing soda are exceedingly rare. 

6. There is evidence of a more or less definite sequence in the deposition of the 
minerals, namely : — 

(a) A layer of augite, albite, magnetite, and chlorite. 

(b) Albite. 

(c) Epidote. 

(d) Prehnite. 

(e) Scolecite. 



(a) Albite. 

(b) Epidote. 

(c) Prehnite. 

(d) Thomson ite. 



Other sequences are : — 

(a) Garnet. («) Garnet. 

(b) Diopside. (6) Albite. 

(c) Epidote. (c) Epidote. 

(d) Chlorite. 

(e) Scolecite. 
(/) Heulandite. 

7. Calcite is of rare occurrence, and hydrous oxides of iron and other typical oxi- 
dation products of weathering are almost entirely absent. 

These facts suggest that the vesicle-minerals were deposited during the final 
period of cooling of the rocks, which seems to have been a long one. During the 
period of igneous crystallisation the normal pyrogenetic minerals, olivine, labradorite, 
and augite, were formed, the augite crystallising last. Consequently the magma, in 
the last stages of this phase, was rich in the augite-forming bases, and whilst the rock 
was solid, but necessarily at a high temperature, these formed the large, acicular 
augites occurring in some of the vesicles. When felspar occurs with them it is always 
albite in which inclusions are usually abundant. It forms turbid, lath-shaped crystals 
with much included chlorite, and also irregular patches much clearer and compara- 
tively free from chlorite, but containing frequently grains and crystals of purple 



22 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

augite. It is difficult to determine whether the albite of the laths is primary or 
secondary in the sense that it is the albitised representative of a plagioclase originally 
more basic. There can be little doubt, however, that the clear compact patches were 
most probably deposited originally as albite, and, as they contain crystals of augite, 
no long period can have elapsed between the formation of the two minerals. The 
presence of this albite points to a transition from igneous crystallisation to a hydro- 
thermal stage which would favour the formation of alkali-felspar* and also of the 
chlorite present in the pegmatitic layer. 

During this hydrothermal stage the infilling of the vesicles was completed, the 
constituent minerals being derived partly from the residual material of the magma 
and partly from the breaking down of the igneous minerals which had already con- 
solidated. In some of the chlorite and epidote we see the hydrothermal representa- 
tives of augite, a conclusion supported by the occasional occurrence, as noted above, 
of augite crystals in the cavities partly replaced by epidote, whilst the labradorite 
finds its counterpart in some of the albite, scolecite, and prehnite. It is evident, 
however, that whilst hydrothermal crystallisation of the residual magma accounts 
for the formation of a portion of the contents of the vesicles it probably does not 
account for them all. Some of the vesicles, especially the smaller ones, are packed 
with chlorite containing a kernel of epidote, or albite, or both ; but the great 
majority contain a proportion of scolecite much larger than that of any other con- 
stituent. This fact can be accounted for by the albitisation of the felspars and the 
partial conversion of the augite of the rock to chlorite and hornblende, each of 
which changes liberates lime. 

Albitisation is now known to be a fairly common occurrence in the igneous rocks of 
this country,"}" but the nature of the process seems to be imperfectly understood. 
In the cases cited by Bailey and Grabham, it is a pneumatolytic phenomenon ascribed 
by them to the presence of carbon dioxide (or some other unknown constituent) 
in the original magma, which thus retained a large amount of soda in solution. The 
liquor then began to act on the felspars and albitised them. They also record the 
association with the albite of chlorite and epidote, the latter mineral representing 
some of the lime derived from the felspar ; in most cases, however, the lime has 
been carried off in solution. Dewey and Flett also ascribe the albitisation of the 
felspar of the spilites to pneumatolytic action. J 

At Maol nan Damh various considerations point to the albitisation having been 
a pneumatolytic change which took place during the cooling of the lava and marked 
the first step in the filling of the vesicles. This view gains support from the rarity 
of calcite and other oxidation products, which excludes the assumption that the 
change may be due to weathering ; there is also the additional fact that rocks of 

* Cf. F. W. Clarke, Data of Geochemistry, 2nd edition, 1911, p. 348. 

t Cf. E. B. Bailey and G. W. Grabiiam, "Albitisation of Basic Plagioclase Felspars," Geol. Mag., vol. vi, 1909, 
pp. 250-CG ; II. Dewey and J. S. Flett, "On Some British Pillow-Lavas," ibid., vol. viii, 1911, p. 246. 
1 hoc. cit , p. 204 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 23 

similar petrographical character are common among the plateau-basalts, and their 
felspars have not been albitised. It must, however, be conceded that albitisation is 
of universal occurrence in the rocks around the plutonic centre, although, in this 
area, it is only in the localities mentioned that the peculiar association of minerals 
in the vesicles has been detected. The cause and date of this general albitisation 
can be settled only by an examination of the rocks over the whole area, but the 
frequent association of the vesicle-minerals with those of igneous origin in the 
basalt of Maol nan Damh indicates that the change took place, in this case, during 
the last stages of cooling of the lava itself. 

The albitised felspars almost invariably contain veins and patches of chlorite, 
which, as noted above, sometimes replaces entirely the original plagioclase. There 
does not seem to have been much introduction of soda, and the process was probably 
carried out by solutions containing chlorite and capable of dissolving the anorthite 
of the plagioclase. These solutions also partially chloritised the augite, and subse- 
quently deposited their loads in the vesicles in the form of chlorite, prehnite, epidote, 
and scolecite, any surplus soda going to form albite,' and, only very exceptionally, a 
zeolite containing soda. This rarity of soda-zeolites is an important point. 

From the amount of secondary albite in the vesicles it is clear that soda was 
present in considerable quantity in the solutions, yet in nearly every case it has been 
deposited as albite — a fact which indicates strongly that the vesicle- minerals were 
deposited at a fairly high temperature. 

Doelter, in a suggestive paper,* has pointed out that, under laboratory conditions, 
a mixture of soda, alumina, silica, and water deposits analcite between temperatures 
of 190° and 420° C. ; at lower temperatures natrolite is formed, and at higher 
temperatures either nepheline or albite. The formation of analcite seems to depend 
largely upon the temperature and to a very slight extent upon the relative pro- 
portions of the constituents, for it has been formed from solutions of very different 
compositions.*)* The conditions influencing the formation of albite are not so clearly 
understood, but, as shown by the work of Baur,J and Friedel and Sarasin,§ a 
temperature of 500° C. appears to be necessary. 

As regards the sequence of events in the vesicles it is certain that their infilling 
was a continuous process, and the succession of minerals is what we would expect 
from deposition under conditions of falling temperature. Chlorite seems to have 
been deposited during all the stages, a fact remarked upon by Fenner || in his account 
of the Watchung basalt, but only very exceptionally does the vesicle-albite enclose it. 
It appears to have been formed in large quantities during, or slightly previous to, 
the deposition of epidote, which frequently encloses it and never shows sharp junctions 

* C. Doelter, Tsclxermak's Min, Pet. Mittheil., 1906, vol. xxv,p. 97. 

t hoc. cit, p. 102. 

X E. Baur, Zeifs.f. physikal. Chimie, 1903, vol. xlii, p. 570. 

§ C. Friedel and E. Sarasin, Compt. rend., 1883, vol. xcvii, p. 290. 

|| C. N. Fenner, he. cit., p. 174. 



24 MR W. F. T. M'LINTOOK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

against it. Albite was in many cases the earliest vesicle-mineral, for it occurs in 
chlorite and epidote, against which it shows usually sharp, idiomorphic outlines. 
The succession, albite, epidote, prehnite, scolecite, is proved in many cases, and 
illustrates very well what happens during deposition under hydrothermal conditions. 
The albite was deposited first and is enclosed in places by the epidote which replaces 
it but slightly ; with falling temperature prehnite is formed, which encloses and 
frequently corrodes and replaces the albite, a phenomenon also observed by Fenner,* 
who figures an example exactly similar to many of those seen in the present instance. 
Finally came the scolecite phase, during which the albite was also replaced, - the 
epidote corroded, and even the prehnite attacked. 

The survival of much of the pegmatitic augite raises a difficulty, for, although it 
exhibits signs of corrosion and occasional marginal alteration to hornblende and 
epidote, typically it is fresh and contrasts somewhat forcibly with the decomposed 
condition of a good deal of the augite of the rock. The explanation is probably due 
to the fact that when the solutions welled into the cavities they were saturated with 
chlorite and silicates of lime and soda, and therefore incapable of attacking the 
pyroxene. This is supported by the fact that in the subsequent phases albite is the 
mineral which shows in the highest degree the phenomenon of corrosion and replace- 
ment, the reason being that, after it had formed, it was constantly under the action 
of lime-bearing solutions which were able to decompose it. 

The evidence that the vesicles were filled during the last stages of cooling may 
be stated shortly as follows : — 

1. The vesicles sometimes contain pyrogenetic minerals. 

2. The mineral association as far as the evidence goes is one demanding a 
temperature above the normal. 

3. The silicates (with the exception of chlorite) were deposited in order of 
increasing hydration : — 

(a) Albite . Na 2 . A1 2 3 . 6Si0 2 

(b) Epidote . 4CaO . 3A1 2 3 . 6Si0 2 . H 2 ; H 2 = 1'98 per cent. 

(c) Prehnite . 2CaO . 3A1 2 3 . 3Si0 2 . H 2 ; H 2 = 4"4 per cent. 

(d) Scolecite . CaO . A1 2 3 . 3Si0 2 . 3H 2 ; H 2 = 13"8 per cent. 

4. There is direct evidence that albite, epidote, and prehnite in the order named 
each passed through a phase of stability when they were deposited, and that they 
were more or less unstable to the succeeding phases. 

5. Three periods, which grade into one another, can sometimes be recognised : — 

(a) Period of magmatic consolidation. 

(b) Period of pegmatitic crystallisation. 

(c) Period of infilling of the vesicles. 

The last-mentioned of the five points suggests analogies with the three phases 

* Lot: tit., p. 126. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 25 

described by Brogger * in his account of the syenite-pegmatite veins of Norway, 
during the last of which the zeolites were deposited. 

The Application of the Term " Propylite." 

It is clear from the descriptions of Professor Judd already cited (ante, p. 2) that 
the vesicular basalt of Maol nan Damh, An Gearna, and Ben Fhada belongs to his 
group of propylites. The term, however, has been reserved by Eosenbusch f for a 
peculiar type of altered andesite, and was used by Judd in that sense. The propylitic 
alteration is regarded by him as due to solfataric action connected with the presence 
of the acid intrusions, but quite distinct from the effects of contact metamorphism 
(ante, p. 2), to which cause Sir Archibald Geikie ascribed the peculiar condition 
of these rocks (ante, p. 2). 

The lava of Maol nan Damh is a typical olivine basalt, and the evidence goes to 
show that its present characters and its peculiar vesicle-minerals arose during the 
formation of the rock itself. A propylite, according to Posenbusch,! is an andesite 
altered by solfataric action, and it is clear that in this restricted sense the term 
cannot be applied to the basalt under discussion. But the pneumatolytic changes 
which it has undergone bear a strong resemblance to the alteration produced by 
the conversion of an andesite to a propylite, and, as basalts with these peculiar 
characters have a wide distribution in Mull, it might be advisable to extend the 
term propylite to them also. 

It is natural to inquire into the cause of this peculiar condition of the 
basalts around the plutonic centres, a condition not observed so far in the 
plateau-ground ; but the question can only be answered when the volcanic 
history of the district is made out. Meanwhile it is safe to say that the basalt of 
Maol nan Damh and some of the surrounding spurs must have been rich in 
vapours at the time of its eruption and was probably kept at a high tempera- 
ture for a prolonged time. This suggests that the lava now occupies a site 
near the focus from which it was erupted. 

The Metamorphism of the Vesicle-Minerals. 
I. Introduction. 

The subject of the metamorphism of the vesicle-minerals of lavas by intrusive 
masses of rock has been dealt with by Drs Harker and Marr,§ who note that 
the minerals of the amygdales are the first to show the effects of metamorphism. || 

* W. C. Brogger, loc. cit., pp. 160-81. 

t H. Rosenbusch, Mikroskopische Physiographic der Massigen Gesteinc, 4th edition, 1908, pp. 1102-05. 
| Loc. cit., p. 1105. 

§ A. Harker and J. E. Marr, "The Shap Granite and the Associated Igneous and Metaraorphic Rocks," 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc, 1891, vol. xlvii, p. 292. 
|| Loc. cit., p. 296. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 1). 4 



26 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

The changes induced in the surrounding andesites by the Cheviot granite have been 
described by Mr H. Kynaston,* whilst Dr. J. J. H. Teall has described the meta- 
morphic effects produced in the Arenig lavas by the Galloway granites.f 

More closely related to the subject under consideration are the Tertiary 
basic lavas of Skye which, as described by Dr Harker,J have been considerably 
altered by the large intrusions of granite and gabbro. He notes that the 
first minerals to be affected are the unstable contents of the vesicles, and 
records the interesting . conversion of lime-soda zeolites to lime-soda felspars ; 
epidote is also formed, and hornblende and biotite are developed at the expense 
of chlorite. 

The metamorphosed amygdales of An Gearna and Beinn Fhada afford most 
instructive material for study because, on account of their large size, they usually 
contain portions of the material originally filling them, and it is only in close 
proximity to the granophyre that all traces of their original contents are obliterated. 
It is, therefore, possible to follow with confidence the course and nature of the 
metamorphism. How far the metamorphism induced in the lavas is due to the 
granophyre and how far to the minor intrusions so common in the district, it is 
impossible to say. It is, however, a fact that, despite local variations, the intensity 
of the changes increases as the margin of the granophyre is approached. 

II. The Petrography of the Metamorphosed Amygdales. 

It has been remarked already that one of the differences, obvious in hand- 
specimen, between the amygdales of An Gearna and those from Maol nan Damn 
consists in the somewhat paler appearance of the outermost layer of specimens from 
the former locality. Sections through this layer show that it varies considerably in 
character. 

In some cases, especially when scolecite is abundant, it consists of long, bladed 
crystals of a pale green, pleochroic hornblende sometimes partially enclosed in large 
plates of albite full of inclusions. Associated with these are rod-like growths of 
black oxide of iron showing partial conversion to sphene. The hornblende shows 
good cleavage and frequently contains grains of magnetite and kernels of epidote. 
The albite encloses grains of epidote and crystals of hornblende. An occasional 
rounded mass of chlorite showing partial conversion to hornblende is also present. 
This layer is overlain by epidote, succeeded by scolecite, both of which enclose 
numerous fibres of hornblende. It is probable that the layer of hornblende and 
albite represents the pegmatitic zone of common occurrence in the vesicles of Maol 
nan Damh. The conversion of auo-ite into hornblende liberates lime which has 

o 

* II Kvna.ston, "Note on Contact Metamorphism round the Cheviot Granite," Trans. Ed. Geol. Soc, 1899, 
vol. viii, pp. 18-26. 

+ Mem. Geol. Surv., "The Silurian Rocks of Scotland," 1899, p. 647. 

\ A. Harker, Mem. Geol. Bur v., "The Tertiary Igneous Rocks of Skye," 1904, p. 50. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 27 

gone to form epidote and also to convert the chlorite to hornblende and the 
titaniferous oxide of iron to sphene [112]. 

In other amygdales, however, in which the chief contents are albite, prehnite, and 
epidote, the underlying layer consists of albite and augite which shows conversion 
to epidote and not to hornblende. Under the microscope the augite crystals are paler 
than those in the unaltered vesicles, and they contain kernels of epidote which, in 
some cases, replaces entirely the purple augite. A dull, turbid chloritic substance 
sometimes surrounds the augite crystals. It is not clear whether this change of 
augite to epidote is to be ascribed to metamorphism or to pneumatolysis during the 
original filling of the vesicle, since, as noted above, a partial conversion of augite to 
epidote has been observed in the unaltered vesicles [111]. 

Other instances occur in which the vesicle-minerals have been completely 
metamorphosed and the pegmatitic augite at the junction is practically unaltered, 
the only change being a slight marginal corrosion and alteration to hornblende. In 
such cases, however, the augite is enclosed by albite and was not originally in 
intimate association with an unstable zeolite which would give rise to steam with 
increase of temperature [26]. 

Some of the most interesting points connected with the metamorphism are 
shown by the zeolites, scolecite and thomsonite. 

In the case of scolecite the first sign of alteration consists in the production of 
a slight turbidity, and the subsequent changes seem to depend to some extent on 
the minerals with which the zeolite was in intimate association. Alteration to 
epidote and prehnite is exceedingly common. 

The secondary epidote occurs sometimes as a network of interlocking crystals 
.with the spaces filled up with altered scolecite, and it can be distinguished in several 
ways from the primary epidote of the amygdales. Thus, it is usually colourless and 
shows no pleochroism, and it sometimes occurs as colourless rims surrounding a 
yellow kernel which often shows the original corroded outline and the inclusions of 
chlorite so typical of the primary epidote ; the rim occasionally possesses a zonal 
arrangement parallel to the boundary of the core, and it shows weaker bire- 
fringence [15, 17]. 

The prehnite produced by metamorphism can be readily distinguished both by 
its appearance and mode of occurrence from the original prehnite of the vesicles. 
It forms confused aggregates of small crystals which ramify into the zeolite and 
sometimes replace it fibre by fibre [100, 50, 81]. The crystals are often large 
enough to permit of accurate determination under the microscope, but sometimes the 
fibres building the secondary aggregate replacing the zeolite are too small for that 
purpose, and, in such cases, the material was always crushed and the refractive index 
tested in a suitable oil. The secondary prehnite resembles in some respects the 
corroded rim which, as noted before, often separates the original prehnite from the 
scolecite ; but it can be distinguished by its much greater abundance in the 



28 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

metamorphosed amygdales, by the maimer in which it encloses dissected scraps of 
seolecite which are sometimes optically continuous, and by the fact that it not 
infrequently forms true pseudomorphs after that mineral. 

A colourless pyroxene showing good cleavage and normal optical properties is a 
common mineral in the slides. It seems to have been formed around the inclusions 
of chlorite so common in the zeolite, for it is often dusted with turbid chloritic 
material. It occurs in fairly large crystals and plates and sometimes encloses scraps 
of seolecite [15]. It is identical in appearance to the pyroxene already described 
as a rare constituent of the vesicles on Mao nan Damh, but from its mode of 
occurrence in the present instance there can be no doubt that it is a product of 
metamorphism. Thus, when the epidote shows the core-and-rim structure already 
described, the pyroxene is frequently enclosed in the secondary epidote, especially near 
the junction with seolecite where the crystal often ends in a confused aggregate of the 
two minerals. Again, when the amygdale originally contained albite and seolecite in 
intimate association, the pyroxene has picked out and partially replaced the seolecite, 
whilst it never occurs in the albite. It sometimes occurs in prehnite [15, 16]. 

Garnet has also been formed at the expense of seolecite. It occurs either as idio- 
morphic dodecahedra, not infrequently showing pronounced zonal structure and 
optical anomalies, or as irregular patches traversing the zeolite. Inclusions are usually 
plentiful and consist of epidote, prehnite, and dull turbid fibres arranged in a sub- 
parallel manner towards the centre of the crystal [58]. Sometimes it forms true 
perimorphs consisting of a shell of garnet, pale brown in colour and with idiomorphic 
outlines, which encloses a spongy mass of secondary prehnite [43.] 

Thomsonite, though rare, affords an instructive example of the metamorphism of 
a zeolite containing both soda and lime. It has not been detected on Maol nan 
Damh, but, as previously mentioned, it occurs on Coire Bheinn, where the sequence is 
albite, epidote, prehnite, thomsonite, the various minerals showing the relationships 
already described. On An Gearna and Beinn Fhada the thomsonite shows conversion 
to prehnite and albite. In some of the slides the fibrous crystals of thomsonite are 
partially replaced by crystalline aggregates of finely fibrous secondary prehnite 
in intimate association with albite which forms irregular, turbid masses full of in- 
clusions. To distinguish this secondary metamorphic albite from the original albite 
of the vesicle is a matter of some difficulty ; but its absence of idiomorphism, its 
constant association with* undoubted secondary prehnite, which it not infrequently 
encloses, and the occasional presence in it of fragments of thomsonite, all go to prove 
that it has been developed from the zeolite [50, 81]. Dr Harkbe,* in his account of the 
metamorphosed amygdales of the Skye basalts, mentions that the lime-soda zeolites 
give rise to lime-soda felspars. So far, I have failed to detect in the vesicles felspars 
with a refractive index above that of balsam — a fact which is most probably due to the 
presence of steam in the vesicles during the metamorphism. Under such conditions 

* A 1Iauk.uk, loo. ciL, p. 51. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 29 

basic plagioclases appear to be unstable, their representatives being albite and a lime- 
alumina silicate, such as prehnite, containing more or less combined water. 

Hornblende is a common mineral in the metamorphosed amygdales, and has been 
formed by the alteration of the chlorite. It varies considerably in colour, being some- 
times deep green and strongly pleochroic and sometimes very pale yellowish-green 
[9, 55, 59, 101]. It occurs in prehnite, epidote, and scolecite, and is always fibrous 
in habit. The change from chlorite to hornblende or biotite is quite a well-known 
effect of contact-metamorphism,* and, as lime is plentiful in the amygdales, and 
alkalies relatively scarce, hornblende has always been formed in preference to 
the mica. 

These changes, which can be followed in detail in the less altered amygdales, 
become much more intense as the granophyre is approached. The solid primary 
prehnite, as well as the fibrous secondary material derived from the zeolites, is con- 
verted to garnet and epidote. The garnet varies considerably in appearance. It 
may be white to dark brown in colour and occurs either as idiomorphic crystals in 
the prehnite or as large irregular masses traversing and enclosing it. The mineral is 
frequently isotropic, but optical anomalies are also common ; in some cases large 
rounded crystals consist of a brown, isotropic centre and a colourless, birefringent 
rim. Inclusions of epidote and prehnite are fairly common [26, 32]. 

The epidote is colourless, and crystals show pronounced zonal structure and re- 
markable variation in birefringence; occasionally sections show indigo-blue polarisa- 
tion colours with positive optical sign, resembling in this respect zoisite rather' than 
epidote. Inclusions of prehnite are sometimes present [25]. 

Sections through the amygdales collected from the screes lying nearest the grano- 
phyre margin on the north-east slope of Beinn Fhada show the most intense type of 
alteration noted. The zeolites have completely vanished, and their place is taken by 
a dull turbid substance which preserves their radiate structure. It is isotropic, and 
under high powers is seen to consist of minute yellowish grains of garnet. Any 
prehnite which has survived is studded with small hexagonal sections of garnet 
which is also replacing the epidote. The latter mineral occurs in crystals part of 
which consists of garnet, or it forms a corroded patch surrounded by garnet which 
sends off growths into the epidote [31, 40, 41]. 

Sphene is frequently present in the slides and forms grains and rounded crystals 
enclosed in the epidote or in the adjacent prehnite, whilst the chlorite has gone to 
hornblende, which sometimes forms compact green patches showing good cleavage 
and strong pleochroism [46]. 

III. Summary and Conclusions. 
It is clear from a study of the metamorphosed amygdales that they were filled 
prior to the intrusion of the granophyre and that they participated in the meta- 

* A. Marker, loc. cit., p. 50. 



30 MR W. F. P. M'LINTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

niorphic changes which it produced. These changes resulted in the production of 
the following minerals : — 

Prehnite. Garnet. 

Epidote. Sphene. 

Pyroxene. Albite. 

Hornblende. 
With the exception of sphene, all of the above minerals occur as original constituents 
of the cavities, and the result of the metamorphism has been to recrystallise them in 
the reverse order to that in which they were originally deposited. Thus with the 
lime-bearing silicates the metamorphic changes progress as follows: — scolecite -> 
prehnite -> epidote -> garnet, whilst the original order of deposition was : — garnet -> 
epidote ->- prehnite -> scolecite. Similarly with the lime-soda zeolites the order with 
rising temperature is : — thomsonite -> albite and prehnite -> epidote -> garnet, whilst 
the original order of deposition was : — albite -> epidote -> prehnite -> thomsonite. 

The pyroxene and hornblende have been developed from the chlorite and scolecite 
or prehnite, whilst the sphene owes its origin to the titanium originally present in 
the augite and iron oxides of the rock, which found its way into the epidote (see 
analysis) and probably also into the chlorite of the vesicles. 

The above evidence confirms in a striking way the view that the vesicles were 
originally filled under conditions of falling temperature, for, with the rising tempera- 
ture occasioned by the intrusion of the granophyre, the only change has been to 
obliterate the minerals formed originally during the last and lowest temperature 
stages of the hydrothermal phase, and to form at their expense those minerals which 
crystallised in the first and highest temperature stages of that phase. Not only so, 
but the metamorphic minerals, considered from the point of view of their general 
distribution, have been developed in the reverse order to that in which their original 
representatives were laid down in the cavities. 

An interesting point arises from the abundance of garnet in the metamorphosed 
amygdales and its rarity in the unaltered ones. This is probably to be ascribed to 
the great difference between the pressures under which the two sets of minerals were 
formed. Dr L. L. Fermor* has pointed "out that garnet is a high-pressure mineral., 
and — as recrystallisation of the vesicle-minerals under the influence of the intrusion 
must have taken place at a considerable depth and, consequently, at a considerable 
pressure — the tendency would be for it to form at the expense of the other, less dense 
lime-alumina silicates. In other words, the heat of the granophyre, combined with 
the high pressure, was steadily making the vesicles less hydrous and more favourable 
to the formation of garnet. Under the hydrothermal conditions, on the other hand, 
the temperature was falling, the pressure was never great, and the vesicles were 
becoming more hydrous and less favourable to the formation of garnet, or the pre- 
servation of any that might have crystallised. To judge from the vestigial appear- 
* L. L. Fermoe, Records (JcoL Surv. India, 11)13, vol. xliii, pt. 1, p. 42. 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 31 

ance which the garnet presents in the vesicles where it does occur, it is quite possible 
that it may have been present more generally during the first phase of deposition 
and that it became obliterated during the succeeding stages. 

A CKNO WLEDGMENTS. 

I take this opportunity of expressing my best thanks to Dr J. S. Flett and 
Mr E. B. Bailey, B.A., of H.M. Geological Survey, for the interest which they have 
taken in the investigation and for the many valuable suggestions which they have 
made during the course of the work. To Dr Robebt Campbell, of the University, 
and Mr F. D. Miles, B.Sc, of the Heriot-Watt College, I am greatly indebted for 
help in the photographic part of the work. My gratitude is also due to the Carnegie 
Trust for defraying the cost of illustrating this paper. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate I. 

Fig. 1. Ophitic Basalt [107] with Vesicles, magnified 27 diameters. — The light area to the right is a 
large vesicle containing prehnite and chlorite ; at the bottom an acicular augite projects into the pi'ehnite. 
The small vesicle to the left is filled with prehnite, enclosing a little chlorite ; the dark crystals projecting 
into the prehnite are augite. Maol nan Damh, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 2. Ophitic Basalt [70] with Vesicle, magnified 27 diameters. — To the right at the bottom is the 
rock, much decomposed, with numerous grains of magnetite. The large crystal projecting into the vesicle is 
purple augite pierced by laths of albite. To the left it shows a fracture filled with white scolecite, which 
occupies the rest of the cavity. The darker patches in the scolecite are chlorite. Just above the fracture 
in the augite is a crystal consisting of purple augite (dark) and pale yellow epidote (light). Maol nan Damh, 
Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 3. Ophitic Basalt [23] with Vesicle, magnified 1 2 diameters. — The rock, at the bottom, is succeeded 
by a pegmatitic layer consisting of lath-shaped crystals of purple augite (white), patches of chlorite (dark), 
and albite. At the junction with the rock the augite projects radially to the wall, but towards the vesicle 
they lie tangentially. This layer is succeeded by a zone of chlorite and epidote, above which lies albite 
more or less turbid. Maol nan Damh, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 4. Ophitic Basalt [110] with Pegmatitic Layer underlying Vesicle, magnified 27 diameters. — The 
layer on the right consists of lath-shaped crystals of augite, magnetite, chlorite, and albite. The clear, 
irregularly shaped patches are albite enclosing a few crystals of augite. Maol nan Damh, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 5. Ophitic Basalt [111] with Vesicle, magnified 27 diameters. — The rock, to the left, is a dense 
aggregate of augite, chlorite, and magnetite. The pegmatitic layer is well developed and consists of laths 
of augite, albite, magnetite, and chlorite. The white mineral in the vesicle is prehnite into which some of 
the underlying augite has wandered. Maol nan Damh, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 6. Ophitic Basalt [111] with Vesicle, magnified 27 diameters. — The dark patch at the foot 
is the rock, which here consists of augite and chlorite. The turbid patches with black outlines which 
stretch on the left from the rock across the vesicle are albite which is being replaced and corroded by 
prehnite. Just above the middle patch of albite are two lath-shaped crystals of purple augite. The 
remaining clear and turbid areas consist of prehnite which, when it is turbid, has replaced albite. To the 
left of the central patch of albite there is a clear area consisting of prehnite surrounded by a turbid zone 
consisting of rectangular phantom crystals of albite replaced by prehnite optically continuous with the clear 
central portion. Maol nan Damh, Ben More, Mull. 



32 MR W. F. P. M'LTNTOCK ON THE ZEOLITES AND ASSOCIATED MINERALS 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. Ophitic Basalt [1 1 4] with Vesicle, magnified 27 diameters. — The dark area at the foot is the rock 
showing the outline of the vesicle. The light-coloured area filling up the hollows at the junction is a mixture 
of purple augite, magnetite, and prelmite. This is succeeded by a zone consisting of turbid albite, at the left 
towards the top; irregular patches of epidote, just above the centre; augite, in idiomorphic, lath-shaped 
crystals ; and prelmite enclosing chlorite, which shows white in the photograph. A large augite crystal is 
seen at the top, on the left, projecting into albite ; others, associated with magnetite, are seen on the right 
towards the top. Maol nan Daruh, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 2. Ophitic Basalt [109] with Vein, magnified 19 diameters. — The rock at the foot is succeeded by a 
layer consisting of large crystals of augite, one of which lies with its axis parallel to the wall of the vein, 
magnetite, albite, and chlorite. Above this is turbid albite which, at the top, towards the right, is succeeded 
by scolecite enclosing corroded scraps of epidote. Maol nan Damh, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 3. Amygdale [1 1 3] in Ophitic Basalt, magnified 27 diameters. — The clear white material is scolecite. 
In the centre is a large, dissected crystal of epidote consisting of four fragments. The first is the irregular 
patch with tufted margins in the centre ; the second is the rhomboidal piece lying directly beneath ; 
the third lies immediately to the right of the second ; and the fourth lies above the third. The four frag- 
ments have their cleavages parallel and extinguish simultaneously. The spaces between them are filled with 
scolecite enclosing rectangular turbid crystals of albite, in the centre and to the left connecting the third and 
fourth fragments of epidote. Near the foot on the left a turbid albite is in process of being replaced by 
scolecite. The dark areas at the left and right margins are epidote ; beneath the latter one is a corroded albite. 
Maol nan Damh, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 4. Ophitic Basalt [104] with Vesicles, magnified 27 diameters. — The small vesicle underneath is 
filled with analcite replacsd by granular albite. The dark patches are chlorite moulded upon the analcite, 
and the long lath-shaped crystals which lie round the junction and also pierce the analcite are purple augite. 
A large one projects through the orifice connecting the small vesicle with the overlying main one. This 
vesicle is filled with a layer of augite, magnetite, and albite, seen on the right of the canal between the two 
vesicles ; chlorite, forming the dark patch on the left ; and albite, pseudomorphous after analcite, at the top. 
Maol nan Damh, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 5. Ophitic Basalt [78] with Vesicle, magnified 27 diameters. — The dark area to the left is the rock. 
At the junction with the vesicle is a thin layer of garnet with little rounded and dissected masses isolated 
from the layer. Near the top is a projecting knob of garnet in process of dissection. Overlying the garnet 
is a mixture of scolecite and heulandite enclosing laths of diopside and epidote. The dark bar consists of 
diopside, showing signs of corrosion, and a dull birefringent material similar to that which surrounds much 
of the corroded garnet. The dark crystal on the right is a corroded piece of epidote. Maol nan Damh, Ben 
More, Mull. 

Fig. 6. Metamorphosed Amygdale [17], magnified 27 diameters. — The amygdale is filled with scolecite 
showing incipient turbidity. Traversing the scolecite are crystals of epidote with yellow primary cores, 
enclosing chlorite and showing the original corroded outlines, and secondary, colourless rims. North-east 
slope of An Gearna, Ben More, Mull. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1. Metamorphosed Amygdale [49], magnified 27 diameters. — The turbid patch on the extreme left 
and the two areas extending from the top and bottom respectively towards the centre are scolecite in process 
of replacement by prehnite, which forms the white areas in the photograph and, in the case of the upper and 
lower central masses of zeolite, forms little fibres traversing and replacing scolecite. The dark crystals to the 
left of the central zeolite are garnet, the one near the centre showing a core of secondary prehnite. The 
fibrous crystals, on the right towards the foot, are secondary epidote traversing secondary prehnite. Beinn 
Fhada, north end, east side, below the summit, Mull. 

Fig. 2. Metamorphosed Amygdale [58], magnified 27 diameters. — The turbid fibrous material, extending 
from the right towards the centre and forming the area at the bottom towards the left, is scolecite in process 
of replacement by prehnite, which forms the white areas. The mass of prehnite extending from the centre 



FROM THE TERTIARY LAVAS AROUND BEN MORE, MULL. 33 

to the top encloses remnants of turbid fibres of scolecite, the various portions of which are optically con- 
tinuous. The dark inclusions at the centres of several of the prehnite areas are small garnets. The large 
crystal near the top towards the light is epidote ; other crystals are seen at the margin on the right, and 
at the margin towards the bottom on the left. North-east slope of An Gearna, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 3. Metamorphosed Amygdale [15], magnified 27 diameters. — The clear area to the right is primary 
prehnite enclosing diopside which is turbid and full of chloritic inclusions. The large crystals at the bottom 
and on the left are epidote, showing the core-and-rim structure. The turbid inclusions of diopside are con- 
fined to the colourless, secondary material of the rims. North-east slope of An Gearna, Ben More, Mull. 

Fig. 4. Metamorphosed Amygdale [50], magnified 27 diameters. — The clear areas are prehnite, mostly 
secondary after thomsonite, whilst the turbid areas at the top and towards the right are secondary albite 
enclosing fragments of secondary prehnite and thomsonite. The corroded scrap in the prehnite at the 
centre is a zeolite, either scolecite or thomsonite. The crystals towards the bottom showing cleavage are 
epidote. Beinn Fhada, north end, east side, Mull. 

Fig. 5. Metamorphosed Amygdale [41], magnified 27 diameters. — The turbid fibrous material is garnet 
secondary after a zeolite. The clear area at the top is also garnet enclosing and replacing prehnite. The 
colourless areas in the turbid material consist of garnet showing weak birefringence ; it probably replaces 
epidote. Beinn Fhada, north-east slope, near the granophyre, Mull. 

Fig. 6. Metamorphosed Amygdale [41], magnified 55 diameters, nicols crossed. — The large crystal cross- 
ing the field is epidote, secondary after prehnite some of which it occasionally encloses. The dark areas are 
garnet replacing prehnite and epidote. Beinn Fhada, north-east slope, near the granophyre, Mull. 



TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 1). 



cans, Roy. Soc. Editf VoL - LL 

W. F. P. M'Lintock: On the Zeolites, Etc., from Tertiary Lavas in Mull.— Plate I. 




,V \ (JN > '•■ [AWT™ 





■ 







i\ P. M'liintock, phc'o. 



M'Farlane & Erskine, Edin. 



Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin r Vol. LI. 

W. F. P. M'Lintock : On the Zeolites, Etc., from Tertiary Lavas in Mull. — Plate II. 








;> 






n 



•t*- 



V 



S&*^-**^ 






.Tf . 



- 






t^Sv^^'V: 






Vf. V. P. M'Lintock, photo. 



M'Farlane & Erskine, Edin. 



Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinf Vol. LI. 

W. F. P. M'Lintock : On the Zeolites, Etc., from Tertiary Lavas in Mull. — Plate III. 




m ■■ - 






**& 









W. F. P. M'Lir.tocl-, photo. 



M'Farlane & Ergkine, Edin. 



( 35 ) 



II. — Spongiaires recueillis par la "Scotia" dans l'Antarctique (1903-1904). 

Supplement. Par Emile Topsent, Professeur a la Faculte des Sciences de 
Dijon. Presente par le Dr. W. S. Bruce. 

(MS. received June 1, 1915. Read June 28, 1915. Issued separately September 22, 1915.) 

Depuis la publication de mon memoire sur les Spongiaires de V Expedition 
antarctique nationale ecossaise (9), j'ai recu de M. le Dr. \V. S. Bruce quelques 
Sponges antarctiques faisant aussi partie des collections de la Scotia mais dont le 
triage s'etait trouve retarde. 

Independamment de fragments en double d'especes mentionees dans mon 
memoire, ce second lot contenait plusieurs formes qu'il me parait* utile de signaler 
ou de d^crire. 

Dendrilla arctica, Topsent. 

Station 325, avril-aout 1903; Scotia Bay, Orcades du Sad, 60° 43' 42" lat. S., 
44° 38' 33" long. W. ; 9-10 brasses. Un rameau. 

Cette Dendroceratide a 6te recueillie plus a l'ouest, aux Shetland du Sud et 
au-dela, dans les campagnes du Francais (8, p. 11) et du Pourquoi Pas? Elle 
parait etre repandue dans la region americaine de l'Antarctique, au voisinage des 
terres et par dc? profondeurs m^diocres. 

Eumastia attenuata, n. sp. (Figs. 1 et 2.) 

Janvier 1903, Port Stanley, iles Falkland, greve. 

Un seul specimen, incomplet, sans support, long de 7 centimetres, large de 3 
centimetres en son milieu. Mince sur l'un de ses cotes qui, de contours doucement 
arrondis, represente son bord naturel intact, il est, sans compter les papilles, epais 
de 10 millimetres du cote oppose, qu'un instrument contondant a tranche nettement. 
L'outil a certainement laisse en place une partie plus ou moins etendue du corps, 
mais il a, pour ce qu'il en a detache, suivi de tres pres le support. Le specimen est 
done un morceau d'une Eponge en plaque, a bords libres, et de quelque epaisseur en 
son milieu. II revet un aspect particulier parce qu'il souleve toute sa surface en 
processus digitiformes. Hautes de 5 a 9 mm., epaisses de 1*2 mm., en moyenne, ces 
papilles sont sensiblement cylindriques, droites ou un peu tordues ; generalement 
simples et independantes les unes des autres, elles deviennent souvent plus ou moins 
concrescentes par deux ou trois, tout en restant distinctes sur toute leur longueur ; 
quelques unes se divisent en deux branches. Leur nombre est tel que les intervalles 
qui les separent restent etroits. Elles sont lisses, ainsi, d'ailleurs, que la surface 
generale a, nu dans leurs intervalles. Aucune d' elles, de celles dont l'lntegrite est 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 2). 6 



36 EMILE TOPSENT: SPONGIAIRES RECUEILLIS PAR LA "SCOTIA" 

eertaine, ne parait percee d'un orifice a son extremite ; toutes, au contraire, se 
montrent en ce point opaques et plus fortemeut tern tees que le reste. L'absence de 
papilles ouvertes au soramet au moment oil elle a ete recueillie, n'empeche pas de 
considerer l'l^ponge comme representant uue espece du genre Eumastia. Outre que 
certaines des papilles peuvent avoir normalement joue le rdle d'oscules et se montrer 
contractdes, il est evident que toutes ont fonctionne comme organes aquiferes. Sous 




Fig. 1. — Eumastia attenuata, n. sp. x f. 

leur ectosome spiculeux, mince, transparent, rampe un systeme de canaux qui occupe 
la majeure partie de leur interieur, le reste contenant un axe ramifie, irregulier, de 
place en place relie aux parois par des brides tenues. 

A part cela, comme chez Eumastia sitiens, la structure est celle des Halichondria, 
tant dans le choanosome que dans l'ectosome. Le choanosome est assez dense, 
quoique fragile ; l'ectosome se laisse detacher en lambeaux translucides. Le tout, 



b 



<c 



Fig. 2. — Extremites des oxes de Eumastia attenuata. x 510. 

apres un long sejour dans des alcools renouveles, dont le dernier est incolore, a 
conserve line teinte oraugee generalement pale, assez vive pourtant, comme il a ete 
dit, au bout des papilles. La coloration etait due a un pigment diffus, car je note, 
en fait de cellules spheruleuses, des elements spheriques de 0'008 mm. a 0"012 mm. 
de diametre, incolores, trcs brillants, composes de spherules indistinctes avec un 
noyau central sombre. 

Eumastia attenuata a pour spicules uniquement des oxes, courbes, fusiformes, 
iuegaux; les plus faibles mesurent 0'33 mm. de longueur sur 0'003 mm. d'dpaisseur 
et les plus forts 0'48 mm. sur 0"01 mm. Les spicules greles ont les bouts pro- 



DANS L'ANTARCTIQUB (1903-1904). 37 

gressivement amincis en deux pointes fort longues et acerees (fig. 2, a) ; mais tons 
ceux, et c'est l'immense majorite, qui de^passent 0'004 mm. d'epaisseur, se terminent 
au contraire, d'une fa9on singuliere : un amincissement soudain leur forme une sorte 
de mucron (fig. 2, b) ou Ton voit penetrer le canal axial. C'est comme une atrophie 
dont tous se trouvent frappes aux deux bouts. En presence d'un specimen unique, 
il est difficile d'afnrmer que cette curieuse disposition ne resulte pas d'une aptitude 
toute individuelle. Toutefois, si ce caractere manquait de Constance, la spiculation 
de E. attenuata se distinguerait encore de celle de E. sitiens Schmidt par les 
dimensions plus faibles de ses elements et de celle dc E. Schmidti Dendy (1, p. 240), 
par l'megalite de leur taille. 

Homceodictya microchela, n. sp. 

Station 346, l er decembre 1903; Banc de Burdwood, 54° 25' lat. S., 57°. 32' 
long. W. ; profondeur, 56 brasses. 

Un specimen blanc, dresse, simple, baut de 105 mm., epais de 10 mm. au plus, 
progressivement elargi depuis la base, qui mesure 7 mm. a peine, jusqu'au voisinage 
du sommet, oil il atteint 30 mm. de largeur. Depourvu d'axe compact, il est tres 
flexible. Sa charpente interne consiste en un reseau lache de fibres tres riches en 
spongine, fort resistantes, epaisses et malgre tout incolores. Les fibres secondaires 
qui s'elevent de ce systeme sont plus tenaces que dans la plupart des autres 
Homceodictya, la spongine les accompaguant jusqu'a leur terminaison. II n'existe 
pas de membrane ectosomique distincte a la peripheric du corps. La surface, assez 
egale, a une hispidation nette, courte et serree ; ses orifices inhalants s'ouvrent au 
fond de depressions sinueuses, plus ou moins profondes et plus ou moins rapprochees, 
qui la decoupent en des sortes de villosit^s irr^gulieres. Les deux faces portent 
quelques oscules non sureleves, de 1 mm. a 2 mm. de diametre ; mais c'est surtout 
le long des bords du corps linguiforme que les orifices exhalants se localisent, disposes 
en serie longitudinale, au nombre de 6 a 8 de chaque cote. 

Les oxes, longs de - 4 mm., epais de 0'013 mm., sont courbes, aceres, a, pointes 
assez longues. lis partagent ce dernier caractere avec les megascleres de Homceo- 
dictya herguelenensis Ridley et Dendy (5, p. 110) et se distinguent par cela meme de 
ceux des Eponges de la Discovery appelees par Kirkpatrick Desmacidon (H.) ker- 
guelenensis var. antarctica (2, p. 37) et qui, pour moi, representent une espece a part. 
Leur epaisseur est moindre que celle notee jusqu'ici des oxes de H. kerguelenensis, 
mais, comme on sait deja que les dimensions de ceux-ci sont variables, on ne peut 
attacher d'importance a cette legere difference. 

Ce qui, dans sa spiculation, distingue le mieux Homceodictya microchela, ce sont 
ses isocheles, de meme type que ceux de H. kerguelenensis, mais bien plus faibles. 
Tres abondants, ils n'ont que 0'017 mm. a 0'018 mm. de longueur, rarement 0'02 mm. 
lis sont done notablement plus courts que ceux meme des specimens de la collection 



38 EMILE TOPSENT : SPONGIAIRES RECUEILLIS PAR LA " SCOTIA " 

du Fraiifais. lis sont, en outre, beaucoup plus minces que tous ceux que j'ai vus 
chcz des 11. kerguelenensis cle provenances diverses. Leur tige, sans tubercules aux 
extremity, dessine une courbeassez forte et assez reguliere ; leurs ailes ue s'apercoivent 
presque pas de profil ; enfin, leurs dents, aux replis generalement etroits, ont une 
courbure assez simple. 

Esperiopsis Scotix, n. sp. (Figs. 3 et 4.) 

Station 417, 18 mars 1904; 71° 22' lat. S., 16° 34' long. W. ; profondeur, 1410 
brasses. 

Un specimen. C'est, fix^e sur un petit galet, une Eponge ficiforme, grise surtout 
sans doute a cause de la vase qui la souille. D'une base d'insertion etroite, dont elle 
est actuellement presque detachee, elle s'eleve en un pied qui bientot se renfle en un 
corps massif, comprime. Vere le haut, un peu lateralement, s'ouvre un oscule unique, 
entoure d'un cone membrano-spiculeux translucide, assez haut. Le partie renflee du 
corps est lisse, marquee de nombreuses depressions circulaires ou ovales, petites et 
ties peu profondes, pareilles a celles de beaucoup de Grayella et autres Myxillinm et 




Fig. 3. — Esperiopsis Scotia', n. sp. x f-. 

representant comme clles des aires inhalantes. Le pied s'est trouve tres endommage, 
depouille de son revetement et en partie effiloclie. La hauteur totale de l'animal est 
de 37 mm., dont 10 mm. pour la longueur du pied. Celui-ci n'a guere que 5 a 6 mm. 
de diametre. Le corps atteint 20 mm. do largeur, mais n'a pas plus de 5 a 8 mm. 
d'epaisseur. Sa consistance est assez elastique. 

La portion denudee du pied montre la structure du squelette interne. C'est, dans 
cette region tout au moins, un paquet de fibres ascendantes, polyspiculees, blanches, 
assez fortes mais sans spongiue et, par suite, mal delimitees. Dans le corps, ces 
fibres se divisent en faisceaux spiculcux de plus en plus greles a mesurc qu'ils gagneut 
hi p('rq)h(''iie, oh ils sc termincnt juste uu-dessous de l'ectosome. Comme d'habitude, 
les elements de ces faisceaux centrifuges tournent leur pointe vers l'exterieur. 
L'ectosome est une membrane assez resistante quoique tres mince, percee d'orifices 
microscopiques nombreux, et pourvue seulement de microscleres, mais en quantite 
considerable. 



DANS L'ANTARCTIQUE (1903-1904). 39 

Spiculation. — I. Megascleres : 1. Sahtylo styles presque droits, un peu fusiformes ; 
base peu renflee, allongee, raremcnt marquee d'uu bourrelet annulaire situe assez 
loin de son extremite, suivie d'un cou peu retreci mais assez long ; tige doucement 
polytylote, atteignant son maximum d'epaisseur en son milieu; pointe breve, mucronee. 
lis ont, pour la plupart, 0"9 mm. de longueur sur 0-012 mm. de largeur de base et 
15 mm. d'epaisseur de tige, mais leur longueur peut osciller entre 075 mm. et 
1*25 mm. et leur epaisseur entre 0*013 mm. et 0*02 mm. 

II. Microscleres : 2. Isocheles arques, extremement nombreux ; tige fortement 




Fig. 4. —Spicules de Espcriopsis Scotix. S, extremites d'un subtylostyle ; i, isocheles. x 540. 

courb^e, surtout dans sa partie mediane, a, peine moins large qu'epaisse (0'0029 mm. 
de face pour 0'003 mm. de profil ou 00035 mm. pour 0'0038 mm.) et d'egales 
dimensions sur toute sa longueur ; dent courte, crochue, triaugulaire de face avec 
tubereule large et pointe acer^e ; ailes courtes, repliees en dehors, dentiformes. La 
longueur totale est de 0"04 mm. a 0*043 mm. ; l'ecartement des ailes n'est guere que 
de 0"01 mm., leur longueur de 0"008 mm. 

Suberites montiniger, Carter. 

Station 346, l et decembre 1903 ; Bane de Burdwood, 54° 25' lat. S., 57° 32' long. 
W. ; 56 brasses. 

Un seul specimen, complet, sans la moindre trace d'attache a un support, par 
consequent libre ; globuleux, avec un enfoncement, cependant, correspondant peut- 
etre au cote par lequel il reposait sur le fond. Diametre moyen, 16 mm. Coloration 
brunatre a la surface, jaunatre interieurement. Consistance assez ferme. Surface 
lisse portant de tres nombreuses papilles surbaissees, in^gales et irregulierement 
distribuees. Les plus grandes, qui peuvent atteindre 1*2 mm. de diametre, ont la 
forme d'un bourrelet circulaire en saillie autour d'une depression centrale peu profonde ; 
les plus petites apparaissent comme de simples verrues minuscules sans perforation 
distincte. II y en a partout, sauf sur la partie la plus bomb^e du corps, opposee a son 
enfoncement ; elles sont generalement dispersdes ; les plus grandes, au nombre d'une 
vingtaine, sont cependant groupees d'un cote et separees par des intervalles etroits ; 
la face concave en porte une quinzaine de petites. 

Par ces papilles, l'Eponge doit avoir une certaine ressemblance avec Suberites 
crelloides Marenzellcr (4, p. 4). Sa structure est la meme : les spicules, assez lache- 
ment entrecroises dans l'interieur, forment a, la surface une couche plus dense ou 



40 EMILE TOPSENT: SPONGIAIRES RECUEILLIS PAR LA "SCOTIA" 

beaucoup se tiennent tangeutiels tandis que d'autres se placent debout, la pointe vers 
le dehors. Le rapprochement est d'autant plus indique due les spicules out, de part 
et d' autre, uue forme rare cliez les Suberites : ce sont des tylostyles a tete allongee. 
Ceux de S. crelloides atteignent, d'apres les mesures des dessins qui en ont ete publies, 
0'275 mm. ; ceux de l'Eponge du Banc dc Burdwood varient entre 0"32 mm. et0'4 mm. 
de longueur sur 0*008 mm. depaisseur. Independamment de leur taille, il y aurait 
une difference de forme cntre ces spicules, la tete de ceux du S. crelloides des parages 
de Jan Mayen n'atteiguant que lorn en arriere son maximum d'epaisseur. Pour le 
reste, il y a similitude remarquable, la tige etant souvent un peu onduleuse, se reuflant 
doucement pour devenir aussi epaisse que la tete et se terminant en une pointe breve, 
mucronee. Le canal axial est visible j usque dans la tete des spicules de l'Eponge 
de la Scotia et s'y termine sans renflement ve'siculaire. 

Si je ne rapporte pas l'Eponge en question a l'espece S. crelloides, e'est surtout a 
cause de la tete de ses spicules que je crois plus semblable a celle des tylostyles de 
Suberites montiniger Carter. Mais les dessins de Marenzeller et de Vosmaer con- 
cernant ces Eponges sont-ils d'une exactitude rigoureuse ? Je ne suis pas absolu- 
ment convaincu que S. crelloides differe specifiquement dc S. montiniger. Marenzeller 
les a separe's en tenant compte avant tout de l'etat de leur surface ; mais il existait 
quand rneme des papilles chez S. montiniger, puisqu'il en est dit: " Vents, oue large 
at the summit, fringed, the rest small, on the sides" (10, p. 31). Le nombre de ces 
eminences pourrait etre plus eleVe cliez certains individus sans distinction specifique 
possible. 

J'ai vu, de l'Atlantique Nord, une Eponge que j'ai d^terminee aussi S. montiniger 
(7, p. 130), qui n'a pas de papilles du tout et dont les spicules, par leur tete plus 
elliptique qu'ovale, ressemblent plus que tous les dessins a ceux du Suberites de la 
Scotia ; ils sont de meme grosseur qu'eux, mais plus courts et droits. Leur longueur 
(0*24 mm. a 0*295 mm.) est a peu pres celle des tylostyles de S. crelloides. 

Quant au Suberites de la cote occidentale de l'Am^rique du Nord, appele par 
Lambe (3, p. 128) S. montiniger Carter, il produit des tylostyles bien plus epais 
(0*016 mm.) que toutes les Eponges precitees et appartient peut-etre a une espece 
differente. 

Latrunculia brevis, Ridley et Dendy. (Fig. 5.) 

Station 346, 1" decembre 1903 ; Banc de Burdwood, 54° 25' lat. S., 57° 32' long. 
W. ; 56 brasses. 

Un specimen assez grand, a papilles tout-a-fait semblables a celles du specimen de 
Latrunculia apicalis Kidley et Dendy qui provient des Kerguelen (5, pL.xliv, fig. 4), 
mais a discasters constamment depourvues de prolongement apical. Longues de 
0'06 mm., ces discasters ressemblent beaucoup a celles de L. brevis B,idley et Dendy 
(5, pi. xliv, fig. 10): elles out une base elargie, disciforme, a marge armee de fortes 
• •piucs dirigees obliquement vers le bas ; un verticillc d'epincs plus etroit la surmontc, 



DANS L'ANTARCTIQUE (1903-1904). 



41 



ordiDairement regulier, assez dearth d'elle et nettement distinct, quelquefois diffus et 
plus ou raoins confondu avec elle ; puis vient un verticille de 0"033 mm. de diametre, 
le plus large de tous, bien perpendiculaire au grand axe du spicule, lamelleux, ddcoupd 
par des incisures en trois lobes marques en leur bord de plusieurs indentations ; puis 
encore un verticille semblable mais moins large et a lobes retrousses ; enfln, une 
couronne terminale composee de deux verticilles d'epines de plus en plus etroits, tres 
rapproches, emboit^s, l'inferieur fortement oblique vers le haut, le superieur dresse\ 
Sur les spicules imparfaits, cette extremite se presente comme une dilatation ovo'ide, 
simple ou deja subdivisee par un leger bourrelet annulaire ; je ne l'ai vue qu'une seule 
fois, a cet etat, surmontee d'une pointe apicale, longue et, naturellement, fort grele. 




Fig. 5. — Discasters de Latrunculia brcvis. x 540. 1-5, discasters imparfaites ; d, discaster 
parfaite ; 6, sa base vue par dessous ; v, un grand verticille, de face. 

Que cette exception devienne la regie chez certains individus et les discasters 
parfaites ressembleraient a celles de Latrunculia apicalis. C'est une possibility que 
l'existence de L. apicalis var biformis Kirkpatrick (2, p. 14) rend admissible. 

Les megascleres sont des styles, legerement polytylotes, souvent courbes ou 
flexueux, a pointe breve, a base simple, plus mince que la tige ; ils mesurent 0*5 mm. 
a 0'53 mm. de longueur sur 0'012 mm. environ d'epaisseur. Ils ressemblent, par 
consequent, a la fois a ceux de L. brevis et h, ceux de L. apicalis. 

II y a, en somme, quelques raisons d'admettre que ces deux especes n'en forment 
qu'une seule, dont, par comparaison aux autres Latrunculia, L. apicalis ne serait 
pas la forme typique. 



Caulophacus Scotia, Topsent. 

Station 417, 18 mars 1904 ; 71° 22' lat. S., 16° 34' long. W. ; 1410 brasses. Un 
specimen et un pedoncule detache. 

Le specimen a le corps entier et le pedoncule brise. Le corps, d'une tres grande 
mollesse, est disciforme a contour sinueux et mesure pres de 11 centimetres de 
diametre ; epais de 4 a 5 mm. en son centre, il devient tres mince sur les bords, 
qui se replient plus ou moins par dessous. La face superieure (gastrique ou cloacale) 
n'est pas plane mais soulev^e en une infinite' de petites bosselures ; elle a son revete- 
ment presque complet, formant sur ses orifices, iuegaux, un tamis a mailles regulie^res. 
Le revetement de la face inferieure (ou dermique) est moins bien conserve ; ses 



42 EMILE TOPSENT: SPONGIAIRES RECUEILLIS PAR- LA "SCOTIA" 

dechirures laissent a nu deux sortes d'orifices, les uns grands mais de diametre 
d'autant plus large qu'ils sont voisins du centre, les autres petits, distributes entre 
les premiers. Le pedoncule, cylindrique, epais de 9 mm., s' attache au milieu de la 
face' inferieure ; il est creux, mais sa cavite n'aboutit pas a un orifice externe ; elle 
communique avec les lacunes creusees dans l'epaisseur du corps. II n'en existe plus 
qu'un troncon, long de 6 centimetres seulement, de calibre uniforme, assez souple et, 
au moms par places, finement hispide. 

Par sa forme comme par ses dimensions, ce specimen ressemble beaucoup plus au 
type de Caulophacus latus F. E. Schulze (6, p. 124, pi. xxiv) qua celui de C. Scotize 
Topsent (9, pi. ii, figs. 1-3). Pourtant, certains traits de sa spiculation sont caracte^ 
ristiques de C. Scotiw. Ses hexactines dermiques, quoique de dimensions un pen plus 
faibles que dans le specimen geant primitivement demerit, ont toujours l'actine distale 
renflee en pinule notablement plus courte que les autres actines, meme que la proxi- 
male, qui est toujours bien plus breve que les tangentielles. Ses autogastralia sont, 
au contraire des autodermalia, de taille fort inegale ; ce caractere, deja, note d'apres 
le specimen type de C. Scotife, est en opposition avec ce que montre la reconstitution, 
d'apres Schulze, d'une coupe verticale de C. latus. Les discohexasters, a rayons 
secondaires de meme longueur que les primaires, portent des boutons terminaux 
petits et sans denticules distincts. 

D'autre part, certains traits de la spiculation sont communs a celle du type de 
C. latus. Aiusi, il existe, parsemees dans le revetement dermique, des hexactines a 
actine distale barbelee longue, que je n'ai point trouvees dans les portions examinees 
du type de C. Scotife. Puis, les autogastralia sont ici un melange d'hexactines et de 
pentactines, avec predominance de ces dernieres. Enfin, les microscleres, de deux 
sortes seulement, sont d'une grande uniformite. 

Les parties hispides du pedoncule doivent leur aspect a un revetement compose 
de spicules pareils aux autogastralia, encore plus inegaux qu'eux de taille et presque 
toujours a l'etat de pentactines, leur actine proximale se reduisant a un tubercule. 
Sa cavite longitudinal e a une paroi lisse, sans spicules de revetement et limitee 
simplement par un feutrage, sans synapticules, de diactines de longueur et de grosseur 
variables. 

Le pedoncule detache, proven ant de la meme station, est cylindrique, long de 
13 centimetres, un peu moins gros que celui de l'Eponge precedente et solide. II 
porte par places encore un peu de son revetement sous forme de pentactines a actine 
distale longue et barbelee, de dimensions tres inegales. 



DANS L'ANTARCTIQUE (1903-1904). 43 



INDEX BIBLIOGRAPHIQUE. 

(1) Dendy (A.), Catalogue of Non-calcareous Sponges collected by J. Bracebridye Wilson in the 

neighbourhood of Port Phillip Heads, Part I (Proe. Roy. Soc. of Victoria, vol. vi, art. 24, 
Melbourne, 1894). 

(2) Kirkpatrick (R.), Porifera, Tetraxonida (National Antarctic Expedition, Natural History, vol. iv, 

1908). 

(3) Lambe (L. M.), Sponges from the Western Coast of North America (Trans. Roy. Soc. of Canada, 

section iv, art. 8, Ottawa, 1894). 

(4) Marenzeller (E. von), Poriferen, Anthozoen, Ctenophoren and Wiirmer von Jan Mayen (Die 

international Polarforschung, 1882-1883, Wien, 1886). 

(5) Ridley (S. 0.) and Dendy (A.), Report on the Monaxonida (The Voyage of H.M.S. " Challenger," 

Zoology, vol. xx, Edinburgh, 1887). 

(6) Schulze (F. E.), Report on the Hexactinellida (The Voyage of H.M.S. " Challenger," Zoology, vol. 

xxi, Edinburgh, 1887). 

(7) Topsent (E.), Contribution a I'e'tude des Spongiaires de VAtlantique Nord (Result, camp, scient. da 

Prince de Monaco, fasc. ii, Monaco, 1892). 

(8) Topsent (E.), Spongiaires (Expedition antarctique francaise, 1903—1905, commandee par le Dr. 

Jean Charcot, Paris, 1908). 

(9) Topsent (E.), Spongiaires de V expedition antarctique nationale ecossaise (Trans. Roy. Soc, vol. xlix, 

part, iii, no. 9, Edinburgh, 1913). 
(10) Vosmaer (G. C. J.), Report on the Sponges dredged up in the Arctic Sea by the "Willem Barents" in 
the years 1878 and 1879 (Nederland. Arch, fur Zool., Bd. i, Suppl., 1882). 



TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 2). 



45 



III.- — On Larvae of Lingula and Pelagodiscus (Discinisca). By J. H. Ashworth, 

D.Sc, Lecturer in Invertebrate Zoology in the University of Edinburgh."* 

(Received March 15, 1915. Read March 15, 1915. Issued separately November 19, 1915.) 

[Plates IV and V.] 
CONTENTS. 



The Larvae of Lingula 46 

Previous Records of the Larvae of Lingula 

(s. lat.) 46 

The Larvae of Lingula anafina ... 47 

Localities 47 

Description of the Larvae ... 47 

(i) Larvae with 8-10 pairs of Cirri . 47 

(ii) „ 11 „ .49 

(iii) „ 12 „ . 49 

(iv) „ 13 „ . 50 

(v) „ 14-15 „ . 52 



Comparison of the Larvae with those pre- 
viously recorded 54 

Breeding Seasons ...... 56 

Comparison of the Larvae of Lingula anatina 

with Brooks's Larvae of Glottidia audebarti 56 

The Larvae of Pelagodiscus (Discinisca) . . .58 

Previous Records of the Larvae of Discinidce . 58 

TheLarvaeof Pelagodiscus(Discinisca)atlanticus 59 

Description of the Larvae ... 60 

List of Literature 66 

Description of the Plates 67 



The specimens which form the subject of this paper were collected on voyages to 
and from Australia on board the s.s. Orsova and Otway of the Orient Line. Sea- 
water was being constantly pumped on each ship, by a rotary pump, from an inlet 
about 18 feet below the water-line to a large tank on the boat deck, and I was 
allowed to run off, through a plankton net, as much of the water as I desired in order 
to collect the organisms contained therein. For this privilege, of which I availed 
myself to a liberal extent, I beg to thank Captain J. F. Healey and Captain F. S. 
Symons. The small organisms suffered comparatively little by their passage 
through the pump and pipes, and were, for the most part, in a living and active 
condition when examined. 

The larvae of Lingula have been so seldom recorded that the occurrence of 
fourteen larvae of Lingula anatina in the catch made on June 21, 1914, in the 
southern part of the Red Sea, was noteworthy. On the return journey, in October, 
careful watch was kept for others, and one larva of Lingula anatina was taken in 
the Indian Ocean, about 4° south of Colombo, two others in the southern portion of 
the Red Sea, and six larvae of Pelagodiscus [Discinisca) a little to the west of Cape 
Comorin. The larvae were examined microscopically immediately after capture, and 
were then preserved in formalin, which has proved to be a satisfactory fixative. 
Most of the specimens have been stained in haematoxylin, cleared, and mounted as , 
whole objects, for which their depressed form and transparent shell and mantle 
render them very suitable ; six larvae have been cut into serial sections. 

* A grant in aid of the expenses incurred during this research has been received from the Earl of Moray Endow- 
ment of the University of Edinburgh. The cost of reproduction of the plates has been defrayed by the Carnegie 
Trust for the Universities of Scotland. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 3). 8 



46 PR J. H. ASH WORTH 

THE LARViE OF LINGULA. 

Previous Records of the Larvae of Lingula (s. lat.). 

(a) Lingula anatina Bruguiere. — Tlie larva of Lingula was first observed by 
Semper (1861), who, in 1859, saw a free-swimming larva, without stalk, near 
Zamboanga, Mindanao (Philippine Islands). Later (1864) he obtained several other 
specimens, which fixed themselves in his aquaria and lived several weeks. Semper 
gives no further information about his specimens, but no doubt they were larvae of 
L. anatina, for this species was found in hundreds on the beach at Zamboanga by 
the Challenger Expedition. 

Dr Yatsu (1902), while working at Misaki in Japau, obtained the fertilised eggs 
of L. anatina, and has given a detailed account of the egg-cleavage aud of the larvae. 
Captain Sewell (1912) published a short note on larvae, which he refers to this 
species, from the coast of South Burma. 

(6) Glottidia audebarti (Broderip) = Lingula pyramidata Stimpson. — Early in 
June 1860 M c Crady found in Charleston Harbour, South Carolina, a free-swimming 
larva, and gave an account of it to the Elliott Society of Natural History on June 15, 
which, however, was never published by the Society owing to the destruction during 
the war of the notes and drawings of the larva. There is, in a letter written by 
M c Crady (1860) to Stimpson on June 18, 1860, a brief description of the larva, and 
M c Crady subsequently wrote from memory a further report upon it, which was 
given to and published by Professor Morse (1873, p. 261). M c Crady, who believed his 
specimen to be the young of "Lingula pyramidata," states that it had about 6 # 
pairs of cirri, and that there was no trace of peduncle, but his description shows that 
what he regarded as the intestine was undoubtedly the peduncle, which was evidently 
of considerable length and convoluted. 

Brooks (1879), who was the first to study a series of larva? of " Lingula," 
published an excellent account of the structure of the larva? of " L. pyramidata" 
which he obtained in Chesapeake Bay (see pp. 56, 57). 

(c) Species unknown. — Professor Simroth (1897, p. 6), has recorded a larva with • 
1 pairs of cirri among the material obtained by the Plankton Expedition from the 
west coast of Africa. The larva was "66 mm. in transverse diameter, and had no 
stalk. In its general structure and in the shape and dimensions of its shell this 
larva approaches that of Lingula anatina, but the hinge-line is about one-fifth 
shorter than in the larva? studied by Dr Yatsu and myself, and the protegulum is 
also proportionately smaller. The shell of Professor Simroth's larva? is much larger 
than that of the corresponding stage of Glottidia as described by Brooks, and is of 
different shape ; the hinge-line is one and a half times as long, and the protegulum is 
larger in a similar proportion. This larva, therefore, does not agree with either of 

* The number of cirri is probably considerably understated. 



ON LARViE OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 47 

those of known parentage, though it is nearer to that of Lingula anatina, and 
should probably be referred to this genus. I am not aware of a record of adult 
specimens of any species of Lingula from the west coast of Africa, so that no clue 
to the species of Professor Simroth's larva can be obtained. 

The Larvae of Lingula anatina. 
Localities. 

The localities at which the larvae were obtained may. be stated thus : — 

(i) Southern portion of the Red Sea, about lat. 15° N., long. 42° E. ; June 21, 
1914 ; depth of water about 16 to 40 fathoms ; fourteen larvae. 

(ii) Indian Ocean, about lat, 3° N., long. 80° E. ; October 14, 1914 ; depth of 
water about 2200 fathoms; one larva. The noteworthy feature about the record 
from this locality is the great depth of water in and all round the area where the 
larva was obtained, the nearest shallow water being that on the coast of Ceylon, 
distaut some 200 miles north. Lingula is generally found between tide-marks or 
in shallow water. 

(iii) Southern portion of the Red Sea, near the edge of the Dahalak Bank in 
lat. about 16° N. ; October 22, 1914; depth of water about 30 fathoms, but there 
were shallow areas of about 7-9 fathoms within a few miles ; two larvae. 

So far as I am aware, Lingula has not been recorded from the Red Sea, and the 
only recorded examples from the Indian Ocean are from the coast of Burma. Dr 
Annandale tells me that he has seen Lingula in abundance on the islands off the 
Siamese state of Trang, on the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, and that there are 
specimens in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, from the Andaman Islands and the 
coast of Burma. 

Description of the Larvse (Plate IV). 

It is not proposed to give a detailed description of the larvae, as they agree in 
general with the excellent account given by Dr Yatsu, but attention will be drawn 
to their principal features, and to certain points in which my larvae differ from those 
studied by previous observers. 

The specimens may be divided into five groups, according to the number of their 
cirri, which is probably the most reliable indication of the age of the larvae. 

(i) Larvse with 8-10 pairs of cirri. — The youngest stage obtained was taken 
in the Indian Ocean (locality (ii)), about 4° nearly due south of Colombo. The 
shell-valves are "52 mm. long and "62 mm. broad, and have the form shown in 
figs. 1, 2. The straight hinge-line* is "3 mm. long, and the distance between the 

* The cuticular shell first formed over the dorsal and ventral mantle-folds of the larva is circular in outline 
(Yatsd) ; a large fold is formed posteriorly which divides the shell into dorsal and ventral valves or protegula 
(Beecher). The valves increase in thickness, and later, as the secondary shell is added, in size ; but the fold, as it is no 
longer in contact with the mantle, remains a mere film of cuticle, which, however, serves for some time as a hinge 




48 DR J. H. ASHWORTH 

tips of the teeth which lie right and left of the hinge-line on the ventral valve is 
*32 mm. These measurements remain unchanged throughout larval life, for sub- 
sequent additions to the valves take place on their lateral and anterior margins only. 
The straight hinge-line, in all the later stages examined, is about "28 to '32 mm. 
long (average of the whole series, "295 mm.), there being some individual variation. 

The margins of the primary shells, or protegula,* are well seen in the dorsal 
and ventral valves, but especially in the latter, and remain recognisable in all the 
later larval stages examined. The two protegula are unequal ; the dorsal one (fig. 2) 
is almost, but not quite, a semicircle of which the hinge-line, "3 mm. long, is the 
diameter, its length or height being - 14 mm.; the ventral one is smaller (fig. 1), 
its length being *12 mm. When the formation of the secondary shell takes place, 
by additions to the lateral and anterior margins of the protegula, the two valves 
soon become approximately equal in size. In all my larvae the two valves are either 
equal in size or the ventral one is slightly larger, as it is in the adult. 

This larva has 8 pairs of ciliated cirri. The most anterior cirrus of each side 
is smaller than the rest, and has been recently formed ; it lies immediately lateral 
to the base of the median sensory tentacle. This tentacle is an outgrowth from the 
lip-like fold (epistome) which overhangs the mouth in front. 

The mouth leads into the oesophagus and mid-gut. The mid-gut is a wide sac, 
from the walls of which the lobes of the digestive gland or liver — a right and left 
posterior dorsal and a bifid ventral lobe f — are being formed. The intestine is only 
feebly differentiated, and the annus is not yet present. The anterior occlusor muscles 
are of moderate size, but the posterior occlusor has not yet appeared. 

Two statocysts i are present in the dorsal body-wall, each situated a little 
posterior and median to the occlusor muscle of its side (see below, p. 51). 

The organs practically fill the ccelom, there being usually only small portions 
of the cavity recognisable right and left of the oesophagus and in the middle line 
at the posterior end. 

There is no trace of peduncle. In regard to. its internal organs, this larva has 
reached a stage of development similar to the larva with 5 pairs of cirri, represented 
in Dr Yatsu's figs. 77, 78. 

for the valves. In the specimen -52 mm. long, described above, the dorsal and ventral valves are still connected 
together posteriorly by the fold. In all the later stages examined, the fold, while remaining attached to the ventral 
valve, has become disconnected from the dorsal valve ; it still, however, bends over dorsally so that its edge often 
engages with the now thickened, straight, posterior margin of the dorsal valve. This margin, which corresponds 
with that of the ventral valve, is the hinge-line referred to above. 

* See footnote on previous page. 

t For details of these lobes, see p. 52. 

% Statocysts were first seen in Brachiopods by Fritz Muller (1860, p. 77), who observed them in larv;e of 
PelarjorHscus. Professor MORSE (1878, p. 266) recorded the presence of statocysts in adult Lingula, and Brooks 
(1879, p. 63) saw them in larvw of Glottidia. Professor Blochmann (1898, p. 422 ; 1900, p. 124), however, denied the 
presence of statocysts in both Lingula and Pdagodiscw, and considered the structures in question to be the funnels 
of the nephridia. Dr Yatsu (1 902, pp. 64-68) held that they were statocysts, and, after having examined these organs 
in 1 iving and preserved specimens of both Lingula and Pelagodiscus, I can fully confirm his view. The funnels of the 
nephridia have a totally different appearance and different relations (see figs. 8, 10). 



ON LAKViE OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 49 

A larva with 10 pairs of cirri was taken in the Red Sea at locality (i). Its shell- 
valves are 76 mm. long, and "81 mm. broad, and the internal organs are similar to 
those of the larva with 8 pairs of cirri described above, except that the coelomoducts 
(or nephridia ; see below, p. 52) are now formed, and the liver-lobes and intestine 
more clearly differentiated, but there is still no anus. 

(ii) Larvse with 11 pairs of cirri. — This stage is represented by two specimens. 
The one studied alive was taken in the Red Sea (locality (i)). The shell-valves of 
this larva (fig. 5) are "82 mm. long, and '91 mm. broad, and the hinge-lines and the 
postero-lateral margins of the shell have acquired a brownish-yellow colour, which 
persists, and, indeed, usually increases in amount in older specimens. The eleventh 
pair of cirri has been recently formed. The anterior occlusor muscles have increased 
considerably in size, as compared with those of the previous specimens, and the 
posterior occlusor* is well formed. The two anterior dorsal liver-lobes are just 
beginning to grow out from the mid-gut, the intestine is now complete, and the 
anus is visible, opening into the mantle cavity about the middle of the length of 
the body-wall on the right side. 

The first indication of the peduncle is seen as a hemispherical elevation, about 
15/u. high, on the ventral mantle-fold, near its posterior margin, behind and slightly 
to the right of the posterior occlusor. The peduncle of Lingula is evidently 
therefore not equivalent morphologically to that of Terebratulina , which is formed 
at a much earlier stage of development from the entire posterior region (the " third 
segment " ) of the larva. 

On looking through a series of plankton-samples, obtained from a sea-water 
bath-tap on board ship by Dr Nelson Annandale in 1901 in the Red Sea and 
Indian Ocean, I found, in the catch taken in the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb on 
March 25, a larva similar in structure to that just described, but larger, its shell- 
valves being '92 mm. in length and "97 mm. in breadth. 

(iii) Larvw with 12 pairs of cirri. — This stage is represented by four specimens 
from the Red Sea (locality (i)). The dimensions of their shell- valves are : — 





Length. 


Breadth. 


a 


10 mm. 


10 mm. 


b . 


. 1-06 „ 


1-07 „ 


c 


• 1-1 „ 


1-05 „ 


d . 


• 11 „ 


1-07 „ 



It will be noted that, whereas in the examples previously described the shell- valves 
are broader than long, in the four now under consideration the length of the shell 
is equal to or rather greater than the breadth (fig. 3). The shell-valves have 
developed, in the neighbourhood of the hinge-line, a greenish colour which 
gradually fades away towards the lateral regions. 

* Although the other muscles of the animal are well shown in the later stages, details of these muscles are not 
given, as I have nothing to add to Dr Yatsu's account of them. 



50 DR J. H. ASHWORTH 

Each of the larvae has 12 pairs of cirri, but in the smallest specimen (a) the 
most anterior cirrus on each side is a newly formed conical papilla about 40/x long. 
That the tips of the cirri can be protruded beyond the edges of the shell-valves was 
observed in life, and is further evidenced by two of the preserved specimens, in each 
of which one of the cirri has been " trapped " in the tightly closed valves, so that its 
tip is still projecting. 

The posterior margin of the mantle, which even in the earliest larva examined 
was slightly pigmented, now exhibits clearly a yellowish-brown pigment, which 
extends forwards along the lateral mantle-margin. 

Chsetse have been formed on each side in the postero-lateral region of the mantle. 
Two slender chgetas first appear close together. Along the middle and distal regions 
of each chteta are nodes, which in the middle portion of the chseta are at fairly 
regular intervals of about 8ju, but near the tip they are closer together (cf. fig. 7) ; 
in the basal part of the chseta they are less clearly marked. By the time these 
chsetre have increased in length to about 200-250/a, a few others of similar structure 
but shorter (50-70/a long) have been formed at intervals along the lateral and 
anterior margins of the mantle. About this time also gland-cells appear in the 
postero-lateral portions of the mantle in a zone a little removed from its margin ; 
these gland-cells become much more abundant in the next stage (fig. 6), and finally 
extend all round the mantle, forming a glandular ridge. The area of the mantle 
median to this ridge is very thin and transparent. It may be noted here that the 
mantle is highly contractile, and, in a few of the preserved specimens, is withdrawn 
a considerable distance from the margins of the shell-valves. The radially arranged 
muscle-fibrils, by which the mantle is fixed to the shell, are well seen in most 
specimens. 

The peduncle is bluntly conical in form and about 60-70//, long. Its wall consists 
of a thick outer epithelium and an inner layer which is continuous with the ccelomic 
epithelium (fig. 9). There is a central cavity which opens into the general 
body-cavity (fig. 6). 

(iv) Larvae with 13 pairs of cirri — Six specimens at this stage of development 
were found along with the preceding examples in the Red Sea (locality (i)). The 
measurements of their shell-valves are — 





Length. 


Bread tli. 


a 


1*17 mm. 


1 ' 1 5 mm. 


b . 


. 1-22 „ 


113 ,, 


c 


• 1-28 ,, 


1-14 „ 


d . 


. 1-29 „ 


1-15 „ 


e 


. 1-29 „ 


1-17 „ 



/ . . 1-3 „ 1-15 „ 

The maximum dorso- ventral diameter of each of the last four specimens is "2 mm. 

The peduncle shows a marked increase in size during this stage; in the first 
two specimens {a, b) it is about 80/x long, but in the others it is 200-250/x long, 



ON LARViE OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 51 

and is Lent upon itself near the middle of its length, so that the terminal part is 
dorsal and its tip directed to the left side. 

The other organs are similar to those of the preceding stage, except that the two 
ccelomoducts (nephridia) are now very clearly seen (fig. 10). 

Three of the four larger larvse of this group have been cut into serial sections, 
and a few notes on these may he given here (see figs. 8, 9, 10). 

The shell was found to be in most parts about 20/x thick,* increasing to 30/x near 
the posterior margin, and to consist of a chitinoid substance, a thin outer layer of 
which forms a not very clearly differentiated periostracum. 

The statocysts (fig. 8) are closed sacs the external antero-posterior and transverse 
diameters of which are about 40-50/x, and the dorso-ventral diameter 10-1 5/x. 
Several minute statoliths in motion f were observed in each statocyst in the living 
specimens, but are not now visible. Each statocyst is situated in the dorsal body- 
wall at the point where the latter is joined by the lateral body-wall, and the 
appearances suggest that the statocyst was formed by an invagination of the 
epithelium in the lateral angle of contact of the two portions of the body- wall, but 
the statocyst now exhibits no trace of connection with the exterior. 

The three ganglia of the central nervous system are situated in the body- wall ; 
the ventral or sub-oesophageal (fig. 10) is much larger than the two lateral ganglia, 
which lie immediately in front of the anterior occlusors. 

Muscle-fibres, almost longitudinal in direction, have appeared in the peduncle 
between the outer and inner cell-layers, but they are really formed in the latter. 

The median tentacle bears long cilia at its tip on the ventral side. The tentacle 
is hollow, and the lumen,! which may not extend far into the distal half, contains 
cells and muscle fibres, the latter serving to bend or contract the tentacle. Sur- 
rounding the lumen in a zone of supporting substance of homogeneous nature, and 
around this is a layer, apparently nervous, which is in contact with the base of the 
sensory external epithelium. 

Each cirrus is also hollow, and the lumen contains a bundle of longitudinal muscle- 
fibres which lie chiefly towards the medial side of the cirrus. The thick, external 
epithelium, which is ciliated on its median aspect, has very deeply staining nuclei. 
In the base of each cirrus there is homogeneous supporting substance, usually 
thinner or absent on the median aspect, which is continued into the two arms of 
the lophophore, where it forms, just proximal to the insertions of the cirri, a 
continuous curved band (fig. 9) supporting this basal portion of the arm-apparatus. 
The right and left bands are linked together by a small mass of the same kind of 
supporting substance situated in the mid-ventral wall of the lophophore near its 

* The shells of these larvse with 13 pairs of cirri are about twice as thick as those figured by Dr Yatsu from 
his larvse with 15 pairs of cirri. It may be noted that his larvse, from the stage with 7-9 pairs of cirri onwards, 
were reared in captivity. 

t Ciliated cells were not observed in the wall of the statocyst. 

t The lumen opens posteriorly into the arm-sinus, which is connected with the general body-cavity. 



52 DR J. H. ASHWORTH 

posterior margin. The skeletal substance of the lophophore is therefore approxi- 
mately U-shaped. This substance is, in these specimens, almost homogeneous and 
contains neither cells nor nuclei ; it has evidently been secreted by one or both of the 
cell-layers in contact with it. 

The mouth-cavity and oesophagus are lined with ciliated columnar cells, and 
the anterior and posterior walls of the stomach with high and narrow flagellated 
cells, those of the posterior portion of the stomach being especially striking. The 
intestine is apparently not ciliated. The digestive glands or " liver "-lobes are thick- 
walled diverticula of the mid-out. There are two anterior dorsal diverticula — the 
smallest and last formed "liver "-lobes — situated in the dorsal and anterior part of 
the body-cavity ; they are bounded laterally by the occlusors, and extend backwards 
as far as the gastro-parietal bands and forwards to the level of the anterior edge of 
the occlusors (fig. 8). These lobes unite ventrally and open into the anterior dorsal 
wall of the stomach by a very short median duct ; dorsally the lobes are separated 
by the dorsal mesentery. The large posterior dorsal lobes of the digestive gland — 
one right and one left — open separately into the dorso-lateral portion of the stomach 
about the middle of its length (fig. 9). Each of these lobes presents an indication 
of subdivision into anterior and posterior portions. The ventral lobe of the "liver" 
is a large, A-shaped diverticulum (fig. 10) — that is, it is subdivided into right and 
left portions, which open by a common aperture at their anterior ends into the 
stomach near the middle of its ventral wall. The cells composing the "liver" are 
highly vacuolated — the vacuoles contained in life digestive secretion and oil globules, 
— cell-outlines are not distinguishable, and the nuclei are comparatively small. 
When the contents of the vacuoles have been removed, the walls of the " liver "- 
lobes have a spongy appearance, and embedded in them, here and there, are the 
unicellular algse * on which the larva principally feeds. 

The two ccelomoducts (nephridia) could be clearly seen in the living larvae, and 
are well. seen in some of the whole mounts and in the sections (fig. 10). Their 
funnels, the apertures of which are directed postero-medially, lie in the ccelom near 
the posterior end of the mid-gut, and are on the ileo-parietal bands. Each ccelomo- 
duct, the lumen of which is narrow, runs forwards in a curved course, and opens into the 
mantle-chamber on the antero-ventral wall of the body proper, immediately lateral to 
the anterior occlusor muscle — that is, ventral and a little postero-lateral to the mouth. 

(v) Larvae with 14 or 15 pairs of cirri. — Four large specimens were found in 
the Red Sea, two of them on June 21 at locality (i), the others on October 22 at 
locality (iii). The measurements of their shell-valves are — 







Length. 


Breadth. 


", 


October 22, 1914 


1-47 mm. 


1'22 mm. 


K 


June 21, 1914 . 


. 1-48 „ 


1-22 „ 


c, 


October 22, 1914 


• 1-52 „ 


1'22 „ 


d, 


June 21, 1914 . 


• 1-6 „ 


1-37 „ 



* A Radiolarian was also noticed in the gut. 



ON LARVAE OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 53 

Growth in length of the shell-valves is evidently taking place at this stage much 
more rapidly than growth in width, as the later growth-lines show (fig. 4). The 
shell has now become elliptical, the longer axis being antero-posterior. In specimens 
a and b there are 14 pairs of cirri; in c and d the number of pairs is apparently 
15, but as the cirri are closely packed together it is difficult to be certain of their 
number. 

Additional chaetae have been developed in the postero-lateral region of the 
mantle, where there is now a group of about six or eight long chaetae on each side, 
among which the two original ones may generally be distinguished by their slightly 
greater length and thickness (fig. 6). Other shorter chaetae have been added at 
intervals round the lateral and anterior margins of the mantle. 

The posterior occlusor is now a round or oval cylinder of muscle about 80-100/x 
in diameter. The peduncle is from - 4 to "8 mm. in length,* and is bent into one or 
two loops, its terminal part lying dorsal to the proximal part, and its tip pointing 
to the left (fig. 6). The terminal portion of the peduncle is dilated, and the 
epithelium covering this region is much higher than elsewhere, but it has not yet 
proceeded to form the secretion which later envelops it. The peduncle, which is 
colourless, is in each specimen enclosed within the shell-valves, no part of it being 
extended. 

The median sensory tentacle does not exhibit the least sign of reduction ; it is 
still large, about 160/x long, and is evidently fully functional. 

These specimens are the largest and latest free-swimming stages recorded for any 
species of Lingula (s. lat.). Probably these larvae would soon have settled down, 
the peduncle of each would have been extended beyond the valves, and the high 
epithelium of its terminal portion would have produced secretion by means of which 
the larva would have fixed itself to the substratum. 

A note of the colours exhibited by the living larvae may be given here. The 
shell-valves, even of the largest larvae, are transparent, there being no calcareous 
matter present. As already mentioned, the posterior and neighbouring lateral 
margins of the valves are yellowish brown, and in these regions the zone just within 
the margin is a bright green colour. The mantle-margin is usually brownish, 
especially posteriorly. The basal half of the tentacle, particularly on the dorsal 
side, and the distal portions of the "cirri, are yellowish brown, and there is a patch 
or spot of deeper tone at the tip of most of the older cirri, and a similar spot 
about the middle of the dorsal surface of the tentacle. There is yellow pigment 
on each side of the mouth at its postero-lateral margins. The " liver "-lobes are 
lemon-yellow, and near their periphery a small amount of brown pigment is present. 

* The largest specimen seems to be abnormal in this respect, for the peduncle is comparatively short — about 
•2 mm. in length,— but it is not possible to state its length exactly, owing to its being much foreshortened, as seen 
in the preserved specimen. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 3). 9 



54 



DR J. H. ASHWORTH 



Comparison of the Larvae with those previously recorded. 

The larvae described in the foregoing account fall into a single series, and 
evidently all belong to one species. On comparing them with those described by 
Dr Yatsu, there can, I think, be no doubt they belong to the same species — Lingula 
anatina Bruguiere, — which is, so far as I am aware, the only species recorded from 
the Indian Ocean. In structure and colours my larvae agree closely with Dr Yatsu's, 
and special points of agreement are : the hinge-line is practically the same length 
in both series of larvae, and the chaetae evidently arise in the same manner, for it is 
clear from Dr Yatsu's figure (e.g. fig. 86) that in his larvae, as in mine, the two 
chaetae first formed in the postero-lateral region remain for a considerable time 
distinguishable from those formed later. 

Captain Sewell concluded that his larvae also were those of L. anatina. 

There are certain differences between my larvae and those of Dr Yatsu and 
Captain Sewell which may be now considered. 

(a) Size. — The following table summarises the average dimensions of the shell- 
valves of the larvae of different stages : — 



No. of Pairs of 


Yatsu. 


Sewell. 


ASHWORTH. 


Cirri present. 


Length. Breadth. 


Length. Breadth. 


Length. Breadth. 


5 


•31 x -39 mm. 






6 


•44 x -41 „ 






7-8 


•66 x "61 „ 


(December Series.) 


"52 x *62 mm. 


9 




•65 x - 66 mm. 




10 




•82 x -77 „ 


•76 x -81 „ 


11 




•89 x -80 „ 


•87 x -94 „ 


12 






1-06 x 1-05 „ 


13 




. . . 


1-26 x 1-15 „ 






(February.) 




14 




I'll x I'll mm. 


1-48 x 1-22 „ 


15 


•8 x - 64 mm. 




/ 1-52 x 1-22 „ 
1 1-6 x 1-37 „ 









Dr Yatsu's larva? with 7 or 8 pairs of cirri were rather larger than mine, 
but his later stages were much smaller — compare them when they have 15 pairs 
of cirri. This disparity is no doubt due to the fact that Dr Yatsu's larvae, from 
those with 8 or 9 pairs of cirri onwards, were kept in aquaria, and the growth of 
the shell was retarded, for it may be noted that the shell-valves of his specimens 
were not only smaller but much thinner (see p. 51 and footnote). Captain Sewell's 
larva with 14 pairs of cirri is considerably smaller than mine, but as he suggests that 
the conditions at the time of the year when it was taken were unfavourable, the 
difference in size may be due to this cause. 

(/>) Change in the Shape of the Shell. — The table serves to show that the change 
in the shape of the shell-valves — that is, when they become for the first time longer 



ON LARVAE OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 55 

than broad — took place at different stages in each of the series of larvse under con- 
sideration. In Dr Yatsu's this change occurred when 7 or 8 pairs of cirri were 
present, in Captain Sewell's specimens collected in December the change took 
place when 9 pairs of cirri were fully formed, and in my larvse when 12 pairs of 
cirri were present. Captain Sewell's single specimen taken in February had a 
shell as long as broad ; he attributes the delay in change of the shape of the shell* 
to the less favourable time of the year when development was taking place. 

(c) Chwtte. — Chaetse appeared in Dr Yatsu's larvae at an earlier stage than in 
mine, but in both series the time of appearance of the chsetse coincided with the 
change in shape of the shell- valves. 

{d) Peduncle. — In Dr Yatsu's larvae the peduncle appeared when 6 pairs of cirri 
were present, and was protruded by the time 10 pairs of cirri had been formed, at 
which stage his larvse, kept in aquaria, became fixed. Perhaps the artificial con- 
ditions brought about precocious fixation. In Captain Sewell's larvae the peduncle 
began to develop in the stage presenting 9 pairs of cirri, but there was no sign of 
its protrusion in his specimens with 11 pairs of cirri. In my larvae the first trace 
of peduncle did not appear until 11 pairs of cirri were present, and the peduncle 
was entirely internal in the largest larvae, which had 15 pairs of cirri and were 
still free-swimming. 

(e) Tentacle. — In my largest larvse, with 14 or 15 pairs of cirri, the median 
sensory tentacle was not in the least degree reduced, but was fully functional, 
whereas in Dr Yatsu's examples with 15 pairs of cirri — the specimens being then 
attached to the bottom of the aquaria— the tentacle was either absent or reduced to 
a small papilla. Dr Yatsu regards the tentacle as a larval organ, and therefore 
considers its disappearance in his fixed specimens as a natural consequence. There 
is, however, the possibility that the conditions of captivity had determined the 
reduction and eventual loss of this sense-organ in his larvse. A similar tentacle is 
present in Glottidia ; and in Brooks's figure (fig. 7) of a young specimen, with 16 
pairs of cirri, soon after it had become sedentary, the tentacle is shown as long as 
the neighbouring cirri, and Brooks states definitely (p. 73) that it is persistent. 

Most of the differences between the various series of larvae discussed above, 
particularly in reference to the size of the shell-valves, the size and protrusion of the 
peduncle, and perhaps the persistence or loss of the tentacle, are doubtless dependent 
almost entirely on the environmental conditions. Variations in one or more of these 
characters may be expected in larvae of the same species obtained in widely separated 
areas and under diverse conditions. There are, however, certain features which 
appear to be more constant for the species, at any rate they present a fairly close 
agreement in Dr Yatsu's larvae and mine f — namely, the length of the hinge-line and 

* The peduncle of this specimen was also in a backward state, being " still only a small rudiment." 
t In Captain Sewell's larva; there was apparently a rather greater range of variation in the length of the hinge, 
but its average length in his twelve larvae was '3 mm., practically the same as in Dr Yatsu's and mine. 



56 DR J. H. ASHWORTH 

the anteroposterior diameters of the valves of the protegulum* and probably also 
the form of the chsetse. These features may therefore be found useful in the deter- 
mination of the species of larvae, but a definite decision as to their taxonomic value 
can only be reached after they have been examined in further series of specimens. 

Judging from the large size attained by the oldest examples, the larvae found in 
the southern portion of the Red Sea developed under very suitable conditions. It 
will be observed that these larvae form a regular series, there being no aberrant 
members, and they probably afford a fairly reliable criterion of the normal course of 
development in a favourable environment. 

Breeding Seasons. 

Dr Yatsu states that the breeding season at Misaki is very short, and is certainly 
restricted to a month and a half of the summer — from the middle of July to the end 
of August. He estimates that the period which elapses from the onset of develop- 
ment to the stage with 15 pairs of cirri is about six weeks. Assuming that my 
larvae had developed at about the same rate, the oldest specimen, with 15 pairs 
of cirri, taken on June 21, 1914, in the southern portion of the Red Sea, would be 
one of the products of a spawning which had taken place in the first half of May. 
Spawning evidently continued until, or was resumed about, the end of May, for a 
much younger larva, only half as long as the preceding, was taken at the same time 
and place. The finding of two large larvae, with 14 and 15 pairs of cirri respec- 
tively, in the southern portion of the Red Sea on October 22, is evidence that a 
spawning occurred in the first half of September. The specimen in Dr Annandale's 
material was taken on March 25, 1901, in the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, and probably 
had developed from an egg fertilised about a month previously. The evidence 
available in regard to the southern end of the Red Sea indicates that there is a 
succession of spawnings extending at least over the period from the beginning of 
March to the early part of September. 

Captain Sewell records the occurrence of larvae during the winter months, 
December and February, in the plankton off the south coast of Burma. I found one 
young larva, which was probably from two to three weeks old, in the Indian Ocean, 
about 3° N. lat., and 80° E. long., on October 14, 1914. 

Comparison of the Larv.e of Lingula anatina with Brooks's Larv.e of 

Glottidia audebarti. 

As Brooks's memoir (1879) on the development of Glottidiais not easily accessible, 
a few notes on his specimens are given here, and their characters compared with 
those of the available examples of Lingula anatina. 

* The primary shell is laid down while the larva is enveloped by the egg-membrane, and hence the protegula 
and the hinge-line are determined under relatively uniform conditions ; later the larva is subject to more diverse 
conditions, which cannot but react upon such characters as the secondary shell and the peduncle. 



ON LARVtE OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 57 

The three free-swimming larvae figured by Brooks have shell-valves with the 
following dimensions : — 

Shell-Valves. 
No. of Pairs of Cirri. Length. Breadth. 

5-6 '23 mm. -27 mm. 

7-8 "29 „ -29 „ 

9-10 -4 „ -37 „ 

These laiwae, and especially the two last, are much smaller than those of Lingula 
anatina with the same number of cirri. The distance between the teeth at the ends 
of the hinge-line on the ventral valve in Brooks's larvae is i5-"16 mm., as compared 
with about '3 mm. in L. anatina ; and the antero-posterior length of the protegulum 
of the dorsal valve is about "065 mm. in Brooks's larvae (figs. 1 and 3), and '12 mm. 
in L. anatina. 

Ckaetae are formed in the larvae of Glottidia when about 9 pairs of cirri are 
present, and are shown (Brooks's fig. 3) all of the same size and sparsely scattered 
round the margin; there is apparently not a larger first-formed pair on each side 
as in L. anatina (see p. 50). It will be noticed that the chaetae appear about the 
same time as the change in the shape of the shell-valves takes place, as was also the 
case in L. anatina. 

The posterior occlusor and the peduncle are formed when 7 pairs of cirri are 
present, and by the time there are 10 pairs of cirri the peduncle has become long 
and looped, and Brooks expressed the opinion that the larvae became sedentary 
soon after this stage, but the change was not actually observed, as it was found that 
" the larvae could not be made to thrive in confinement." 

The youngest sedentary example of Glottidia found has 16 pairs of cirri. The 
shell-valves of this specimen are about 2 mm. long and 1 mm. broad, and the 
peduncle — now fully protruded — about 5-6 mm. long. In the dorsal and in the 
ventral mantle-lobe there are four pigment-spots near the anterior margin ; there 
are no pigment-spots in my larvae of Lingula l - 52 and 1'6 mm. long respectively, 
nor do they appear to have been present in Dr Yatsu's specimens. 

The most noticeable differential characters of Brooks' specimens of Glottidia 
are : in the free-swimming stages, the small size of the shell-valves, the short hinge- 
line and consequently the small protegulum ; in the sedentary specimen, the narrow 
shell-valves * and the presence of pigment-spots near the anterior mantle-margin. 

Brooks's larvae of Glottidia were obtained in Chesapeake Bay, and as young 
stages were found in the middle of July, while only older -larvae were taken in the 
middle of August, the breeding season was probably short, as was also found by 
Dr Yatsu for Lingula at Misaki, which is in nearly the same latitude as 
Chesapeake Bay. 

* In this connection it may be remarked that full-grown examples of Glottidia audelarti do not attain so laige a 
size as those of Lingula anatina, and the shell-valves of the former are narrower in proportion to their length. 



58 DR J. H. ASHWORTH 

THE LARVAE OF PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 

Previous Records of the Larvae of Discinid^e. 

(a) Larvae of Pelagodiscus (Discinisca ) atlanticus (King). — Fritz Muller 
(1860, 1861) was the first to describe a larva of an ecardinate Brachiopod. He 
recognised that his larvae were those of some Brachiopod, but in his published 
accounts did not refer them to any genus, though he evidently not long afterwards * 
reached the conclusion that they belonged to the genus Discina.^ He probably saw 
about a dozen living larvae, which he collected in the years 1859 and 1860 near 
Desterro on the southern portion of the coast-line of Brazil. 

The only other observer who has hitherto seen a living larva is Dr Yatsu (1902, 
p. 105) who found, in the plankton near Misaki (Japan), a specimen which is 
probably referable to the species P. atlanticus. 

Professor Blochmann (1898) studied ten preserved examples taken in the 
plankton off the island of Bintang, about 45 miles south-east of Singapore. 

(b) Larvae of other Discinidae. — Muller obtained another larval form of a species 
of Discina, which he stated, in a letter to Professor Morse,* belonged to the species 
D. radiata Dunker, but I am unable to find any further reference to this larva, no 
description of which seems to have been published. 

Professor Simroth (1897, pp. 3-6) has described two larvae obtained by the 
Plankton Expedition. The smaller one, from Palmas roadstead, has a transverse 
diameter of "22 mm., and only 3 pairs of cirri. It is further remarkable for 
possessing on each side four very long chaetae. The larger larva, taken in lat. 
5° 9' N., and long. 20° 3' W., at a depth of 1000-1200 metres, has a transverse 
diameter of '42 mm. This larva has 4 pairs of cirri, which are much more slender 
and elongate than those of P. atlanticus, and the median tentacle is also elongate 
and terminates in a bulbous dilatation. There are only two chaetae on each side, 
which appear to be equal in length and simple. Both these larvae are .referred by 
Professor Simroth to the genus Discina. 

Eichler (1911) has given a short account of two larvae obtained by the German 
South Polar Expedition near the winter station of the Gauss (lat. 66° S., long. 
90° E.), from a depth of 3000 metres. The specimens were 787 and *825 mm. 
respectively in transverse diameter, and had 4 pairs of slender cirri of unusual 
length. On each side there were four stronger chaetae, all of similar form and 

* Professor Morse (1873, pp. 356, 357) states that he received " a letter from Herr Muller, accompanied with a 
sketch of another larval form of Discina, in which he describes features similar to those above mentioned [referring 
to his abstract of the account of Muller's larva? from Uesterro], and states that the species has been denned by 
Professor Dunker as I), radiata." By the courtesy of Mr E. A. Smith I have been able to see Dunker's description 
of D. radiata (Malak. Blatt., vol. viii, p. 39, 1861) : there is no reference to the larva. 

t The genus Discina was subdivided by Dall in 1871 into Discina (sensu stride-) and Discinisca, and the latter 
was again divided by Dall in 1908 into Discinisca (s. str.) and Pelagodiscus. Discina atlantica King falls into the 
last-named section, and its correct designation is therefore Pelagodiscus atlanticus (King). 



ON LARV.E OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 59 

apparently simple, i.e. not spinulose, and a series of finer chaetae on the lateral 
margin of the mantle. Eichler and Blochmann consider that these larvae probably 
belong to Pelagodiscus (Discinisca) atlanticus ; but there is no justification for 
referring them to this species, from which they differ in the following characters : 
their much greater size, the form of the median tentacle, their cirri (which are 
about three to four times as long as those of P. atlanticus), and in their possession 
of only four principal chaetae, the longest of which is not specially stout. These 
larvae differ so strikingly from those already referred on good grounds to 
P. atlanticus that they cannot be regarded as belonging to the same species ; they 
may be larvae of some larger species of Discinisca. 

The Larv/E of Pelagodiscus (Discinisca) atlanticus. 

Six free-swimming larvae were taken on October 16, 1914, in the Indian Ocean a 
few miles west of Cape Comorin, where the chart shows depths of about 40 fathoms. 

Adult specimens of P. atlanticus have been found almost entirely in deep water ; 
there are records from 200 and 690 fathoms, but with these exceptions specimens 
have been found only at depths greater than 1000 fathoms, and there are four 
records from more than 2000 fathoms, the deepest being 2425 fathoms. The 
occurrence of the larvae of Pelagodiscus off Cape Comorin in shallow water was 
therefore rather unexpected. The fact that half a dozen larvae were obtained 
together indicates the probable close proximity of the parent forms. There is, 
however, the possibility that the adults lived in the deep water to the west, for 
the depth increases rapidly in that direction, and there was deep water — 700-800 
fathoms— only about thirty miles away. It is known that the larvae may remain 
free-swimming for five or six days,* a period which would have been sufficient for 
their transportation by the strong currents from the area of deep water to the 
locality where they were found. Although the conditions suggest that the adults 
of P. atlanticus occur in shallow water near Cape Comorin, a definite conclusion 
cannot be reached on the evidence available. 

I have recently looked over charts f of the other areas from which larvae of 
Pelagodiscus have been recorded. Around Desterro, where Muller found his 
larvae, the sea is shallow, the nearest water of 100 fathoms depth being some 
sixty miles eastwards. Off Bin tang, where Professor Blochmann's ten larvae were 
taken, the water is very shallow (0-24 fathoms), the nearest water of 100 fathoms 
depth being about four hundred miles away. At Misaki, where Dr Yatsu took a 
single larva, there is deep water close inshore. It is evident from a consideration 

* Muller (1861, p. 54) observes, regarding hislarvse in aquaria: "Die Dauer dieses Schwarmstadiums iiberstieg 
bei den eingefangenen Larven nie 5-6 Tage, meist schon friiher setzten sie sich fest, am Boden oder an den Seiten 
des Glases." Schuchert (Bull. Geol. Soc. Amer., vol. xxii, 1911, p. 272), however, states that the larvae " are known 
to live in the free and floating condition for nearly a month," but there is no evidence in support of this statement, 
which is erroneous. 

t I am indebted to Dr W. S. Bruce for giving me access to the charts in the Scottish Oceanographical Laboratory. 



00 DR J. H. ASHWORTH 

• 

of the conditions in the areas where the larvse recorded l>y Muller and Blouhmann 
were taken that the adults of P. atlanticus are not confined to deep water, and the 
occurrence of the larvse in shallow water near Cape Comorin, while not conclusive, 
lends support to this view. 

Description of the Larvse (Plate V). 

The six "larvse agree closely in size and structure, and are evidently all about 
the same stage of development. 

The shell-valves (fig. 11), which are unequal, are free from each other all round 
their margins, there being no hinge ; they are connected only by the muscles — 
especially the occlusors, and the body-wall. The dorsal valve, which is almost like 
a watch-glass in form, is sub-circular and varies in the different specimens from 
•39-"43 mm. in length, and -43- - 47 mm. in breadth. The almost flat ventral valve, 
which has a peduncular sinus in the posterior middle line, is •32- , 34 mm. long, 
and - 39-'42 mm. wide. The maximum dorso-ventral diameter of each of the three 
larvse in which it was measured is '075 mm. These larvse are about the same size 
as those described by Professor Blochmann and that by Dr Yatsu, and slightly 
larger than Muller's original examples. Both valves are chitinoid and transparent, 
and exhibit no trace of calcareous substance. The edge of the dorsal valve, and to 
a less extent that of the ventral valve, are yellowish brown in colour. The shell- 
valves vary in thickness in different portions from about 3 to 8/x. The chitinoid 
shell, which cuts easily in paraffin, is covered on its external surface by a definite, 
though very thin periostracum, which is continued over the edges on to the inner 
face of each valve, where, overlying the thin margin of the mantle, it extends 
inwards until it reaches the thickened zone of the mantle by which it is evidently 
formed. In surface view the periostracum presents a shagreened appearance. 

The mantle is for the most part colourless, but in its postero-lateral margins 
exhibits some yellowish-brown pigment, and along the margin of the peduncular 
notch bears darker brown pigment-granules. The mantle is very thin over the 
greater part of its extent, but presents a thickened zone in its lateral and anterior 
portions in both valves, but especially in the dorsal valve (fig. 17). The posterior 
mantle-margin is thin in the dorsal valve, and in the ventral one forms a narrow 
strip posterior to the peduncle. In the thin portions of the dorsal and ventral 
mantle-folds, the outer surface of which is, of course, applied to the shell, there 
are numerous gland-cells containing large granules ; these cells no doubt secrete the 
shell. In the thickened zone of the mantle there are, besides gland-cells, more 
numerous epithelial cells and some muscle-fibres ; the chsetse are implanted in this 
region, which, as already stated, secretes the periostracum. 

There are five pairs of principal chsetse, as described by Muller (1860). Addi- 
tional details regarding them may be given here. The two anterior chsetse of each 
side are slender and flexible, and are about "15— "16 mm. long. Each has a simple 



ON LARV^l OF LINOULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 61 

joint situated a short distance proximal to the middle of its length, and the flattened 
and tapering distal portion exhibits faint indications of several joints, and bears 
along one margin minute spicules, which, however, do not extend to the tip of the 
chseta (fig. 13).. When at rest these chsetse usually point antero-medially, but in 
preserved specimens they may be found directed antero-laterally owing to the 
contraction of the muscles attached to their bases. The third chseta is usually 
gently curved, about '09 mm. long, and is directed postero-laterally. It bears on 
its anterior edge minute, regularly arranged, pointed processes, which begin a little 
proximal to the middle of the length of the chseta., but do not extend to its tip 
(fig. 14). The fourth chseta is the largest, being "S-^ mm. long, and much thicker 
than the others. It issues between the shell-valves postero-laterally and then 
usually curves towards the middle line, as shown on the right side of fig. 11, but 
it may be turned so as to point outwards, as on the left of fig. 11. Its proximal 
portion — about one-fifth — which is almost uniform in diameter, merges into a dilated 
region where the chseta issues between the two shell-valves ; distal to this the 
chseta tapers gradually to its tip. The greater part of the tapering portion is beset, 
except on its medial side, with numerous pointed teeth or thorns, the tips of which 
are directed postero-laterally (fig. 15). The thorns do not extend quite to the tip 
of the chseta ; a terminal portion about 15/a long is without them and is very fragile. 
The four pairs of chsetse described above arise from the ventral mantle-fold. The 
fifth chseta on each side, which arises from the dorsal mantle-fold, is about 
•18-'2 mm. long. It is slender and strongly curved so that its tip points postero- 
medially, and it bears, on its distal half, minute spinules similar to, but smaller 
than, those of the fourth chseta. Muscles are attached to the bases of each of these 
five chsetse. 

There is also on each side a series of about thirty chsetse, all of similar form, 
regularly arranged in close order in the thickened zone of the dorsal mantle-fold, 
and extending from the region of the fourth principal chseta forwards almost to the 
middle line. These chsetse are almost uniform in diameter along the greater part 
of their length, but taper rapidly at their tips. They exhibit nodes at intervals, and 
are flexible ; they are usually directed postero-laterally, and their free ends are bent 
under the edge of the ventral valve. Only the two most anterior and the most 
posterior of these chsetse (Ch. S.) are shown on the right of fig. 11. 

On each side are two or three thicker chsetse situated in the ventral mantle- 
fold, about midway between the second and third principal chsetse, and directed 
almost laterally (fig. 11, right side). Each of these bears longitudinal striations 
and is subdivided by nodes so that it resembles a bamboo (fig. 16). . 

The peduncle, as seen in the living or stained specimen (fig. 11), is an oval mass, 

the transverse and antero-posterior diameters of which are, on an average, about "13 

and "04 mm. respectively. In vertical section (fig. 17) the peduncle appears as an 

elevation, triangular in section, of the inner wall of the ventral mantle-fold close to 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 3). 10 



C2 DR J. H. ASHWORTH 

its posterior margin, so that in its origin it is similar to that of Lingula (see p. 49). 
The broad base of the elevation is ventral, the posterior or dorsal side of the ridge 
lies parallel and close to the dorsal mantle-fold,* and the anterior side is almost 
parallel to the posterior wall of the body proper. The epithelium covering the 
peduncle is continuous with, but much thicker than, the inner epithelium 
of the ventral mantle, which unites with the epithelium of the body-wall proper 
just anterior to the front margin of the peduncle. The central portion of the 
peduncle consists of strong curved muscle-fibres, which have a general ventro-dorsal 
direction. A narrow transverse cavity is present in the posterior portion of the 
peduncle, but this does not appear to have a defin'te epithelial lining, nor is there 
any visible connection in the preserved specimens between this cavity and the body- 
cavity, though there is probably a connection in life, as in the case of Lingula (p. 50 
and fig. 6). The narrow strip of mantle immediately posterior to the peduncle is 
strongly pigmented, and the pigment extends forwards right and left into the 
epithelium which covers the sides of the peduncle. The dorsal and anterior faces of 
the peduncle are almost completely covered with a thin film of periostracum. The 
peduncle is in condition to be extended ready for fixation ; the small lip at the 
posterior margin of the ventral valve, which consists only of periostracum, would be 
bent ventrally, and the neighbouring region of the ventral valve would yield to some 
extent so as to permit the exit of the peduncle between the shell-valves. During 
extension the peduncle would be so bent as to bring its flat, previously dorsal, 
surface into contact with the object to which fixation was about to take place, and 
the granular cells forming the thick epithelium of that face of the peduncle would 
secrete the necessary cementing substance. 

The median tentacle is an elevation on the epistome about 30-40/x, in height and 
50/x in width. Its apex is traversed by a shallow median groove, the cell of which 
are pigmented. The apical portion of the tentacle is solid, but the basal half 
contains a narrow axial lumen, which opens proximally into the arm-sinus. The 
lumen is lined by cells and contains longitudinal muscle-fibrils by means of which 
the tentacle can be contracted or bent laterally or ventrally towards the mouth. 
Supporting tissue, like that found in the tentacle of Lingula (see p. 51), is not 
present, but there is a nervous layer between the lumen and the epidermis. The 
tentacle is ciliated along two tracts (indicated by the darker areas in fig. 11), one on 
each side, near its base. 

The discoidal lophophore bears the mouth near the middle of its ventral surface, 
and on each of its lateral margins there are, in all the specimens except one, four 
approximately equal cirri arranged as shown in fig 11. In one of the larvae (not 
the smallest) there arc four cirri, all of normal size, on the right side, but on the 
left there are only three, the fourth or most anterior cirrus being absent. The cirri 

* The peduncle is not in any way connected with the dorsal valve ; its posterior surface may touch the dorsal 
mantle-fold, hut remains quite indejjendent of it. 



ON LAEViE OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 63 

are hollow, and the comparatively large cavity, which opens into the arm-sinus, is 
lined by an epithelium and contains longitudinal muscle-bands. The cells on the 
medial face of each cirrus bear long cilia. As in Lingula, the deeply staining 
epithelium of the cirri is thrown into annular folds by contraction of the muscles. 
Supporting substance is not recognisable in sections of the cirri, but is present in 
each half of the lophophore as a narrow band lateral to the arm-sinus, and extending 
along the region of attachment of the cirri. The greater part of each cirrus, the 
distal region of the tentacle and the ciliated tracts, right and left, in its basal 
portion were yellow in life. There was also a considerable amount of yellow 
pigment in the lip which overhangs the mouth in front, and a narrow transverse 
band of brownish pigment in the ventral body- wall immediately anterior to the 
sub-oesophageal ganglion. 

There is a deep depression on the ventral side between the posterior margin of 
the lophophore and the anterior edge of the wall of the body proper (fig. 17). In 
this depression, and situated on the anterior surface of the wall of the body proper, 
just ventral to the oesophagus, is the large ventral nerve-ganglion. The two lateral 
ganglia, which are also large, are situated in the body-wall in front of the anterior 
margins of the occlusors.* 

The outline of the wall of the body proper is almost semicircular or bluntly 
conical, its form and height depending on the condition of expansion or contraction 
of the animal. In the lateral wall of the body proper, rather nearer the dorsal 
than the ventral surface, is on each side a large black, or brownish-black, oval 
pigment-spot or " eye," about 20ju, long. Similar pigment-spots were present in the 
larvae examined by Fritz Muller, but not in those described by Drs Blochmann 
and Yatsu. 

The epidermis of the body- wall in the region of the " eye," especially ventral and 
posterior to it, is higher than elsewhere, and forms a regular columnar epithelium. 
This elevation, which is readily seen in most specimens mounted whole, probably 
represents a sensory area. 

The "eye" is like a shallow cup in shape (fig. 18), and consists of masses of 
brown pigment-spherules deposited in the distal ends of several of the epithelial 
cells. Immediately below the epithelium of this region of the body-wall is a nervous 
tract extending backwards from the lateral ganglion, which supplies the columnar 
epithelium described above, the " eye," and the statocyst. 

In the dorsal body-wall on each side is a large statocyst situated immediately 
posterior and slightly lateral to the dorsal margin of the massive anterior occlusor 
muscle (fig. 12). The maximum internal diameter of the statocyst is about 25/u, ; 
the external diameters are : antero-posterior, 30-40/x, ; transverse, 25-30/a ; dorso- 
ventral, 10-15/a. In surface view the statocyst is ovoid, and the narrower end, 

* That is, the anterior occlusors ; there are no posterior occlusors at this stage. Professor Blochmann has given 
an account of the muscles of the larva, to which I have nothing special to add. 



64 DK J. H. ASHWORTH 

which is directed anteriorly, lies near the lateralis muscle. Several minute statoliths 
were present in life, forming a small mass in the centre of the statocyst. The wall 
of the statocyst consists of two layers : an epithelium with large nuclei similar to the 
epithelium of the neighbouring region of the mantle, and a thin enveloping layer of 
ccelomic epithelium (fig. 18). The statocyst is in contact with the body-wall at the 
angle of union of the latter with the dorsal mantle, and in this angle is a distinct 
depression in the external epithelium suggesting that the statocyst had been formed 
by invagination at that point. Professor Blochmann holds that the organs inter- 
preted as statocysts are really the funnels of nephridia,* and describes and figures 
an " Ausftihrungsgang." There can, however, be no doubt that the organs in 
question are statocysts, .and they are closed sacs. Dr Yatsu (1905, p. 563) states 
that the statocysts " must become smaller at the time of attachment " of the larva, 
but his fig. 2 from a young attached Discinisca l&vis shows a statocyst considerably 
larger than that of a free-swimming Pelagodiscus atlanticus."\ 

The mouth is situated immediately behind the epistome by which it is overhung ; 
its cavity is lined by ciliated cells. The oesophagus, which has a high columnar 
ciliated epithelium, passes at first dorsally and, after a short course, turns through 
a right angle to run posteriorly. It opens, at the level of the body-wall, into the 
mid-gut by a somewhat constricted aperture. The mid-gut is widest posteriorly ; 
it represents the stomach and the digestive gland or "liver," the lobes of the latter 
not having yet been formed. The cells of the wall of the mid-gut are, however, 
sharply differentiated into two kinds : high epithelial flagellated cells which will 
form the wall of the stomach, and vacuolated cells which will be included in the 
future lobes of the "liver" (fig. 17). The high epithelium characteristic of the 
stomach is present in (1) the anterior wall of the mid-gut, but only for a short 
distance around the point of entrance of the oesophagus ; (2) in the middle and 
posterior portions of the ventral wall ; and (3) in the ventral half of the posterior 
wall of the mid-gut. The. remainder of the mid-gut, comprising the entire dorsal 
and lateral walls, the dorsal half of the posterior wall, and the anterior portion 
of the ventral wall, will form the " liver "-lobes. The epithelium of the stomach, 
especially that of the posterior ventral region, is remarkable for the height and 
slenderness of its cells, which are 11-15//, long, but not more than lfx wide at their 
distal ends. The elongate, deeply staining nuclei are situated in the proximal 
portions of the cells. Each cell bears only a single flagellum about 8-1 2/x long, which 
arises from a well-marked basal granule in the distal region of the cell (fig. 19). 
Many of the " liver "-cells are highly vacuolated; the remaining cells are filled with 
spherules or less regular masses of secretion. The nuclei are at the bases of the cells, 
and cell-outlines cannot be distinguished. The " liver "-tissue is similar in structure to 

* See also footnote, p. 48. 

t In Liwjula the statocysts do not diminish in size when the animal hecomes sedentary, as may be seen from the 
figure of a statocyst of a sedentary example with shell 65 mm. long given by Dr Yatsu (1902«, fig. 22). This 
statocyst is about three times as large as those of the larvae described on p. 51. 



ON LA~RVM OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 65 

that of Lingula, but the contents of the cells, as seen in life, are not so refringent. 
The intestine, which is not ciliated, issues from the ventral wall of the mid-gut near 
the middle line and a little anterior to its hinder margin (fig. 11). It runs towards 
the right and is at first narrow, but becomes wider as its enters the postero-lateral 
corner of the body-cavity, where it is dilated into a sub-spherical sac from which the 
narrow terminal portion runs anteriorly and slightly laterally to open on the body- 
wall ventral to the pigment-spot and near the postero-lateral margin of the right 
anterior occlusor. The mid-gut is pale yellow in colour, and scattered through the 
" liver "-cells there is a considerable amount of brownish pigment. 

The larva feeds on unicellular algse ; spherical algse and a few diatoms are 
present in the gut. 

The ccelom is not spacious ; there are, however, obvious portions of the coelom 
in the postero-lateral regions of the body and a connecting transverse cavity 
posterior to the mid-gut. Unfortunately, I have no observations on the ccelomic 
fluid or its contents in life. 

All the specimens possess a pair of ccelomoducts (nephridia), which have not 
hitherto been observed in the free-swimming larvae of any Discinid. The funnel of 
each ccelomoduct is situated on the ileo-parietal band about the level of the posterior 
margin of the mid-gut ; its opening is directed posteriorly and rather towards the 
middle line (fig. 11). The funnel leads into a slender tube which can be traced 
forwards a little more than half way along the lateral margin of the occlusor muscle 
to its opening into the mantle-chamber. The total length of the ccelomoduct is, 
about 70-9 0/i,. The funnel appears in section as a double series of cells with deeply 
staining nuclei, representing the two lips, between which is a narrow lumen. The 
dorsal lip is slightly longer than the ventral. The rest of the duct is lined with a 
flat epithelium and ensheathed with a very thin ccelomic epithelium. The lumen of 
this portion is widest about the middle of its length, where it may attain a diameter 
of 5/a, but is usually much narrower (2-3//,). 

The larvse described above correspond exactly with those studied by Fritz 
Muller, and they agree with those described by Drs Blochmann and Yatsu except 
that their specimens had no pigment-spots ("eye-spots"). This difference, in view 
of the close agreement in other respects, should probably not be considered as 
significant ; it may be merely a local variation. 

Professor Blochmann has adduced cogent evidence for regarding the larvse 
described by Muller and himself as belonging to Pelagodiscus (Discinisca) 
atlanticus. The identity of my larvse with those of Muller and Blochmann 
seems so clear that they may safely be referred to the same widely distributed 
species, the range of which is now extended into the Indian Ocean. There is, so 
far as I am aware, no record of adults of P. atlanticus from the Indian Ocean, and 
the nearest record of the species is that of Professor Blochmann, whose larvse were 
taken off the island of Bintanw. 



66 DR J. H. ASHWORTH 

It is interesting to notice that all the known larvre of Pelagodiscus atlanticus — 
about thirty altogether — have 4 pairs of approximately equal cirri.* Muller was 
able to keep his larvae under observation in aquaria, and it is evident from his 
accounts that they became fixed at the stage with 4 pairs of cirri. Dr Yatsu (1905) 
found a young attached example of a related species, Discinisca l&vis, which had 
6 pairs of cirri, so that in this species also attachment of the larva occurs at or not 
long after the stage with 4 pairs of cirri. These facts account for the absence of free- 
swimming stages with more than 4 pairs of cirri, but there is no satisfactory 
explanation why earlier larvpe have not been found. Muller (I860, p. 79) 
suggested that the youuger stages may be retained in the shell of the parent, but 
I am not aware of any evidence in support of this view. It may be that the 
younger stages live on the sea-bottom and hence have hitherto escaped capture ; all 
the larvae of Pelagodiscus recorded have been taken at or near the surface. 

Breeding Season. — Few data are available on this point. Professor Blochmann's 
specimens were collected off Bintang on July 3, 1899, and mine were taken off Cape 
Comorin on October 16, 1914. Dr Yatsu does not state when he found his 
specimen, but, as it occurred among the larvae of Lingula at Misaki, it must have 
been in the period from the latter part of July to the middle of September. 

Muller states that at Desterro, Brazil, the larvoe occurred in late summer, from 
February to April, a season which corresponds approximately with the period in 
which the larvae have been found in the northern hemisphere. 



LIST OF LITERATURE. 



Blochmanx, F., " Die Larve von Discinisca" Zool. Jahrb., Abt. Auat., Bd. xi, pp. 417-426, Taf. 31, 1898. 

Blochmann, F., " Unter.s. liber den Bau der Brachiopoden," ii. Jena, 1900. 

Bhooks, W. K., "The Development of Lingula," Chesapeake Zool. Lab. Sc. Results of 1878, pp. 35-112, 

pis. 1—6. Baltimore, 1879. 
Eichler, P., " Die Brachiopoden der deutsclien Siidpolar-Exped.," D. Siidp.-Exped., Bd. xii, Zool., iv Bd., 

pp. 384, 385, Taf. 44, Fig. 22, 1911. 
M'-Ckauv, J., " On the Lingula pyramidata described by Mr W. Stimpson," Amer. Journ. Sci. and Arts, 

2 ser., vol. xxx, pp. 157, 158, 1860. 
MORSE, E. S., " Embryology of Terebratidina," Mem. Boston Xoc. Nat. Hist., vol. ii, pp. 249-264, 1873. 
MORSE, E. S., Proe. JJoston Soc. A r at. Hist., vol. xix, p. 266, 1878. 
MULLER, F., " Beschreibung einer Brachiopodenlarve," Archivf. Anat. Physiol., Jahrg. 1860, pp. 72-80, 

Taf. i. 
MULLER, F., "Die Brachiopodenlarve von Santa Catharina," Archivf. Naturgesclh., Jahrg. xxvii, Bd. i, 

pp. 53-56, 1861. 
SEMPER) C, " Rcisebericht," Zeilschr. wiss. Zool, Bd. xi, pp. 103, 104, 1861 ; Bd. xiv, p. 424, 1864. 
Skwell, R. B. S., " Note on the Development of the Larva of Lingula," Records Indian Mus., vol. vii, 

pp. 88-90, 1912. 



* Excepl I lie abnormal specimen mentioned on \>. 62, which has only three cirri on the left side. 



ON LARVAE OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 



67 



Simroth, H., " Die Brachiopoden der Plankton-Exped.," Ergebn. Plankton-Exped., Bd. ii, F.f., 19 pp. 

1 Taf., 1897. 
Yatsu, N., "On the Development of Lingula anatina," Jour n. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, vol. xvii, 

art. 4, 112 pp., 8 pis., 1902. 
Yatsu, N., "Notes on Histology of Lingula anatina," op. cit., art. 5, 29 pp. 2 pis., 1902«. 
Yatsu, N, "Notes on the young Discinisca," Zool. Anz., Bd. xxix, pp. 561-5G3, 19(Jo. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES. 



List of Reference Letters. 



A. Anus. 

A.S. Arm-sinus. 

B.M. Brachial muscle. 

B.M.T. Transverse brachial muscle. 

B.W. Wall of body proper. 

C. Cirrus. 

CI, C4, Cll, CI 3. First, fourth, eleventh, 

thirteenth cirrus. 
CD. Coelomoduct. 
Ch. Cha?ta. 
Ch. I, Ch. II, Ch. Ill, Ch. IV, Ch. V. First 

to fifth large chsetre of Pelagodiscus. 
Ch. S. Slender clnetse. 
Co. Coelom. 

Co. E. Ccelomic epithelium. 
D.B. Dorsal blood-vessel. 
D.M. Dorsal mesentery. 
E. Epistome. 

G.C. Gland-cells in mantle. 
G.L. Lateral nerve-ganglion. 
G.P. Gastro-parietal band. 
G.V. Ventral nerve-ganglion. 
H.L. Hinge line. 
In. Intestine. 

L.A.D. Anterior dorsal lobe of "liver." 
L.M. Lateralis muscle. 
L.P.D. Posterior dorsal lob of "liver." 
L.V. Ventral lobe of " liver." 
M. Mantle. 



M.G. Mid-gut. 

M.M. Mantle-margin. 

M.M.D. Margin of dorsal mantle. 

M.M.V. Margin of ventral mantle. 

Mo. .Mouth. 

M.T. Thickened area of mantle. 

N.T. Nervous tract. 

CE. CEsophagus. 

O.A. Anterior occlusor muscle. 

O.I. Obliquus internus muscle. 

O.P. Posterior occlusor muscle. 

P. Pigment. 

P.D. Dorsal protegulum. 

Pe. Peduncle. 

Pe. E. Epithelium of peduncle. 

Pe. M. Muscles of peduncle. 

Pr. Periostracum. 

P.S. Pigment-spot ("eye"). 

P.V. Ventral protegulum. 

S. Shell. 

Sc. Statocyst. 

S.M. Shell-margin. 

S.M.D. Margin of dorsal shell-valve. 

S.M.V. Margin of ventral shell-valve. 

S.S. Supporting substance. 

St. Stomach. 

T. Tentacle. 

T.M. Transverse muscles. 



Plate IV. 

Lingula anatina Bruguiere. 

Figs. 1, 2. Outlines of ventral (fig. 1) and dorsal (fig. 2) shell-valves of youngest larva obtained 
("52 mm. long). The protegulum, or primary shell, is seen in each valve. See p. 48. ( X 39.) 

Fig. 3. Outline of ventral shell-Valve of a larva PI mm. long (larva c, group iii, p. 49). ( X 39.) 



G8 DR J. H. ASHWOKTH 

Fig. 4. Outer surface of the ventral valve of the largest larva, 16 mm. long (larva d, group v, p. 52) ; 
to show the protegulum and the principal growth-lines on the secondary shell. See p. 53. ( X 39.) 

Fig. 5. Larva with 1 1 pairs of cirri, ventral aspect ; drawn from a preserved specimen. The anterior 
and posterior occlusors and the lateralis muscle are shown, but the other muscles have been omitted. The 
cadomoducts were present, but have not been shown ; they are more clearly seen in later stages (see fig. 10). 
The cirri are contracted, and the mantle, which in life extends to the margin of the shell-valves, has also 
been withdrawn. The right and left lobes of the ventral " liver " are seen to unite in front and to open 
into the stomach by a common portion (see also fig. 10). Between the posterior margin of the lophophore 
and the anterior edge of the ventral nerve-ganglion in the body-wall there is a deep depression shown in 
light tone in the figure. Note the first indication of the peduncle. See p. 49. ( X 90.) 

Fig. 6. Posterior end of a larva with 14 pairs of cirri (larva a, group v, p. 52), ventral aspect. Note 
the peduncle arising from the ventral mantle-fold, turning to the animal's right, then dorsally and left, and 
terminating in a knob lying between the dorsal and ventral mantle-folds. The narrow canal connecting the 
peduncular cavity with the ccelom is indicated. In the mantle on each side are chsetse and a series of 
gland-cells. Two of the chsetae — those first formed — are rather larger than the rest. The dark central 
area indicates the extent of the body proper. ( X 90.) 

Fig. 7. The distal half of one of the large chsetse of a larva with 15 pairs of cirri (larva d, group v, 
p. 52). (X500.) 

Fig. 8. Horizontal section of the dorsal region of a larva (_/, group iv, p. 50) with 13 pairs of cirri. In 
the posterior part the section contains the dorsal body-wall (which is intact) in the anterior region of which 
are the two statocysts. Further forward the dorsal body-wall has been cut away. The two antero-dorsal 
" liver "-lobes are coming together in the middle line preparatory to opening into the stomach. The doi'sal 
blood-vessel is seen through the dorsal body-wall, and a small portion of the vessel is cut again further 
forward in the dorsal mesentery. ( X 100.) 

Fig. 9. Horizontal section, 20/x thick, of the same larva, taken nearly midway between dorsal and 
ventral surfaces. The section passes through the oesophagus and stomach and the postero-dorsal " liver "- 
lobes. The cirri are drawn only in outline ; note in the lophophore on each side a portion of the arm-sinus 
and of the band of supporting substance lateral to it. Only the basal half of the tentacle is present in 
the section. ( X 100.) 

Fig. 10. Horizontal section, 50/x thick, of the body proper of the same larva, taken in the ventral region, 
showing the posterior portion of the stomach (cut tangentially), the intestine, the ccelomoducts (nephridia), 
and the ventral " liver." The median anterior portion of the " liver " leads into the stomach, which, in that 
area, lies immediately dorsal to the plane of the section. Note also the ventral nerve-ganglion in the 
anterior wall of the body. ( X 100.) 

Plate V. 

Pclayodiscus (Discinisca) atlanticus (King). 

Fig. 11. Larva, ventral aspect. Between the posterior margin of the lophophore and the anterior edge 
of the body-wall there is a deep depression (cf. fig. 17). The dark tone on the mid-gut indicates the area 
occupied by the flagellated cells, i.e. the area which will form the chief part of the stomach. Note the 
intestine, ccelomoducts (nephridia), and peduncle. The five principal cluetse are shown on both sides ; but 
on the right of the figure only are represented the three jointed chaeta? which are situated in the ventral 
mantle-fold, and the first two and the last of the series of about thirty slender chsetre present in the dorsal 
mantle-fold. The mantle, which extends to the margins of the shells, is extremely thin over the greater 
part of its extent, but its thickened zone (ef. fig. 17) is represented by the deeper tone. ( X 180.) 

Fig. 1 2. Dorsal aspect of the same larva, showing only the body proper. Note especially the statocysts, 
and the " eyes." The thickening of the body-wall in front is due to the presence on each side in that 
region of the lateral nerve-ganglion. ( X 180.) 

Fig. 13. Distal end of the first left chseta. See p. 60. ( X 800.) 

Fig. 14. The third principal chuvta. The processes are on its anterior margin. See p. 61. ( X 800.) 

Fig. 15. The distal end of the fourth principal cha-ta ; note the absence of spines on its median margin. 
Seep. 61. (X800.) 



ON LARVAE OF LINGULA AND PELAGODISCUS (DISCINISCA). 69 

Fig. 16. Proximal portion (about two-fifths) of one of the three jointed chsetse in the ventral mantle-fold. 
Seep. 61. (x800.) 

Fig. 17. Sagittal section of a larva. Note that at the margins of the shell-valves the periostracum is 
turned in and continued for some distance over the mantle-fold. The surface of the periostracum is studded 
with minute points and is therefore shown dotted. The mantle is in contact with the inner surface of the 
shell, and, except over the body proper, is composed of two lamella?; these are represented diagrammatieally 
as two thin nucleated membranes, over the greater part of its area the mantle is very thin. See pp. 61-65. 
(x450.) 

Fig. 18. Horizontal section of a larva passing through the middle of the pigment spot ("eye"), and 
through the sfcatocyst of the right side. A portion of the outline of the right anterior occlusor muscle is 
shown by dotted lines. See pp. 63, 64. ( X 700.) 

Fig. 19. Three cells from the postero-ventral wall of the mid-gut, i.e. cells of the future stomach. 
See p. 64. (xlSOO.) 



TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 3). 11 



■ans Roy Soc. Edin. 



Ashworth Lingula. 



Vol. LI. Plate IV 



MM 




H. Ashworth and A.K Maxwell del. 



Andre" Sleigh & Anglo L' 



Trans Roy. Soc. Edin. 

C 

16 



Ashworth: Pelagodiscus. 



Vol. LI Plate V. 



13 



CH.l. T Mo 



CH.S. 



SMI) 



\ ,SMV 



("M III 




CM W L.JI 



CE G.L. 



Q A 



PS. 



M.G. 



Sc. 



or.. 



L.M. 




L.W 




\ T. 



* 



B.W. 



5.M.V 



()/\ 



: 9 %\ 



Co:E 





H.Ashworlh and A.K.Maxwell del. 



---... [ 



<# 






( M ) 



IV. — The Temperatures, Specific Gravities, and Salinities of the Weddell Sea and 
of the North and South Atlantic Ocean. By William S. Bruce, LL.D., 
Andrew King, F.I.C., and David W. Wilton. 

(MS. received March 15, 1915. Read May 3, 1915. Issued separately November 29, 1915.) 

Introduction by W. S. Bruce, LL.D. 

After my return from my first voyage, namely, the Scottish Antarctic Expedition 
of 1892-93, for which I was chosen as naturalist, I had the advantage of coming 
closely in touch with Mr J. Y. Buchanan, who then trained me in his Edinburgh 
laboratory in the use of his hydrometer. During the past twenty years I have 
been in constant touch with him regarding problems relating to the physics of the 
ocean. As a consequence, before my departure for a voyage to, and wintering in, 
Franz Josef Land during 1896-97, I was well trained in the use of his hydrometer, 
and obtained during that expedition observations of considerable interest. I also 
carried out all the hydrometer work on board the Prince of Monaco's yacht Princess 
Alice during his Arctic voyage of 1898, under the direction of Mr J. Y. Buchanan, 
who was also on board during that cruise, and also during the Prince of Monaco's 
second Arctic cruise during 1899, when I was solely responsible for that work. 
Consequently, I was thoroughly familiar with hydrometer work when I set sail 
in the Scotia. 

To meet modern criticism, it may be well to state that I was well trained 
in physics and chemistry under Williamson, Crum Brown, and Tait, and that 
up to the time of my departure to Franz Josef Land I was for nearly two years 
on the summit of Ben Nevis. 

On the voyage of the Balxna to Antarctic seas in 1892-93, I only used the usual 
hydrometer supplied by the British Meteorological Office ; but prior to my departure 
I had received special instructions from the late Mr Robert Irvine of Royston and 
Dr H. R. Mill in methods for collecting samples of sea water and taking sea 
temperatures. I had also reduced most of the physical observations of the Scottish 
Fishery Board for a period of ten years. 

Methods and Instruments. By W. S. Bruce, LL.D., and 
Andrew King, F.I.C. 

It was Mr D. W. Wilton who carried out all the hydrometer work in the deck 
laboratory of the Scotia, which was well fitted for the purpose. 

Mr Wilton had been a student of chemistry and physics in the University of 
Edinburgh, and had passed his theoretical and practical examinations — both class and 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 4). 12 



72 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR U. W. WILTON ON THE 

degree examinations — with credit. Subsequently he was an observer at the summit 
and base, Ben Nevis Observatory, and was put in charge of, and was responsible for, the 
initiation of the observatory at an altitude of 2200 feet — a position half way between 
the summit and the base observatories. Before his departure with the Scotia he 
received special instruction in hydrometer work with Mr Buchanan and Mr King 
in Mr Buchanan's laboratory in Edinburgh. On board the Scotia Mr Wilton sub- 
mitted his observations to Mr R. C. Mossman and to Dr Bruce, who checked them 
from time to time by counter observations. These check observations in every case 
compared most favourably with Mr Wilton's. Mr Wilton's observations may there- 
fore be taken as absolutely reliable. 

The collection of the water samples and the recording of temperatures and the 
general conduct of the concurrent work on the scientific bridge was undertaken by 
Dr Bruce, with the assistance of Dr J. H. Harvey Pirie, who handled the Lucas 
sounding machine ; the late Mr Allan Ramsay or Mr Gravill, first and second 
engineers, who handled the special high-speed winch ; * and in turn one of the 
three mates of the Scotia, namely, Mr John Fitchie, Mr Robert Davidson, or 
Mr Robert MacDougall. Captain Thomas Robertson handled the ship during 
the operations, while Dr Bruce was in such a position on the flying platform of 
the forward scientific bridge as to be in sight and hearing of Captain Robertson 
on the nautical bridge, the engineer at the winch, and Dr Pirie at the sounding 
machine, while one of the mates was with him at the flying bridge. During these 
operations Mr Wilton was on the main deck, and the door of the laboratory was 
here just below the scientific bridge. Consequently, as soon as Dr Bruce recorded 
a deep-sea sample on the bridge his reading of the temperature was checked and 
recorded. He then emptied the contents of the deep-sea water-bottle into the 
special bottle which Mr Wilton had in readiness for its reception, and thereafter 
Mr Wilton duly labelled it and put it in the place definitely assigned to it in 
the laboratory. So systematic was this arrangement that when Dr Bruce gave 
the order, or rather expressed the wish, that a deep sounding and physical observa- 
tion should be taken, everybody was in his right place and knew exactly what was 
required of him without any delay or confusion — the crew cheerfully assisting 
and showing increasing interest in the work. The only regret is that a vessel so 
well fitted out for deep-sea research in any part of the world, and a body of chosen 
men who had become such adepts at the work, should not be able to keep together 
permanently for further research. Alas ! the ship had to be sold, and scientists, 
officers, and crew scattered, never again to continue work that they had faithfully 
and ably carried out during almost two years ; and it ought to be mentioned 
for Dr Pirie and the officers and men who assisted on the scientific bridge in all 

* Vide special description, "Scientific Equipment," "Scotia" Reports, vol. i. It is interesting to note that this 
winch has been subsequently used on Sir Douglas Mawson's expedition, and is at present being used on board 
the Aurora by Sir Ernest Shackleton, to which two expeditions Dr Bruce has been glad to lend it. 



TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, AND SALINITIES OF CERTAIN SEAS. 73 

weathers and temperatures down to zero Fahrenheit, and especially for those on the 
flying platform, that the work was not carried out without great discomfort, because 
the rapidly incoming sounding-wire carried with it a continuous spray, which in low 
temperatures congealed as it fell and covered them from head to foot with ice. These 
conditions were intensified owing to the fact that all such work has to be carried out 
on the weather side of the ship. 

In spite of the high speed which the Scotia's scientific winch was able to attain, all 
these operations meant long and arduous deck work, as will be seenbysomeactual records 
here quoted, and more fully dealt with under " Scientific Equipment." * The usual time 
for winding in was 80 to 90 fathoms per minute (although in a speed trial the great speed 
of over 140 fathoms per minute was attained), which for the Scotia's deepest sounding of 
2900 fathoms meant continuous heaving in for thirty-four minutes. This, when added 
to necessary halts for reading the temperatures, collecting the water samples, and taking 
the instrument aboard, would amount to fully an hour's deck work for heaving in alone. 
In addition to this there was fully another hour's work " letting go " and attaching and 
setting the sounder and deep-sea water-bottles. Repeating the operation once or twice 
more for lesser depths, in order to obtain a more complete series, furthermore propor- 
tionately added to the time. 

For this work there was always used a special three-stranded wire on the Lucas 
sounding machine. This wire naturally was not only more reliable than the single wire, 
but was very suitable for holding a temporary seizing which gave instruments a better 
hold and prevented them from slipping down the sounding-wire. The water-bottle 
generally used was the Buchanan-Richard water-bottle, and the thermometer the 
most recent pattern Negretti & Zambra reversing thermometer. The sounder was 
the Buchanan sounder, and immediately above it was fixed a reversing thermometer. 
Only two, or at the most three, Buchanan-Richard bottles were fixed on the wire at the 
same time, and usually at a distance of 500 fathoms apart. This practice risked the 
loss of fewer instruments in the event of the wire carrying away, and also had the 
advantage of giving the use of the same instruments for the next series of observa- 
tions, thus making the observations more directly comparable. For the same reason 
it also was endeavoured, as far as possible, to use the same instruments on every 
occasion. 

Occasionally the Pettersson-Nansen insulated water-bottle was used with the 
direct-reading Richter thermometer. This instrument is a very beautiful one, but 
there are serious objections to its general use, especially in low temperatures. These 
objections are — 

1. Its cost. 

2. The manipulating of several metal levers and fine screws — a serious handicap 
when working with numb fingers. 

* " Scientific Equipment," " Scotia " Reports, vol. i. 



74 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE 

3. The question of its reliability when used during low air temperatures, and the fact 
that the whole instrument may be solidly frozen up immediately it comes out of the 
water (this actually occurred on board the Scotia). 

4. The fine scale of the Richter thermometer, which is difficult to read on the deck 
of a ship in bad weather and poor light. 

5. The fact that it is not possible to use it with reliable results at greater depths 
than 1000 fathoms. 

The Buchanan-Richard water-bottle is more desirable than the Pettersson-Nansen — 

1. Because it is inexpensive. 

2. Because it is easily manipulated. 

3. Because it does not jam by freezing up during cold weather. 

4. Because the Negretti-Zambra reversing thermometer scale is easily read under 
conditions of weather and light when the Richter thermometer cannot be read at all, 
or with difficulty. 

5. Because it can be used at any depth desired. 

It has been contended that the point at which the mercury breaks off in the 
reversing thermometer is not constant. Errors due to this will probably be found 
to be less frequent than those which occur with an instrument with such drawbacks 
as have been mentioned in the case of the Pettersson-Nansen bottle with the Richter 
thermometer. 

From what has been already said, it is unnecessary to emphasise that the hydrometer 
observations taken by Mr Wilton were those of a trained physicist, and such methods* as 
using " towels or wash-leather ' : that " were not generally quite clean," or " the surface 
of the water samples " being " more or less contaminated during the determinations with 
the hydrometer," were not practised on the Scotia. Mr Wilton had all his instruments, 
silk cleaning-cloths, vessels, and fingers, and surroundings generally, scrupulously clean 
before commencing observations. Besides this, he was most careful in maintaining the 
laboratory and the water samples as nearly as possible at the same temperature. In 
this he was in the highest degree successful, even in weather conditions that were on 
many occasions very difficult to deal with. 

The laboratory was fitted with a specialserving-table for this work ; and there was 
also constructed a special swinging platform, which on some occasions, but not as 
a rule, was more convenient than the table. The table proved most useful for this 
and other delicate operations. 

The form of hydrometer used by Mr Wilton in determining the density of the 
sea-water was the Buchanan absolute-weight hydrometer. One of these hydrometers 
(No. 25) was used for Samples 1 to 199, but unfortunately it was broken on 24th 
February 1903. Thereafter hydrometer No. 14 was used. This form of hydrometer 
is fully described in Mr J. Y. Buchanan's elaborate monograph on " Experimental 

° The Norwegian North Polar Expedition, 1893-90, vol. iii, pt. ix, pp. 147, 148, "The Oceanography of the 
North Polar Basin," by Fridtjof Xansen. 



TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, AND SALINITIES OF CERTAIN SEAS. 75 

Researches on the Specific Gravity and the Displacement of some Saline Solutions." # 
It was used by Mr Wilton in the same way as during the Challenger Expedition, i.e. 
with the help of previously determined constants. These constants are (l) the weight- 
in vacuo of the hydrometer in grams ; (2) the volume in c.c. of the body of the 
hydrometer at 0° C. up to the lowest division of the stem ; (3) the rate of expansion 
of the body per degree C. in c.c. ; (4) the volume per mjn. of the divided stem in c.c. 

Of late years Mr Buchanan has introduced vast refinements into the method of 
using the instrument on shore for chemical research, and these are described in the 
monograph referred to above. However, it was not very practicable to apply these 
delicate methods on board the Scotia, so the original method of use was adhered to 
during this Expedition. This form of hydrometer has a volume of about 180 c.c. 
Its divided stem is 100 mm. long and displaces from 0'8 to 1*0 c;c. The maker, 
before sealing it up, loads it to float at the bottom of the stem in distilled water of 
from 30° C. to 40° C. (when it is intended for use in aqueous liquids). Its weight 
in vacuo is once for all determined with the greatest care. A set of weights of such 
form as can easily be placed on the top of the stem is provided. The heavier weights 
used by Mr Wilton were made of brass wire, and the lighter ones of aluminium wire. 
The probable error of each weight was not more than zbO'l mg. With these weights 
the effective weight of the hydrometer can be increased at will, and they are so adjusted 
that the successive addition of each weight can increase the total weight by 0*05 gram. 
The stem is divided into 100 mm., and its displacement is O'l c.c. -per from 10 to 
12 mm. Thus when the hydrometer is floating in distilled water, or in an aqueous 
solution, of not very high specific gravity, the addition of O'l gram to the effective 
weight sinks the stem by from 10 to 12 divisions. 

Hydrometer 25. — This hydrometer was used in* the testing of the density of 
samples 1 to 199. Its weight in vacuo is 186*2944 grams. The volume of the body 
up to the lowest division of the stem at 0° C. is 186*8427 c.c. The rate of expansion 
of the body per degree C. is 0*00567 c.c. The volume per mm. of the stem is 
0*00887 c.c. These constants were determined in Edinburgh before the start of 
the Scotia Expedition. 

Let t' be the temperature in degree C. of the sample of water whose density is to 
be determined. 
R the stem-reading at the place of immersion. 
W the weight in vacuo of the hydrometer in grams, 
w the total weight of the added weights in grams. 

Then ( W + w) is the total effective weight of the hydrometer, and consequently is the 
weight in grams of the sea-water displaced; while (186*8437 + 0"005G7t' + 0*00887R) 
c.c. is the volume of the immersed part of the hydrometer and consequently of the 
displaced sea-water. 

* Trans. Roy. Soc. Edin., vol. xlix, part i, 1912. 



70 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE 

Hence the density of the sample at t' is 

(W + w) 



(186-8437 + 0-00567t' + 0'00887R) 

Thus if this particular hydrometer (No. 25) floats at division 31*8 of the stem with 

an added load of 5'80 grams, and the temperature of the water be 21 *2° C, the density 

at 21°*2 C. is 

186-2944 + 5-80 



186-8427 + 0-00567 x 21-2 + 0-00887 x 31-8 



= 1-02589. 



Hydrometer 14. — This hydrometer was used in the testing of samples 200 to 578. 
Its weight in vacuo is 181*0189 grams. The volume at 0° C. of the body of the 
hydrometer up to the lowest division of the stem is 181*5471 c.c. The rate of 
expansion per degree C. of the body is 0*00624 c.c. The volume per mm. of the stem 
is 0*009046 c.c. 

As in the case of hydrometer 25, these constants were determined in Edinburgh 
before the start of the Expedition. 

Thus in determinations of density made with this instrument, the density of- the 

sample is found by the formula 

W + w 



(181-5471 + 0-00624t' + 0-009046R) ' 



W, w, R, and t' having the meanings assigned above. 

Mr Wilton never took less than four separate readings of the stem by successive 
addition of weights so as to increase the amount of immersion. In most cases, 
however, he took considerably more, generally about eight. From each of these 
readings an independent value for the density could be calculated ; but as this would 
have involved much laborious calculation, he calculated the density from the mean 
effective weight and the mean stem-reading. The temperature of the sample during 
experiment (t') was read before immersing the hydrometer in the liquid and after 
removing it, and the mean of these two readings was taken as the " temperature 
during experiment." This was used in the calculation of the density by 'means of 
the formula given above. The two readings of temperature never differed by more 
than 1 °*0 C, but generally varied by very much less.* It was very exceptional to 
have so large a difference as 1°*0 C, and in those cases the accuracy of the density 
determination may be open to doubt. In the tables the column T' gives the 
temperature of the air at the time when the determination of density was being 
made, and the column t' gives the temperature of the sample of sea-water whose 
density is being determined. The nearer these temperatures are to each other, the 
less alteration in the temperature of the sample during the experiment is to be 
expected. 

* Mr Buchanan would not be satisfied in his chemical work with an experiment in which the temperature of the 
solution during experiment varied by more than - 01° C, but under the circumstances and conditions such a degree 
of accuracy as this could not be expected. 



TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, AND SALINITIES OF CERTAIN SEAS. 77 

The column w gives the actual additional weights, and the mean of these numbers 
(which is also incorporated in this column) gives the mean added weight. On addition 
of this mean number to the weight of the hydrometer in vacuo we obtain the total 
effective weight (W + w). 

Column R gives the readings of the stem of the hydrometer corresponding to each 
successive addition of weight, and the mean of these readings is also incorporated in 
this column and represents the mean portion of stem immersed. 

Column V gives (l) the volume of the body of the hydrometer at 0° C. up to the 
lowest division of the stem, the figures 18 being omitted; (2) the expansion of the 
body of the hydrometer due to. the particular temperature of the sample during 
experiment ; (3) the volume of the mean portion of the stem immersed, (l) is of 
course a constant number, while (2) and (3) have been obtained by the use of the 
formula stated above. 

The sum of (l), (2), and (3) which is given in the column expresses the total 
volume in c.c. of the immersed portion of hydrometer, and consequently of the 
displaced sea-water. 

Column 4 S t '. The numbers in this column represent the density of the sample 
at the temperature of experiment (t'), and are obtained by dividing the total effective 
weight of the hydrometer by the sum of the numbers in column V, which expresses 
the volume of the immersed part of the hydrometer. 

Column 4S1556 gives the density of the sample at 15°'56 C. The numbers in 
this column are calculated from those in column St- by the use of the tables con- 
tained in Dittmar's " Report on Researches into the Composition of Ocean Water," 
p. 70. # 

Column 4 S t gives the density of the sample at (t), which is the temperature in 0°C. 
of the sea at the time the sample was collected. It thus gives the actual density 
of the water in situ. The numbers in this column are derived from those in column 
' iSi5- 5 (i by means of the tables in Dittmar's Report in the case of those in which 
the value of t is above 0° C. In those cases in which the value is below 0° C. 
recourse was had to Knudsen's Tables published as No. 11 of the "Publications de 
Circonstance " of the Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer. 

N.B. — In the tables numbers which are not actually observed quantities, but which 
have been obtained by calculation, are printed in italics. Thus in columns (t) and (T') 
the temperatures were actually observed in ° F., and their equivalents in ° C. are printed 
in italics. Also the figures in the last three columns are all in italics. 

* Phys. Ghem. " Chal." Exp., pt. i, 1884. 



[Observations. 



78 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY OF SEA- WATER MADE 

ON BOARD THE S.Y. " SCOTIA," 1902-1904. 

By David W. Wilton. 



Hydrometer No. 25. Weight =186-2944 Grams. 







Data Relating to (he Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of t 


he Samplt 
ityi 




Date(E). Position (L). ,„ SSftLi Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Den 




£ 
o 

3J 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Di- 1 . 


c 
o 


Month. 


Day. 








D. 


d. 


Water at 4° ! '. 




Hour. 


Lat. 




T'. 


t'. 

of 


Ob- 
served 

at t'. 




00 
o 


of 1 Irom 

Sea ! whlch 
Long. ft a e t a J the 

P 0S i. t Sample 


T. t. 


to 


Xi 

s 

3 


of of 


of 




3 










tion ™ a , s the | the 






the 


the 






i 






fc 


£ 










t COI- . ■ 

L - | lected. Air - 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


Sv. 


|S U . 






1902. 




o / 


1 1 

F. 


O Jji 




i ° F. 


•c. 












5 


1 


Nov. 24 


12.20 


30 14 N. 


18 13 W. . . Surface 67-7 


70-0 ' 


Bright blue 


67-6 ' 


20-4 


5-70 


17-9 




























21-1 C. 




19-8 C. 




5-75 


23-4 






































5-80 


29-1 


6-8437 




































5-85 


34-4 


■1168 


































20-8 


5-90 


39 2 


■2554 


1-02606 






20-6 


5-80 


28-8 


7-2159 




6 


2 


Nov. 


25 


13.45 


28 14 N. 


19 15 W. 




Surface 


69-2 


71-0 
21-7 C. 


Bright blue 




71-0 21-2 
21-7 C. 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


21-8 

26-8 
31-5 
37-5 


6-8437 
•1202 


































21-2 


5-90 


41-5 


■2820 


1-02589 




21-2 


5-80 


31-8 


7-2459 




7 


3 


Nov. 


26 


12.10 


26 23 N. 


20 20 W. 




Surface 


70-5 


72-0 
22-2 C. 


Bright blue 




72-2 
22-3 C. 


21-8 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


24-0 
27-9 
34-0 


6-8437 


































5-85 


39-0 


■1242 
































22-0 


5-90 


44-5 


■3007 


1-02577 








21-9 


5-80 


33-9 


7-2686 




10 


I 


Nov. 


27 


12.0 


24 21 N. 


21 20 W. 




Surface 


72-3 


730 
22-8 C. 


Bright blue 




73-9 
23 3 0,. 


22-6 

22-8 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


3-0 
15-0 
25-0 
36-0 
46-0 


6-8437 
■1287 
•2217 


9 

1-02564 




22-7 


5-70 


25-0 


7-1941 




13 


5 


Nov. 


28 


13.15 


21 58 N. 


22 26 W. 




Surface 


72-0 


73-9 
23-3 C. 


Bright blue 




75-2 
24-0 C. 


23-4 


5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


5-0 
10'9 
16-5 
20-0 
25-5 
31-5 
36-5 


6-8437 
































5-80 


42-0 


•1338 
































23-8 


5-85 


48-0 


■2324 


1-02529 










23-6 


5-65 


26-2 


7-2099 




17 


6 


Nov. 


29 


12.0 


20 20 N. 


23 21 W. 


•• 


Surface 


73-0 


74-5 
23-6 C. 


Less bright blue, 
S.W. 




76-2 23-8 
24-6 C. 


5-35 
5-45 


5-0 
15-5 






































5-55 


25-2 


6-8437 




































5-65 


360 


•1349 


































23-8 


5-75 


47-0 


■2279 


1-02477 




23-8 


5-55 


25-7 


7-2065 


0-OUH H 








A.ND 


SALINITIES 


OF THE WEDDELL 


SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC 


OCEAN. 


79 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to 


the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




)ate (E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Waterat4°C. = l.) 






Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 




1 


T. 


t. 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 


i. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56 C. 


t. 




























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S t'. 


4°lS°-56. 


4 s t . 










o , 


o / 






°F. 


o p_ 






o p 


°C. 


















30 


12.0 


19 7 N. 


24 14 W. 




Surface 


74-1 


74-7' 
23-7 C. 


Deep blue, S.W. 




78-9' 
26-1 C. 


24-9 
25-2 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


4-0 
15-0 
24-5 
34-5 
45-5 


6-8437 
■1417 
■2190 


1-02452 


1-02704 


1-02491 




25-05 


5-50 


24-7 


7-2044 






1 


7.50 


3 miles N. 
Rock, C. 


E. of Bull 
Verde Is. 


1970 


Surface 


74-0 


75-8 
24-3 C. 


Deep blue, N.E. 




79-9 
26-6 C. 


26-1 
26-2 


5-25 
5-35 
5-55 
5-65 
5-75 


5-5 
16-0 
38-2 
49-5 
60-5 


6-8437 
•1480 
■3007 


1-02409 


1-02694 


1-02464 




26-15 


5-51 


33-9 


7-2924 






1 


9.50 


Crossing 
Bay 


Salamasa 


465 


Surface 


75-5 


76-1 
24-5 C. 


Deep blue, N.E. 




80-0 
26-7 C. 


26-2 
26-3 


5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 


6-0 
11-5 
17-0 
33-2 
38-8 
45-0 
56-0 


6-8437 
■1486 
■2625 


1-02402 


1-02690 


1-02454 




26-25 


5-46 


29-6 


7-2548 


D 




2 


12.0 


15 19 N. 


25 6W. 


2340 


Surface 


75-5 


76-0 
24-4 C. 


Lighter blue than 
yesterday, S.W. 


•• 


79-9 
26-6 C. 


26-2 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 


2-5 
13-8 
24-8 
36-5 






































5-60 


46-5 




































5-70 


57-0 




































5-75 


62-0 


6-8437 


































5-80 


68-0 


•I486 














• 


















26-2 


5-85 


73-5 


•3787 


1-02398 


1-02685 


1-02451 






26-2 


5-57 


42-7 


7-3710 


P 


; 


3 


12.0 


13 7 N. 


25 9 W. 




Surface 


77-3 


78-1 
25-6 C. 


Bright blue 


•■ 


79-0 
26-1 C. 


26-2 


5-20 
5-30 


8-0 
18-8 




































5-50 


41-0 


6-8437 


































5-70 


62-8 


■1486 
































26-2 


5-80 


73-0 


■3610 


1-02370 


1-02656 


1-02388 




26-2 


5-50 


40-7 


7-3533 


D 


E 


4 


12.0 


11 18 N. 


25 23 W. 




Surface 


77-3 


79-1 
26-2 C. 


Bright blue 




79-0 
26-1 C. 


26-0 


5-10 
5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-50 


6-0 
17-0 
22-5 
27-5 
33-2 
50-0 




































5-55 


55-0 




































5-60 


60-0 


6-8437 




































5-65 


65-5 


■1477 


































26-1 


5-70 


710 


■3619 


1-02328 


1-02609 


1-02323 




26-05 


5-42 


40-8 


7-3533 


D 


e 


5 


13.0 


9 28 N. 


25 39 W. 




Surface 


79-0 


80-7 


Bright blue 




79-9 


27-0 


5 05 


3-5 


























27-1 C. 






26-6 C. 


27-0 


5-10 
5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-60 
5-70 


,8-2 
19-5 
25-5 
30-3 
37-0 
42-0 
63-2 
74-8 


6-8437 
•1531 
■2998 


1-02311 


1-02621 


1-02308 


1 




27-0 


5-33 


33-8 


7-2966 


■ 


ROY 


. SOC 


. EDIN., 


VOL. L 


[, PA 


RT I ( 


NO. 


4). 














• 




13 





80 



DR W. S. BRUCE. MB A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of the Sam[ 


1... 


Date (E.) 


Position (L.) i.ESJL. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.] 


Density of s 


a 

o 
'S3 

ta 

"8 

u 

a 

■a 


m 

ft 

S 

i 
■s 

— 
B 
g 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 

to 
Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 

of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density o! 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Water at 1 


of 

Sea 
at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 






T. 

of 
the 


t. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


Reduce 

to 1 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


15°-56C 
















& 


* 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S f. 


4 S 15"S« 








1902. 






O / Of 






o p_ 


o p_ 




°F. 


°C. 








1 




37 


14 


Dec. 





9.5 


7 58 N. 25 27 W. 




Surface 


77-6 


80-7 


Bright blue 


180-1 


26-5 


5-05 


1-2 


























27-1 C. 






26-7 C. 




5-15 


10-8 






































5-30 


27-8 








































5-40 


38-8 








































5-45 


44-0 


6-8437 




































5-60 


59-8 


■1505 


































26-6 


5-70 


71-5 


■3220 


1-02327 




26-55 


5-38 


36-3 


7-3162 


1-02(1: 


38 


15 


Dec. 


6 


12.0 


7 37 N. 


25 27 W. 




Surface 


78-5 


80-9 
27-2 C. 


Bright blue 




80-2 

26-8 C. 


26-9 


5-05 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 


5-0 
26-0 
31-5 
37-0 






































5-50 


53-0 


6-8437 






































5-60 


64-0 


■1528 




































27-0 


5-70 


73-8 


•3681 


1-02306 


1-02M 




26-95 


5: 39 


41-5 


7-3646 




39 


16 


Dec. 


6 


22.0 


6 39 N. 


25 41 W. 




Surface 


76-2 


81-6 
27-6 C. 


• 




83-0 
28-3 C. 


27-6 
27-8 


5-05 
5-15 
5-35 
5-50 
5-70 


0-5 
17-5 

39-5 
56-8 
78-5 


6-8437 
■1571 
■3530 


1-02290 


1-02622 




27-7 


5-35 


39-8 


7-3538 




40 


17 


Dec. 


7 


6.20 


5 59 N. 


25 50 W. 




Surface 


79-8 


80-4 
26-9 C. 


Deep blue 




83-0 

28-3 C. 


27-8 
28-0 


5-00 
510 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 


14-0 
24-5 
35-0 
47-0 
57-0 


6-8437 
■1582 
■3148 


1-02230 


1-0256! 




27-9 


5-20 


35-5 


7-3167 




41 


18 


Dec. 


7 


9.0 


5 44 N. 


25 55 W. 




Surface 


80-7 


811 

27-3 C. 


Bright blue 




83-6 

28-7 C. 


27-9 
28-1 


4-95 
5-00 
5-10 
5-20 
5-25 


6-5 
13-0 
22-8 
33-8 
39-0 


6-8437 
■1588 
■2040 


1-02237 


1-02578 




28-0 


5-10 


23-0 


7-2065 




42 


19 


Dec. 


7 


12.0 


5 27 N. 


26 1 W. 




Surface 


77-0 


81-1 

27-3 C. 


Bright blue 




83-7 
28-7 C. 


28-2 
28-2 


4-95 
5-00 
5-20 
5-25 
5-50 


6-8 
13-5 
34-8 
42-0 
67-5 


6-8437 
■1599 
■2918 


1-02231 


1-02578 




28-2 


5-18 


32-9 


7-2954 




43 


20 


Dec. 


7 


20.0 


4 42 N. 


26 17 W. 




Surface 


78-1 


81-0 
27-2 C. 






81-7 
27-6 C. 


27-2 
27-2 


5-05 
5-15 
5-20 
5-25 
5-50 


2-8 
13-0 
19-0 
30-5 
52-5 


6-8437 
■1542 
■2093 


1-02306 


1-02622 




27-2 


5-23 


23-6 


7-2072 




44 


21 


Dec. 


8 


6.0 


3 46N. 


26 17 W. 




Surface 


79-3 


80-9 


Bright blue 


" 


82-0 


27-4 


5-10 


12-8 




























27-2 C. 








5-20 


23-5 








































5-30 


35-0 


6-8437 






































5-40 


46-0 


■1554 




































27-4 


5-50 


56-5 


■3086 


1-02289 


1-026U\ 




27-4 


5-30 


34-8 


7-3077 


14. 





AND 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC 


OCEAN. 


81 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




ate(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 


















Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 






of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t\ 


Ob- 
served 


Reducec 
to 


Reduced 
to 


\1< 


T. 


t. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






v . . > at t'. 

centims.) 


15°-56C 


t. 






















L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4S 15 ° -56. 


4St. 


, 






o / 


o , 






op 


°F. 






o -p 


°C. 
















8 


9.0 


3 29 N. 


26 23 W. 




Surface 


80-5 


80-7 
27-1 C. 


Bright blue 




82-0 
27-8 C. 


27-4 
27-6 


5-00 
5-10 
5-15 
5-20 
5-50 


2-5 
12-5 
18-0 
24-0 
56-5 


6-8437 
■1559 
■2013 


1-02288 


1-02613 


1-02300 




27-5 


5-19 


22-7 


7-2009 


1 


8 


12.0 


3 12 N. 


26 29 W. 




Surface 


80-4 


80-9 


Bright blue 




82-3 


27-4 


5-00 


1-8 


























27-2 C. 






28-0 C. 


27-6 


5-10 
5-20 
5-25 
5-35 
5-50 


12-0 
23-0 
28-0 
40-0 
55-5 


6-8437 
■1559 
■2368 


1-02290 


1-02615 


1-02299 




27-5 ' 


5-23 


26-7 


7-2364 




8 


19.0 


2 46 N. 


26 40 W. 




Surface 


80-0 


80-3 
26-8 C. 


Bright blue 




82-7 
28-2 C. 


27-4 
27-5 


5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-25 
5-50 


5-0 
10-3 
21-0 
27-5 
55-0 


6-8437 
■1556 
■2111 


1-02299 


1-02623 


1-02318 




27-45 


5-22 


23-8 


7-2104 


* 


9 


6.15 


2 2 N. 


27 17 W. 




Surface 


78-5 


79-7 
26-5 C. 


Bright blue 




81-9 
27-7 C. 


27-3 
27-4 


5-05 
5-15 
5-25 
5-50 
5-60 


3-0 
15-0 
25-5 
53-0 
65-0 


6-8437 
■1551 

■2865 


1-02306 


1-02627 


1-02332 




27-35 


5-31 


32-3 


7-2853 


1 IPI 


9 


12.10 


142 N. 


27 29 W. 




Surface 


79-3 


80-1 
26-7 C. 


Bright blue 




82-0 
27-8 C. 


27-2 
27-2 


5-10 
5-15 
5-35 
5-50 
5-70 


8-0 
13-3 
350 
51-2 
72-0 


6-8437 
•1542 
•3184 


1-02316 


1-02633 


1-02331 




27-2 


5-36 


35-9 


7-3163 




9 


18.28 


1 25 N. 


27 59 W. 




Surface 


79-0 


80-0 
26-7 C. 






81-1 

27-3 C. 


26-8 
26-8 


5-10 
5-20 
5-25 
5-35 
5-40 


7-0 
17-5 
22-0 
33-0 

37-8 


6-8437 
■•1520 
■2084 


1-02324 


1-02629 


1-02327 




26-8 


5-26 


23-5 


7-2041 




10 


12.0 


56 N. 
St Paul's 


29 24 W. 

Rocks 




Surface 


79-5 


79-8 
26-6 C. 


Bright blue 




80-9 
27-2 C. 


27-0 
26-8 


510 

5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-50 


5-8 
17-7 
230 
28-0 
49-0 


6-8437 
■1525 
■2191 


1-02323 


1-02631 


1-02332 




26-9 


5-27 


24-7 


7-2153 


Dei 


11 


12.0 


18S. 


30 37 W. 




Surface 


78-6 


78-9 
26-1 C. 


Bright blue 




80-8 
27-1 C. 


27-0 
27-0 


5-20 
5-30 
5-35 
5-50 
5-60 
5-25 
5-40 
5-45 
5-55 


11-2 
22-0 
26-5 
44-5 
55-5 
16-0 
320 
37-0 
49-0 


6-8437 
■1531 
■2891 


1-02354 


1 
1-02665 


1-02382 




27-0 


5-40 


32-6 


7-2859 



82 



DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 

















































Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


Df the Density of the Samp' 


e. 


Date(i:.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density cf 
(Density oi i 
Water at 4" 1 


a 

o 
tr. 

D 


"5. 

5 

-. 






at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduce' 

to i 


T. 


t. 


U 

c 

i 


— 

3 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C, 


— J 












£ 


fc 










L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S t\ 


i S w-». 


i J i 




1902. 




o / 


o / 






°F. 


o -p 






o p_ 


° C. 














57 30 


Dec. 12 


12.0 


1 59 S. 


32 9 W. 




Surface 78-7 


79-1 ' 


Bright blue 




80-7 


26-9 


5-15 


5-0 




























26-2 C. 






27-1 C. 




5-20 
5-25 
5-30 


10-0 
16-0 
20-8 


6-8437 
■1525 




































26-9 


5-35 


26-0 


■1383 


1-02357 


1-02665 


.'"':. 1 


26-9 


5-25 


15-6 


7-1345 


61 


31 


Dec. 


13 


12.0 


3 39S. 


33 21 W. 




Surface 


78-9 


79-0 
26-1 C. 


Bright blue 




81-6 
27-6 C. 


26-3 
26-4 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


4-0 

9-8 

15-2 

20-5 

26-5 


6-8437 
■1494 
■1348 


1-02387 


• 
1-02678 


Ml 


26-35 


5-30 


15-2 


7-1279 


61 


31 


Dec. 


13 


12.0 


3 39S. 


33 21 W. 




Surface 


78-9 


79-0 
26-1 C. 


Bright blue 




81-6 
27-6 C. 


26-5 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 


6-0 
110 
16-5 

22-2 


6-8437 
■1503 






61 


31 


Dec. 


13 


12.0 


3 39S. 


33 21 W. 




Surface 


78-9 


79-0 


Bright blue 


W. S. B. 




26-5 


5-40 


27-0 


■1463 


1-02380 


1-02676 


H 


26-5 
27-0 


5-30 
5-30 


16-5 
18-5 


7-1403 




81-6 






















26-1 C. 






27-6 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


22-5 
28-7 
34-0 
39-8 
45-0 
51-0 


6-8437 






































5-65 


56-2 


■1534 


































27-1 


5-70 


62-0 


■3521 


1-02373 


1-02686 


27-05 


5-50 


39-7 


7-3492 


61 


31 


Dec. 


13 


12.0 


3 39S. 


33 21 W. 




Surface 


78-9 


79-0 
26-1 C. 


Bright blue 




81-6 
27-6 C. 


26-8 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 


19-0 
24-5 
29-5 
34-5 
41-0 
46-0 
51-0 
56-5 


6-8437 
■1525 






























W. S. B. 




27-0 


5-70 


62-5 


■3592 


1-02369 


1-02678 


Ml . 


26-9 


5-50 


40-5 


7-3554 


61 31 Dec. 


13 


12.0 


3 39 S. 


33 21 W. 




Surface 


78-9 


79'0 


Bright blue 




81-6 


27-2 


5-30 


18-5 
























26-1 C. 






27-6 C. 




5-35 


22-5 












1 


















5-40 


28-0 










This sample was tested for clucking purposes five times on 17th Dec. 










5-45 


35-5 










1902, each observation being perfectly independent of the other. 










5-50 


40-5 










Two observations each were made by W. S. B. and myself and one 










5-55 


47-5 










by R. C. M. The conditions during the last three observations were 










5-60 


51-0 


6-8437 








more favourable than during the first two, chiefly on account of the 










5-65 


56-5 


■1542 








motion of the ship being gentler. — D. W. 


VV. 




R. C. M. 




27-2 


5-70 


62-0 


■3566 


1-02370 


1-02688 


M 
















27-2 


5-50 


40-2 


7-3545 


Tl 


ie following f 


mr samDles 1 


ested at Fort Stanley 


on the 10th Jan. 1903 : — 


No. 31 . . . 




55-2 
55-6 
56-1 
56-0 


11-95 
12-45 
12-4 
12-45 


6-10 
6-10 
6-10 
5-80 


37-0 
48-7 
47-1 
15-1 


7-2397 
7-3462 
7-3318 
7-0482 


1-02753 
1-02695 


1-02678 
102630; 
















No. 49 . . . 




No. 50 . . . 




1-02702 1-02636 
102698,102633 


No. 51 . . . 

































AND SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH 


AND 


SOUTH 


ATLANTIC 


OCEAN. 


83 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




ite(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims. 


Density of Sample. 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 


Md 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 

from 
which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


of 
Sea 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reducec 
to 


Reduced 
to 


T. 


t. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample 


w. 


R. 


V. 


•i^t'. 


4 S 15»-56. 


4 S t . 


i 






o / 


o / 






o p_ 


o p, 






o p 


°C. 














1 


14 


12.0 


5 48S. 


34 22 W. 




Surface 


75-6 


78-9 
26-1 C 


Bright blue 


Noon 
16/12/02 


82-7 
25-2 C. 


27-0 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 


10-0 
16-0 
21-0 

27-5 


6-8437 
■1537 
































27-2 


5-40 


32-8 


■1907 


1-02354 


1-02668 


1-02385 


27-1 


5-30 


21-5 


7-1881 


a 


14 


18.35 


6 23S. 


34 29 W. 




Surface 


78-8 


79-1 
26-2 0, 


•• 


13.40 

16/12/02 


82-7 
28-2 C. 


27-3 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 


9-8 
15-2 
20-5 
26-8 


6-8437 
■1554 
































27-5 


5-40 


32-5 


•1862 


1-02356 


1-02680 


1-02393 


27-4 


5-30 


210 


7-1853 


m 


14 


22.10 


6 43S. 


34 33 W. 




Surface 


79-0 


80-9 
27-2 C 


Remarkably 
lighter 


14.12 
16/12/02 


82-9 
28-3 C. 


27-3 

27-7 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


4-8 
100 
15-8 
21-5 
27-5 


6-8437 
■1559 
■1410 


1-02380 


1-02707 


1-02389 


27-5 


5-30 


15-9 


7-1406 


De 


15 


12.0 


7 19S. 


34 33 W. 




Surface 


79-3 


79-9 
26-6 C 


Light blue, 
slightly greenish 


14.50 

16/12/02 


83-3 

28-5 C. 


27-4 

27-6 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


8-0 
14-0 
19-7 
25-0 
30-5 


6-8437 
■1559 
■1721 


1-02363 


1-02690 


1-02390 


27-5 


5-30 


19-4 


7-1717 


1 


16 


12.0 


9 6S. 


34 45 W. 




Surface 


79-0 


79-9 
26-6 C 


Bright blue 


15.13 

16/12/02 


83-5 

28-6 C. 


27-3 

27-5 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


6-5 
11-8 
17-3 
23-0 

28-5 


6-8437 
■1554 
■1543 


1-02373 


1-02697 


1-02397 


27-4 


5-30 


17-4 


7-1534 


Dec 


17 


12.0 


•• 






Surface 


79-0 


79-1 
26-2 C. 


Bright blue 




81-0 
27-2 C. 


26-8 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


6-8 
12-5 
17-5 


6-8437 


















9 














27-0 


5-45 
5-50 


23-2 
29-0 


■1525 
■1579 


1-02426 


1-02736 


1-02448 


26-9 


5-40 


17-8 


7-1541 


Dec. 


17 


12.0 








Surface 79-0 


79-1 






81-0 


26-9 


5-30 


6-0 


























26-2 C. 




W. S. B. 


27-2 C. 


27-0 


5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


11-2 
17-0 
22-0 
27-5 


6-8437 
■1528 
■1481 


1-02431 


1-02742 


1-02455 






26-95 


5-40 


16-7 


7-1446 


Dec 


17 


12.0 








Surface 79-0 


79-1 






81-0 


27-0 


5-30 


6-5 


















1 26-2 C. 






27-2 C. 




5-35 


10-5 










lni/le 


is tested by W. S. B., R. C. M., and myself for checking 










5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


160 
21-0 
26-5 


6-8437 
■1531 
■1428 








pur 


t;s on 


the aft 


jrnoon of t 


he same da 


y as it was tai 

| 


en. 




R. C. M. 




27-0 


1-02434 


1-02747 


1-02459 












27-0 


5-40 


16-1 


7-1396 



84 



DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



15 



78 



80 



82 



M 



87 



89 



38 



39 



lo 



11 



1L> 



i:j 



11 



Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 



Date(E.) 



Month. Day. Hour, 



1902. 
Dec. 



Dec. 



Dec. 



Dec. 



Dec. 



Dec. 



L8 



19 



20 



21 



22 



23 



Dec. 24 



12.0 



12.0 



12.0 



12.0 



12.0 



12.0 



12.0 



Position (L.) 



Lat. 



13 24 S. 



15 24 S. 



18 11 S. 



20 40 S. 



22 41 S. 



24 44S. 



■2n :',r, <. 



Long. 



Depth 
in Fathoms. 



D. 



of 
Sea 



from 

which 

the 

Posi-, Sam P le 

tionl " a . s 

T I COl- 

u lected. 



3G 37 W 



37 12 W 



37 52 W. 



38 20 W. 



39 15 W. 



40 28 W, 



42 1 W. 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 



of 

the 
Air. 



° F. 
79-0 



80-0 



81-1 



79-0 



79- 



79-4 



78-9 



of 

the 

Water. 



° F. 
79-9 
26-6 C 



80-4 
26-9 C. 



79-2 
26-2 C, 



78-9 
26-1 C, 



78-7 
25-9 C. 



79-1 
26-2 C. 



77-G 
25-3 C. 



Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



Bright blue 



Bright blue 



Slightly lighter 
than yesterday 



Bright blue 



Bright blue 



Bright blue, 
though darker 
than yester- 
day 



Bright blue 



Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample 



Time 
and 
Date. 



Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 



16.35 



10.0 

20/12/02 



12.10 



13.40 

22/12/02 



14.20 



14.45 



15.15 

20/12/02 



T'. 



of 
the 
Air. 



° F. 
80-8 
27-7 C. 



83-3 
28-5 0. 



t'. 



of 
the 

Sample, 



Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 



84-8 
29-3 C, 



83-2 
28-5 C. 



83-8 
28-8 C, 



81-9 
27-7 C. 



82-2 
27-9 C. 



°C. 
26-9 



27-0 



26-95 

27-5 



27-9 



27-7 
26-7 



27-4 



27-05 
27-5 



27-9 



27-7 
27-4 

27-7 



27-55 
27-2 



27-4 



27-3 
27-4 



27-4 
27-4 



5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 



5-40 

5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 



5-50 

5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
6-65 
5-70 



5-50 

5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 



5-50 

540 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 



5-50 

5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-G0 
5-65 
5-70 



5-50 

5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 

5-50 





Volume 




of im- 


Read- 


mersed 


ing 


Portion 


of 


of 


Hydro- 


Hydro- 


meter. 


meter 




(cub. 




centims.) 



Density of 
(Density of 
Water at 



Ob- 
served 
at t'. 



R. 



V. 



4 St' 



7-0 
12-0 
17-7 
23-5 
290 



17-8 

5-5 
11-8 
17-5 
23-0 
29-7 
35-5 
40-5 
46-0 
52-5 



29-1 

4-5 
10-0 
16-2 
22-0 
27-5 
34-0 
40-0 
45-2 
51-3 



27-9 

9-8 
14-7 
20-2 
25'5 
31-5 
37-7 
43-0 
49 
55-0 



31-8 

20-0 
25-8 
31-5 
37-2 
43-0 



31-5 

9-8 
15-0 
20-2 
20-0 
31-7 
38-0 
43-0 
49-0 
54-8 



31-9 

30-5 
36-2 
41-8 
47-8 
530 

41-9 



6-8437 
■1528 
■1578 



7-1543 



6-8437 
■1570 
■2581 



7-2588 



6-8437 
■1534 
■2474 



7-2445 



6-8437 
■1571 
■2820 



7-2828 



6-8437 
■1562 
■2794 



7-2793 



6-8437 
■1548 
■2829 



7-2814 



6-8437 
•1554 
■3716 

7-3707 



1-02426 



1-02422 



1-02430 



1-02409 



1-02411 



1-02410 



1-02361 1 



Reduce 



15 



to 



4 k -W--K. 









1-02745 I ■■■;, 



1-027 il 



1-02741 



v-x 



I , 








iNE 


I SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




85 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




ite(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 




■ Volume 
i of i in- 
Read- J mersed 
ing j Portion 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 

Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 




Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

•was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Hydro- 
meter. 






Reduced Reduced 
to to 


< .1 


T. 


t. 


Hydro-: Qb _ 

nlet , er 1 served 

( c , ub - J att'. 
centims.) 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
' the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






15°'56C 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. V. 


4 St'. 


4 S 15°-56. 


*s t 






o / ! o / 






F. 1 ° F 






° F. | ° C. 














1 


25 


12.0 


28 27 S. 43 45 W. 




Surface 


77-5 76-8 


Bright blue 


15.40 


82-0 27-6 


5-20 


6-0 
























24-9 C. 




26/12/02 


27-8 C. 


27-7 


5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


120 
17-5 
24-0 
29-8 


6-8437 
■1568 
■1587 


1-02370 


1-02703 


1-02454 








27-65 


5-30 


17-9 ! 7-1592 


l„ 


26 


12.0 


30 25 S. 


45 45 W. 




Surface 


77-3 


76-0 
24-4 C. 


Bright blue 


16.10 


81-7 
27-6 C. 


27-3 
27-4 


530 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


22-0 
27-8 
33-3 
38-5 
44-5 


6-8437 
■1551 
■2945 


1-02350 


1-02672 


1-02439 




27-35 


5-40 


33-2 


7-2933 


w 


: 27 


12.0 


32 12 S. 


47 25 W. 




Surface 


72-7 


74-9 
23-8 C. 


Bright blue 


9.40 
31/12/02 


63-0 
17-2 C. 


16-8 

17-0 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


7-0 
120 
17-5 
24-0 
300 


6-8437 
■0958 
■1605 


1-02562 


1-02593 


1-02379 




16-9 


5-60 


18-1 


7-1000 


De< 


28 


12.0 


33 50 S. 


48 44 W. 




Surface 


71-0 


75-0 
23-9 C. 


Bright blue 
(lighter) 


10.27 
31/12/02 


04-0 
17-8 C. 


16-8 
17-2 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


2-5 

7-5 

12-5 

19-0 

24-8 


6-8437 
■0964 
■1180 


1-02638 


1-02671 


1-02453 




17-0 


5-70 


13-3 


7-0581 


d| 


28 


16.0 


34 2S. 


49 7 W. 




Surface 


72-0 


72-4 


Bright blue 


11.0 


64-7 


17-0 


5-50 


30 


























22-4 C. 


(orange dia- 


31/12/02 


18-2 C. 




5-55 


7-5 


























tom bands) 








5-60 


13-5 


6-8437 


































5-65 


18-5 


■0970 
































17-2 


5-70 


25-0 ' 


■1197 


1-02584 


1-02620 


1-02444 




17-1 


5-60 


13-5 


7-0604 




29 


12.0 


35 28 S. 


50 34 W. 




Surface 


69-5 


70-4 
21-3 C. 


Same as yester- 
day at noon 


11.40 
31/12/02 


64-2 
17-9 C. 


170 


5-55 
5-60 


4-5 
10-5 


































5-65 


16-0 


6-8437 
































5-70 


22-5 


■0975 






























17-4 


5-75 


28-5 


■1455 


1-02596 


1-02634 


1-02489 




17-2 


5-65 


16-4 


7-0867 


Deci 


30 


12.0 


35 23 S. 


49 53 W. 




Surface 


61-2 


68-0 
20-0 C. 


Bright blue 


13.45 
31/12/02 


65-7 
18-7 C. 


17-4 
17-6 


5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


7-5 
12-8 
18-5 
250 
300 


6-8437 
■0992 
■1667 


1-02584 


1-02630 


1-02520 




17-5 


5-65 


18-8 


7-1096 


Dec. 


a 


12.0 

i 


36 39 S. 


52 10 W. 




Surface 


61-0 


69-1 
20-6 C. 


Indigo 


15.15 


65-7 
18-7 C. 


18-8 

18-8 


5-10 
5-15 
5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


9-5 

14-8 
20-0 
25-2 
30-8 
36-0 
410 
46-5 
52-5 


6-8437 
■1066 
■2723 


1-02335 


1-02413 


1-02285 




18-8 


5-30 


30-7 


7-2226 









































86 



DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


3f the Density of the Sample. 


Date(K.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 
at time of 






Temperature 
during 


Weights 


Read- 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of 
(Density of D 


c 
o 

09 
00 

o 


C 

c 
S 
r. 

o 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Water at 4° ( 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 






T. 


t. 


to 1 


t. 
c 

J3 

s 

3 


0J 

.a 
£ 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C 
















fc 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4Sl5'-56,| ,«. 






1903. 






O / 


> 






° F. 


o p_ 






o p 


°C. 












106 


53 


Jan. 


1 


12.0 


39 1 S. 


53 40 W. 




Surface 


65-8 


62-0 
16-7 C. 


Olive green 


14.30 

2/1/03 


73-7 
23-2 C. 


19-8 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 


7-0 
12-5 
18-2 

24-7 


6-8437 
■1137 




































20-3 


5-40 


29-3 


■1623 


1-02391 




20-05 


5-30 


18-3 


7-1197 


1-02501 m 


109a 


54 


Jan. 


2 


12.0 


41 38 S. 


54 40 W. 




Surface 


G2-8 


64-3 
17-9 C. 


Slaty blue 


15.0 

2/1/03 


74-5 
23-6 C. 


20-0 
20-4 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


4-0 
100 
16-0 
21-5 
27-3 


6-8437 
■1145 
■1401 


1-02403 




20-2 


5-30 


15-8 


7-0983 


1-02517 




109b 55 


Jan. 


2 


14.15 








Surface 


60-8 


58-3 


Olive green 


15.30 


74-8 


18-2 


5-30 


9-7 






























14-6 C. 






23-8 C. 


18-4 


5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


15-5 
21-2 
27-2 
33-0 


6-8437 
■1038 
■1889 


1-02436 


1-O2500 




18-3 


5-40 


21-3 


7-1364 


! 


109c 


56 


Jan. 


2 


15-0 








Surface 


59-6 


55-0 
12-8 C. 


Olive green 


16.0 


74-2 
23-4 C. 


17-8 
18-0? 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


5-6 
11-7 
17-0 
230 

28-8 


6-8437 
■1015 
■1525 


1-02457 


1-02511 


i ■: 


17-9 


5-40 


17-2 


7-0977 


109d 


57 


Jan. 


2 


16.0 


•• 


•• 




Surface 


57-7 


54-9 
12-7 C. 


Olive green 


5.45 
3/1/03 


60-1 
15-6 C. 


160 


5-35 

5-40 
5-45 


3-0 

7-5 
13-0 


6-8437 




































15-8 


5-50 
5-55 


18-2 
23-7 


■0902 
■1162 


1-02510 


i-omt 


W 


15-9 


5-45 


13-1 


7-0501 


109e 


58 


Jan. 


2 


17.0 








Surface 


58-0 


55-2 
12-9 C. 


Light slaty 
blue 


6.24 
3/1/03 


64-2 
17-9 C. 


15-8 
15-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


9-0 
13-8 
18-8 
24-8 
30-0 


6-8437 
■0887 
■1712 


1-02507 


1-02509 


m 


15-65 


5-50 


19-3 


7-1036 


lWi 


59 


Jan. 


2 


18.0 








Surface 


57-4 


56-2 
13-4 C. 


Olive green 


7.5 
3/1/03 


58-7 
14-8 C. 


15-7 
16-1 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


9-8 
15-0 
20-2 
25-5 
31-5 


6-8437 
■0902 
■1810 


1-02501 


1-O2509 


;•:. 


15-9 


5-50 


20-4 


7-1149 


109a 


60 


Jan. 


2 


19.0 








Surface 


57-5 


57-7 
14-3 C. 


More intense 
green 


13.30 
3/1/03 


62-1 

16-7 C. 


16-4 
16-4 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


12-8 
19-0 
24-0 
30-0 
35-0 


6-8437 
■0930 
■2147 


1-02481 


1-02500 


!- 


16-4 


5-50 


24-2 


7-1514 


109h 


61 


Jan. 


2 


20.0 








Surface 


58-0 


56-9 
13-8 C. 


Same as last 
hour 


14.15 
3/1/03 


61-5 
16-4 C. 


16-4 
16-4 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


2-5 

7-5 

12-5 

180 

23-7 


6-8437 
■0930 
•1135 


1-02483 


1-02501 




16-4 


5-40 


12-8 


7-0502 


i".' 





AND SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




87 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of the Sample. 




ate(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 


Mo 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 


T. 


t. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


W. 


R. 


V. 


4 S t'. 


4S 16 °. 56 . 


4 St. 








o / 


o / 






o p 


o p_ 






° F. 


°C. 
















2 


20.5 








Surface 


58-6 


55-9 
13-3 C. 


Same as last 


15.0 
3/1/03 


60-8 
160 C. 


16-4 
16-1 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


12-0 
17-5 
23-0 
28-5 
33-5 


6-8437 
■0921 
•2031 


1-02488 


1-02504 


1-02552 


16-25 


5-50 


22-9 


7-1389 


I 


3 


12.0 








Surface 


57-2 


551 
12-8 C. 


Slaty blue 


a.m. 
10/1/03 


52-4 
11-3 C. 


11-6 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


4-7 
10-0 
15-2 


6-8437 


































5-65 


20-9 


■0658 






























11-6 


5-70 


26-2 


■1366 


1-02592 


1-02511 


1-02569 


11-6 


5-60 


15-4 


7-0461 


■ '•; 


4 


8.0 








Surface 


53-6 


48-9 
9-4 C. 


Greenish blue 


a.m. 
10/1/03 


53-6 

12-0 C. 


11-8 
11-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


5-9 
11-2 
16-7 
22-1 

27-7 


6-8437 
■0669 
■1481 


1-02585 


1-02507 


1-02627 


11-8 


5-60 


16-7 


7-0587 


Ja 


4 


12.0 








Surface 


530 


49-2 
9-6 C. 


Very dark green 


a.m. 
10/1/03 


52-9 
11-6 C. 


11-6 

11-8 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


16-2 
21-9 
27-2 
32-8 
38-1 


6-8437 
■0663 
■2413 


1-02588 


1-02509 


1-02625 


11-7 


5-70 


27-2 


7-1513 


H a 


5 


12.0 








Surface 


49-7 


48-3 
9-1 C. 


Turquoise 


a.m. 
10/1/03 


53-9 

12-2 C. 


11-6 
11-6 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


17-5 

22-9 
28-3 
33-6 
39-0 


6-8437 
■0658 
•2510 


1-02583 


1-02502 


1-02626 




11-6 


5-70 


28-3 


7-1605 


in 


1 6 


9.0 


FortS 


tanley 




Surface 


59-2 


530 
11-7 C. 


Very rich green 


a.m. 
10/1/03 


54-2 
11-3 C. 


11-4 
11-5 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


8-3 
13-7 
190 
24-3 
300 


6-8437 
•0649 
•1694 


1-02575 


1-02492 


1-02570 




11-45 


5-60 


191 


7-0780 


.LI 


27 


12.0 


52 55 S. 


55 W. 




Surface 


46-5 


44-6 
7-0 C. 


Light greenish 
blue 


a.m. 
31/1/03 


42-5 
5-8 C. 


5-7 
6-1 


5-70 
5-75 
5'80 
5-85 
5-90 


11-5 

17-0 
22-5 
28-7 
34-5 


6-8437 
■0335 
■2022 


1-02681 


1-02511 


1-02667 




5-9 


5-80 


22-8 


7-0794 


.a 


. 27 


20.0 


53 28 S. 


53 55 W. 




Surface 


45-7 


43-8 
6-6 C. 




a.m. 
31/1/03 


44-2 
6-8 C. 


6-2 
6-4 


5-60 
5-65 
• 5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


1-2 

6-5 

12-0 

17-8 

23-0 


6-8437 
■0357 
•1073 


1-02678 


1-02514 


1-02674 


6-3 


5-70 


121 


6-9867 


.I,;ii 


. 28 


8.0 


54 22 S. 


52 20 W. 




Surface 


45-0 


43-4 
6-3 C. 


Greenish blue 


10.40 
31/1/03 


44-7 

WC, 


6-3 
6-7 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


2-2 

8-0 

13-5 

18-5 

24-8 


6-8437 
■0369 
■1188 


1-02671 


1-02509 


1-02673 




6-5 


5-70 


13-4 


6-9994 


IANS 


l.RO^ 


. soc 


. EDIN., 


VOL. L 


[, PA 


.ET I ( 


NO. 


4). 


















14 





88 



DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 











Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of 
(Density of I 
Water at 4° « 


a 
o 

a 

i. 

u 

- 


£ 

/. 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Bead- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 
Mas 
col- 
lected. 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


Redixv 
to 


T. 


t. 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


15°.5GC 


■ 












£ 


& 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4S t , 


4 ° 15'M. 








1903. 






/ 


o / 






°F. 


o p_ 






°F. 


°C. 














127 


71 


Jan. 


28 


12.0 


54 35 S. 


51 50 W. 




Surface 


44-9 


43-1 
6-2 C. 


Bluey green 


11.20 
31/1/03 


44-9 
7-2 C. 


6-4 

6-6 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


2-5 

8-0 

13-5 

19-0 

24-5 


6-8437 
■0369 
■1197 


1-02671 


1-02509 




6-5 


5-70 


13-5 


7-0003 




128 


72 


Jan. 


28 


16.0 


51 55 S. 


51 27 W. 




Surface 


43-2 


40-6 
4-8 C. 


Light greeny 
blue 


11.40 
31/1/03 


45-2 
7-3 C. 


6-4 

6-8 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


7-3 
12-8 
18-3 
24-0 
29-7 


6-8437 
■0374 
■1632 


1-02646 


1-02486 


;■". 


6-6 


5-70 


18-4 


7-0443 


129 


73 


Jan. 


28 


20.0 


55 12 S. 


51 2 W. 




Surface 


42-1 


40-6 
4-8 C. 




15.50 
31/1/03 


44-4 
6-9 C. 


6-2 
6-6 


5-60 
5'65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


50 
10-5 
16-5 
22-0 
27-5 


6-8437 
■0363 
•1446 


1-02657 


1-02494 




6-4 


5-70 


16-3 


7-0246 


134 


74 


Jan. 


30 


12.0 


56 28 S. 


47 52 W. 




Surface 


38-7 


35-9 
2-2 C. 


Light greeny 
blue 


14.0 

1/2/03 


43-0 
6-1 C. 


4-8 
5-2 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


6-7 
11-7 
17-5 

22-8 
28-5 


6-8437 
■0284 
■1543 


1-02656 


1-02476 




5-0 


5-70 


17-4 


7-0264 


135 


75 


Jan. 


30 


19.45 


57 2S. 


47 15 W. 




Surface 


37-2 


35-0 
1-7 C. 




14.40 

1/2/03 


43-7 
6-5 C. 


5-0 
5-4 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


7-3 
12-5 
18-2 
24-5 
29-5 


6-8437 
■0295 
■1632 


1-02651 


1-Qffli 




5-2 


5-70 


18-4 


7-0364 


136 


76 


Jan. 


30 


24.0 


57 22 S. 


46 53 W. 




Surface 


37-0 


35-1 

1-7 C. 




14.45 

1/2/03 


44-0 
6-7 C. 


5-0 
5-4 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


7-0 
13-0 
18-5 
24-0 

29-8 


6-8437 
■0295 
•1641 


1-02651 


1-024H 




5-2 


5-70 


18-5 


7-0373 


137 


77 


Jan. 


31 


4.0 


57 42 S. 


46 33 W. 




Surface 


36-5 


35-0 
1-7 C. 




15.10 

1/2/03 


44-6 
7-0 C. 


5-3 

5-8 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


7-7 
12-8 
18-2 
24-7 
30-0 


6-8437 
■0315 
■1659 


1-02648 


1-01416 




5-55 


5-70 


18-7 


7-0411 


138 


78 


Jan. 


31 


8.0 


57 57 S. 


40 5 W. 




Surface 


36-7 


35-3 
1-8 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


15.40 

1/2/03 


44-8 
7-1 C. 


5-6 
0-0 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


8-5 
14-7 
20-0 
25-0 
30-9 


6-8437 
■0329 
■1756 


1-02642 


1-02473 




5-8 


5-70 


19-8 


7-0522 


139 


79 


Jan. 


31 


12.0 


58 14 S. 


45 50 W. 




Surface 


37-0 


35-4 
1-9 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


16.15 

1/2/03 


44-0 
6-7 C. 


5-7 
5-9 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


8-7 
14-5 
20-0 
25-5 
310 


6-8437 
■0329 
■1765 


102642 


1 02471 i 




5-8 


5-70 


19-9 


7-0531 













































AND SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




89 


! 


Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




ate(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 


(Density of Distilled 
Waterat4°C. = l.) 


■ ' 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


of 

Sea 


from 

which 

the 


r. 


t'. 


Ot ui 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 


T. 


t. 


Hydro- 
meter. 


nyuro- 
meter 
(cub. 


at 


















at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 












Posi- 
tion 


Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


of 
the 


of 

the 






of 
the 


of 
the 




centims.) 






























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


i^f. 


4 S 15--56. 


4 St. 


: 




o / 


o , 






o p_ 


°F. 






o p 


°C. 
















31 


16.0 






Surface 


36-5 


35-9 
2-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


16.40 
1/2/03 


44-3 
6-8 C. 


6-0 


5-60 
5-65 


9-9 
15-0 




































5-70 


20-5 


6-8437 


































5-75 


26-3 


■0346 
































6-2 


5-80 


31-5 


■1827 


1-02637 


1-02471 


1-02677 


61 


5-70 


20-6 


7-0610 




31 


20.0 








Surface 


37-1 


35-4 
1-9 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


17.43 

1/2/03 


43-8 
6-6 C. 


5-9 
61 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


10-0 
15-2 
20-8 
26-5 
31-5 


6-8437 
■0340 
■1845 


1-02637 


1-02470 


1-02679 


6-0 


5-70 


20-8 


7-0622 




31 


24.0 








Surface 


33-1 


35-8 
21 C. 




18.0 

1/2/03 


44-2 
6-8 C. 


5-8 
6-3 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


8-0 
14-0 
19-5 
25-0 
30-3 


6-8437 
■0343 
•1721 


1-02643 


1-02477 


1-02684 


6-05 


5-70 


19-4 


7-0501 


F( 


1 


4.0 








Surface 


30-3 


34-6 
1-4 C. 




9.47 

2/2/03 


43-7 
6-5 C. 


4-7 
5-0 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5'80 


7-7 
130 
18-0 
23-7 
29-5 


6-8437 
■0275 
■1632 


1-02652 


1-02471 


1-02683 


4-85 


5-70 


18-4 


7-0344 


a 


1 


8.0 








Surface 


300 


33-1 


Reeve's French 


10.11 


44-4 


5-2 


5-50 


7-2 


























0-6 C. 


blue 


2/2/03 


6-9 C. 




5-55 


12-7 


































5-60 


18-0 


6-8437 


































5-65 


23-7 


■0303 
































5-5 


5-70 


29-3 


■1614 


1-02598 


1-02424 


1-02639 


5-35 


5-60 


18-2 


7-0354 


Feb 


1 


12.0 








Surface 


31-0 


34-0 
1-1 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.40 

2/2/03 


45-1 

7-3 C. 


5-3 

5-7 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


4-3 
10-0 
15-0 
210 
26-7 


6-8437 
■0312 
•1366 


1-02611 


1-02438 


1-02651 


5-5 


5-60 


15-4 


7-0115 


Feb 


1 


16.0 








Surface 


30-7 


33-3 
0-7 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.10 

2/2/03 


45-2 
7-3 C. 


5-3 
5-6 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


7-3 
12-7 
18-0 
23-5 
29-0 


6-8437 
■0309 
■1605 


1-02652 


1-02481 


1-02698 


5-45 


5-70 


18-1 


7-0351 


1 et 


1 

1 


20.0 








Surface 


30-0 


32-6 
0-3 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


13.11 

2/2/03 


44-8 
7-1 C. 


5-8 
6-0 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


8-2 
13-9 
19-5 
25-0 
30-3 


6-8437 
■0335 
•1721 


1-02590 


1-02423 


1-02640 


5-9 


5-60 


19-4 


7-0493 




1 * 


24.0 








Surface 


30-5 


33-2 
0-7 C. 




13.31 

2/2/03 


44-7 
7-1 C. 


61 
6-1 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


12-0 
17-6 
230 

28-3 
33-7 


6-8437 
■0346 
•2031 


1-02573 


1-02407 


1-02627 


6-1 


5-60 


22-9 


7-0814 









































90 



DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of the Saraj 


la, 

uiml 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims. 


Density of S 


a 
o 

d 

m 

o 

- 

B 

3 


— 
B 
a 

a 

J3 

& 

3 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density oi 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Water at 1 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
vi hich 

the 
Sample 

Has 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


Reduce 

to 
15°-56C 




T. 


t. 




of 
the 


of 
the 


of 

the 


of 
the 














fc 


55 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 Sf. 


4 S 15'M 






1903. 




o / 


o / 






o p 


° F. 




°F. 


°C. 














150 


89 


Feb. 


2 


8.0 






Surface 


33-8' 


30-8 


Reeve's French 


13.45 


44-7 


5-1 


5-50 


15-0 






























-0-7 C 


blue 




7-1 C 


5-3 


5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


20-2 
25-5 
30-9 
36-5 


6-8437 
■0295 
■2270 


1-02562 


1-0238) 




5-2 


5-60 


25-6 


7-1002 




151 


90 


Feb. 


2 


12.0 








Surface 


32-4 


29-6 
-1-3 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


14.0 


44-5 
6-9 C. 


30 
3-5 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


13-8 
19-8 
25-2 
30-6 
36-1 


6-8437 
■0184 
■2226 


1-02571 


1-0237S 




3-25 


■5-60 


25-1 


7-0847 




152 


91 


Feb. 


2 


16.0 








Surface 


32-3 


33-0 
0-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.25 
3/2/03 


40-9 
4-9 C. 


4-1 

4-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


8-2 
13-6 
19-0 
24-8 
30-0 


6-8437 
■0235 
•1694 


1-02597 


1-02411 




4-15 


5-60 


19-1 


7-0366 


:>:• 


153 


92 


Feb. 


2 


20.0 








Surface 


31-0 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Amongst ice 
Reeve's French 
blue 


10.15 
3/2/03 


40-8 
4-9 C. 


4-2 
4-5 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


101 

15-7 
21-4 
26-8 
32-5 


6-8437 
■0247 
■1889 


1-02639 


1-02452 




4-35 


5- 70 


21-3 


7-0573 


!.,;.. 


154 


93 


Feb. 


3 


12.0 








Surface 


31-1 


31-1 
-0-5 C. 


Amongst ice 
Reeve's French 
blue 


9.50 

6/2/03 


40-7 
4-8 C. 


4-4 
4-5 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


14-2 
200 
25-6 
31-0 
36-3 


6-8437 
■0252 
■2252 


1-02566 


1-02383 




4-45 


5-60 


25-4 


7-0941 


;.,• 


155 


94 


Feb. 


3 


16.0 


• 






Surface 


29-2 


32-6 
0-3 C. 


Steaming along 
edge of pack 
amongst small 
bits of ice 

Reeve's French 
blue 


10.16 

6/2/03 


41-2 
5-1 C. 


4-7 
4-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


11-0 

16-6 
22-0 
27-5 
33-0 


6-8437 
■0272 
■1951 


































4-8 


5-60 


22-0 


7-0660 


1-02581 


1-02401 


14 


156 


95 


Feb. 


3 


20.0 








Surface 


27-4 


29-0 
-MC. 


Amongst ice 
Reeve's French 
blue 


10.48 
6/2/03 


42-0 
5-6 C. 


4-8 
50 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


8-7 
14-3 
19-9 
25-1 
30-8 


6-8437 
■0278 
■1756 


1-02645 


102464 


K- 


4-9 


5-70 


19-8 


7-0471 


157 


96 


Feb. 


1 


8.0 








Surface 


27-0 


29'9 


Amongst ice 
Reeve s French 


11.0 


42-6 


4-8 


5-60 


5-0 






























-1-2 C. 


6/2/03 


■5-9 C. 




5-65 


11-0 
































blue 






5-1 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


16-2 
21-8 
27-2 


6-8437 
■0280 
■1437 


1-02662 


1-02481 




4-95 


6-70 


16-2 


7-0154 
























11.39 


42-8 


4-9 


5-60 


10-0 










158 


87 


Feb. 


4 


16.0 








Surface 28-7 


30-2 


Amongst ice 
Reeve s French 


6/2/03 


6-0 C. 




5-65 


16-0 






























-1-0 C. 








5-70 


21-7 


6-8437 






























blue 






50 


5'75 
5-80 


27-0 
32-7 


■0280 
■1907 


1-02637 


1-02451 




4-95 


5-70 


21-5 


7-0624 






ND SALINITIES OF THE WEDDELL SEA AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 



91 



Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 



te(E.) 



Hour. 



Position (L.) 



Lat. 



Long. 



Depth 

in Fathoms. 



D. 



of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 



d. 

from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 



Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 



T. 



of 

the 
Air. 



of 

the 

Water. 



Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 



Time 
and 
Date. 



Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 



T'. 



of 
the 

Air. 



of 

the 

Sample. 



t'. 



Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 



Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 



R. 



Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 



Density of Sample. 
(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 



Ob- 
served 
at t'. 



4 S t '. 



Reduced 

to 
15°-56C. 



Reduced 
to 
t. 



20.0 



8.0 



12.0 



16.0 



20.0 



24.0 
8.0 



12.0 



16.0 



20.0 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 
Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



° F. 
26-3 



27-4 



27-4 



29-0 



30-3 



28-3 
32-0 



33-0 



33-0 



Surface 



31-8 



°F. 
29-8 
-1-2 C. 



290 
-1-7 C 



29-8 
-1-2 C. 



30-0 
-1-1 C. 



31-2 
-0-4 C. 



31-5 
-0-3 C. 

32-0 
0-0 C. 



33-6 
0-9 C 



31-9 
-0-1 C. 



301 
-11 C. 



Amongst ice 



Amongst ice, in 
open pool 

Reeve's French 
blue 



In open pool, sur- 
rounded by ice 

Reeve's French 
blue 



In large open pool 
Reeve's French 
blue 

eeve's French 
blue 



Reeve's French 
blue? 



Far from the pack 
Reeve's French 
blue 



Far from the pack 
Reeve's French 
blue 



Far from the pack 
Reeve's French 
blue 



11.56 
6/2/03 



12.23 

6/2/03 



13.50 

6/2/03 



15.21 

6/2/03 



16.30 
6/2/03 



13.50 

7/2/03 



14.7 

7/2/03 



14.30 

7/2/03 



°F. 
43'2 
6-2 C 



48-8 
9-3 C. 



49-0 
9-4 C. 



55-2 
12-9 C. 



53-7 
12-10, 



51-0 
10-6 C. 



52-1 
11-2 C. 



53-7 
12-1 C. 



°C. 
4-8 



5-0 



4-9 

4-8 



5-0 



4-9 
6-0 



6-8 



6-4 



6-8 



7-6 



7-2 



7-9 



8-4 



8-15 

7-8 



7-95 
7-6 



8-2 



7-9 
7-6 



8-2 
7-9 



5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 



5-70 

5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5'75 
5-80 



5-70 

5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 



■70 



5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 



5-60 



5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 



5-60 

5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 



5-60 

5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 



5-60 

5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 

■5-60 



9-9 
150 
20-3 
25-5 
30-9 



20-3 

5-0 
10-7 
16-3 
22-0 

27-5 



16-3 

8-7 
14'6 
20-2 
26-0 
31-8 



20-3 



14-0 
20-0 
25-6 
310 
37-0 



25-5 



13-2 
18-8 
24-5 
30-0 
360 



24-5 

100 

15-2 
20-6 
26-0 
31-7 



20-7 

111 

17-0 
22-5 
28-0 
33-4 



22-4 

17-0 
22-5 
28-0 
33-6 
39-5 

28-1 



6-8437 
■0278 
■1800 



7-0515 



6-8437 
■0278 
■1446 



7-0161 



6-8437 
■0363 
■1800 



7-0600 



6-8437 
■0408 
■2262 



7-1107 



6-8437 
■0462 
•2173 



7-1072 



6-8437 
■0451 
■1836 



7-0724 



6-8437 

• -0448 

■1987 



7-0872 



6-8437 
•0448 
■2492 

7-1377 



1-02643 


1-02462 


1-02662 


1-02482 


1-02637 


1-02475 


1-02557 


1-02406 


1-02559 


1-02420 


1-02578 


1-02438 


1-02569 


1-02429 


1-02542 


1-02402 



92 



DR \Y. s. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sampl 




Date(E 


•) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Si 


a 

a 
!•. 
K 

"3 

■— 
c 
— 

e 

3 


c 
E 

CO 
o 

.a 
£ 












at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 

and 

Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Di>t . 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Water at 4' C 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
att'. 


to 
15°-56C. 




T. 


t. 


>; 


at uuc 

Posi.j Sample 
.• was 

L co1 " 
i lected. 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 
















a 












Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


i&V. 


4 S 15*K. 








1903. 






o / 


o / 




o F 


°F. 






a p 


°C. 














109 1 


Feb. 


6 


24.0 








Surface 


31-3 


30-6 




14.45 


54-3 


7-8 


5-50 


15-5 




























-0-8 C. 




7/2/03 


12-4 C. 




5-55 


21-0 






































5-60 


20-8 


6-8437 






































5-65 


32-5 


■0462 




































8-5 


5-70 


38-6 


■2386 


1-02547 




8-15 


5-60 


26-9 


7-1285 


1-024K 




170 


109 


Feb. 


7 


8.0 








Surface 


30-0 


29-8 
-1-2 C. 


Steaming amongst 
loose pieces of 
ice 
Reeve's French 
blue 


15.8 

7/2/03 


54-6 
12-6 C. 


7-4 
7-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


13-8 
19-5 
25-0 
30-6 
36-3 


6-8437 
■0434 
■2217 


1-02558 






7-65 


5-60 


25-0 


7-1088 


1-024U : 


171 


110 


Feb. 


7 


12.0 




• " 




Surface 


30-2 


30-4 
-0-9 C. 


Steaming amongst 
loose pieces of 
ice 
Reeve's French 


15.25 

7/2/03 


54-7 
12-6 C. 


6-5 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 


5-9 
11-0 
16-5 
22-5 


6-8437 
■0386 






























blue 






7-1 


5-70 


27-7 


■1481 


1-02601 




6-8 


5-60 


16-7 


7-0304 


1-02444 J 


172 ill 


Feb. 


7 


16.0 








Surface 


31-4 


29-9 


Steaming amongst 


14.0 


55-2 


9-6 


5-50 


15-2 




























-1-2 C. 


loose pieces of 


8/2/03 


12-9 C. 




5-55 


20-5 






























ice 








5-60 


26-1 


6-8437 






























Reeve's French 








5-65 


32-0 


■0553 






























blue 






9-9 


5-70 


37-7 


■2333 


1-02545 


l-omi 




9-75 


5-60 


26-3 


7-1323 




173 


112 


Feb. 


7 


20.0 








Surface 


32-3 


29-9 
-1-2 C. 




14.14 

8/2/03 


57-2 
14-0 C. 


9-8 
10-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


18-5 
24-0 

29-7 
35-4 
41-2 


6-8437 
■0567 
■2643 


1-02527 


1-02419 




10-0 


5-60 


29-8 


7-1647 




174 


113 


Feb. 


7 


24.0 








Surface 


32-0 


31-7 
-0-2 C. 




14.30 

8/2/03 


57-4 
14-1 C. 


. 9-5 
9-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-00 
5-65 
5-70 


17-6 
23-0 

28-6 
34-1 
39-9 


6-8437 
■0547 
■2537 


1-02534 






9-65 


5-60 


28-6 


7-1521 




175 


114 


Feb. 


8 


4.0 




. , 




Surface 


31-3 


31-1 




14.50 


56-7 


9-6 


5 '50 


18-2 




























-0-5 C. 






13-7 C. 


10-1 


5-55 
5-60 

5-65 
5-70 


23-8 
29-1 
34-9 
40-3 


6-8437 
■0558 
■2599 


1-02530 


1-02420 




9-85 


5-60 


29- 3 


7-1594 


/ 


176 


115 


Feb. 


8 


8.0 








Surface 


28-6 


30-6 
-0-8 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


15.10 


56-5 
13-6 C. 


94 
9-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


20-0 
25-7 
31-2 
37-0 

42-8 


6-8437 
■0547 
■2776 


1-02521 


1-02407 






9-65 


5-60 


31-3 


7-1760 


H 


177 116 


Feb. 


8 


12.0 








Surface 


30-2 


31-0 
-0-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


15.25 


56-6 
13-7 C. 


8-3 


5-50 . 
5-55 


15-7 
21-0 








































5-60 


26-7 


6-8437 






































5-65 


32-1 


■0485 




































8-8 


5-70 


38-0 


■2368 


1-02547 


1-02416 




5-55 


5-00 


20-7 


7-1290 







ND SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH . 


A.ND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN. 


93 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




te(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 






at time of 






during 


Weights 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 


1 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Water at 4°C. = 1.) 




of 

Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reducec 
to 


Reduced 
to 


1 -'■'/■ 


T. 


t. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 

the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C 


t. 


























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


«Sf. 


4^15=55. 


4 St. 


i3. 






O / 


O t 






o Y 


°F. 






F. 


°C. 


• 












, 


8 


16.0 








Surface 


31-5 


30-4 
-0-9 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue (lighter) 


14.16 
9/2/03 


47-7 
8-7 C 


7-4 
7-6 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


16-9 
22-3 
27-9 
33-5 
38-9 


6-8437 
■0425 
■2474 


1-02544 


1-02399 


1-02619 




7-5 


5-60 


27-9 


7-1336 


-... 


8 


20.0 








Surface 


310 


30-0 
-1-1 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


14.35 

9/2/03 


48-4 
9-1 C. 


7-5 

7-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


10-7 
15-7 
21-0 
26-3 
32-0 


6-8437 
•0434 
■1871 


1-02577 


1-02433 


1-02655 


1 ,.b 


7-65 


5-60 


21-1 


7-0742 


8 


24.0 








Surface 


31-0 


310 


Sailing all day 


14.50 


48-9 


7-5 


5-50 


5-9 


























-0-6 C. 


along edge of 
pack 
Reeve's French 
blue 


9/2/03 


9-4 C. 


7-8 


5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


110 

16-2 
21-9 
27-2 


6-8437 
■0434 
•1455 


1-02599 


1-02454 


1-02675 




7-65 


5-60 


16-4 


7-0326 


Feb, 


9 


4.0 








Surface 


30-6 


29-8 
-1-2 C. 




15.6 


49-7 
9-8 C. 


7-4 

7-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


5'7 
10-5 
16-1 
21-4 
26-7 


6-8437 
■0431 
■1428 


1-02601 


1-02456 


1-02680 




7-6 


5-60 


161 


7-0296 


Feb. 


9 


8.0 








Surface 


30-9 


300 


Steaming amongst 


15.25 


49-6 


7-1 


5-50 


5-0 
























-11 C. 


bay ice 
Reeve's French 
blue 




9-8 C. 


7-4 


5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


100 
15-3 
210 
26-2 


6-8437 
■0411 
•1375 


1-02605 


1-02455 


1-02678 




7-25 


5-60 


15-5 


7-0223 


Feb. 9 


12.0 








Surface 


30-6 


300 
-1-1 C. 


Amongst light ice 
Reeve's French 


15.45 


49-2 
9-6 C. 


5-8 


5-50 
5-55 


3-3 
140 




























blue 






6-3 


5-60 
5'65 
5-70 


8-7 
19-5 
25-0 


6-8437 
■0343 
■1251 


1-02616 


1-02450 


1-02673 




6-05 


5-60 


141 


7-0031 


Feb. 


9 


16.0 








Surface 


30-5 


29-9 
-1-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


13.52 
10/2/03 


48-0 
8-9 C. 


7-1 


5-50 
5-55 


5-6 
110 


































5-60 


16-8 


6-8437 


































5-65 


22-1 


■0408 
































7-3 


5-70 


27-7 


■1472 


1-02600 


1-02449 


1-02673 




7-2 


5-60 


16-6 


7-0317 


9 


20.0 








Surface 


29-2 


29-7 
-1-3 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


14.10 
10/2/03 


47-9 
8-8 C. 


6-9 

7-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


30 

8-0 

13-6 

19-0 

24-4 


6-8437 
■0400 
■1206 


1-02615 


1-02462 


1-02687 




7-05 


■5-60 


13-6 


7-0043 


9 


24.0 








Surface 


28-2 


29-4 
-1-4 C. 


•• 


14.32 
10/2/03 


17-5 
8-6 C. 


6-5 


5-50 
5-55 


0-5 

5-4 




































5-60 


11-1 


6-8437 
































6-7 


5-65 
5-70 


16-6 
22-0 


■0374 
■0984 


1-02629 


1-02469 


1-02694 




6-6 


5-60 


111 1 6-9795 









































94 



DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



c* 

: 

~- 

o 

- 

£ 
a 


"5. 

S 

O 

- 


Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.' 


Density of, 
(Density of: 
Water at \° 


IB! 


Month. 


Day 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


c 


of 

Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T. 


t. 


T'. 


t'. 

of 

the 

Sample. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


lii'ilmviil; 


of 
the 
Air. 


of 

the 

Water. 


of 
the 
Air. 


to 




* 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S t -. 


187 


126 


1903. 
Feb. 


10 


4.0 


o / 


/ 




Surface 


°F. 
28-3 


°F. 
29-2 




14.50 


47-3 


°C. 
6-6 


5-55 


1 

5-8 




























— 1-6 C 






8-5 C 




5-60 


10-3 




































5-65 


160 


6-8437 




































5-70 


21-7 


■0374 




1 






























6-6 


5-75 


27-0 


■1437 


1-02630 




6-6 


5-65 


16-2 


7-0248 


l-02ih : 


188 


127 


Feb. 


10 


8.0 








Surface 


28-6 


29-4 
-1-4 C. 


Amongst loose 

thin ice 
Reeve's French 

blue 


15.10 


46-7 
8-2 C. 


6-2 


5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


5-9 
11-6 
17-0 
22-3 


6-8437 
■0360 




































6-5 


5-75 


28-0 


■1508 


1-02627 




6-35 


5-65 


17-0 


7-0305 


189 


128 


Feb. 


10 


12.0 








Surface 


31-8 


30-2 
-1-0 C. 


Amongst loose 

thin ice 
Reeve's French 


15.30 


48-0 
8-9 C. 


4-8 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


11-0 
16-1 
21-7 


6-8437 






























blue 






5-2 


5-75 
5-80 


27-0 
32-7 


•0283 
•1925 


1-02635 




5-0 


5-70 


21-7 


7-0645 


1-OWl 


l-M 


190 


129 


Feb. 


10 


1G.0 








Surface 


33-2 


29-7 


Ice touching ship 
Reeve's French 


13.50 


49-5 


7-8 


5-50 


7-9 






























—1-3 C. 


12/2/03 


9-7 C. 




5-55 


13-4 
































blue 






8-1 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


19-0 
24-7 
30-1 


6-8437 
■0451 
■1685 


1-02586 


1-02441 




7-95 


5-60 


19-0 


7-0573 


1 


191 


130 


Feb. 


10 


20.0 








Surface 


28-3 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 


Ice closely 
packed, touch- 
ing ship 

Reeve's French 
blue 


14.10 

12/2/03 


50-1 
10-1 C. 


7-8 
8-3 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


6-6 
11-9 
17-5 
23-2 

28-8 


6-8437 
■0456 
■1561 


1-02592 






8-05 


5-60 


17-6 


7-0454 


1-02453 I . 1 


193 


131 


Feb. 


11 


12.0 








Surface 


30-2 


300 
-1-1 C. 


Ice near 
Reeve's French 
blue 


14.35 

12/2/03 


51-5 
10-8 C. 


7-9 
8-3 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


4-5 

9-8 

15-0 

21-3 

27-0 


6-8437 
■0459 
■1375 


1-02602 


1-02463 


H* 


8-1 


5-60 


15-5 


7-0271 


194 


132 


Feb. 


11 


16.0 








Surface 


30-8 


29'8 
-1-2 C. 


Ice near 
Reeve's French 
blue 


14.50 
12/2/03 


52-5 
11-4 C. 


7-9 
8-1 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


4-7 

9-7 

15-4 

20-6 

25-9 


6-8437 
■0454 
■1357 


1-02604 


1-024U 


, 


8-0 


5-60 


15-3 


7-0248 


195 


133 


Feb. 


11 


24.0 








Surface 


29-7 


29-8 
-1-2 C. 




15.7 

12/2/03 


50-2 
10-1 C. 


7-6 

7-7 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


3-0 

8-3 

13-7 

190 

24-5 


6-8437 
■0434 
■1215 


1-02613 


mm 




7-65 


5-60 


13-7 


7-0086 




134 


Feb. 


12 


5.0 


•• 






Surface 


29-8 


29-2 




15.30 


48-7 


7-2 


5-50 


4-0 




























—1-6 C. 






9-3 C. 




5-55 


8-9 




































5 -GO 


14-0 


6-8437 




































5-65 


19'0 


■0414 




































7-4 


5-70 


24-7 


•1251 


1-02612 


i-om 




7-3 


5-60 


14-1 


7-0102 





lND 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




95 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




te(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 






during 


Weights 




(Density of Distilled 






Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Water at 4° C. = l.) 




of 

Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 




T. 


t. 




Day. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 


























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4^15° '56. 


iS^ 


'1 






o / 


O r 






°F. 


o p 






°F. 


°C. 
















12 


8.0 








Surface 


30-4 


29-3 
-IS C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


15.45 


47-8 
8-8 C. 


6-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


3-7 

9-0 

14-1 


6-8437 
































6-9 


5-65 
5-70 


19-2 
24-7 


■0388 
■1251 


1-02613 


1-02456 


1-02682 




6-85 


5-60 


14-1 


7-0076 


•■ 


12 


12.0 


59 49 S. 


31 32 W. 




Surface 


31-4 


29-9 


Reeve's French 


16.15 


46-6 


5-5 


5-60 


10-3 


























-1-2 C. 


blue 




8-1 C. 




5-65 


16-0 


































5-70 


21-7 


6-8437 
































5-75 


27-1 


■0326 






























6-0 


5'80 


33-0 


■1916 


1-02634 


1-02464 


1-02688 




5-75 


5- 70 


21-6 


7-0679 


ieht 12 


16.0 








Surface 


29-7 


29-4 
-1-4 C. 


No ice touching 
ship, though 
near 

Reeve's French 
blue 


13.40 
14/2/03 


43-5 
6-4 C. 


6-6 

6-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


6-5 
12-0 
17-2 

22-7 
28-0 


6-8437 
■0380 
■1534 


1-02598 


1-02440 


1-02664 




6-7 


5-60 


17-3 


7-0351 


:■ b| 12 


20.0 








Surface 


30-1 


29-8 
-1-2 C. 


Ice touching ship 
Reeve's French 
blue 


14.4 

14/2/03 


45-0 
7-2 C. 


7-2 

7-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


9-9 
15-0 
20-8 
26-0 
31-3 


6-8437 
■0414 
■1827 


1-02580 


1-02430 


1-02654 




7-3 


5-60 


20-6 


7-0678 


Fehl 13 


12.0 








Surface 


32-8 


30-0 
-1-1 C. 


Some pieces of 
ice a few yards 
from ship 

Reeve's French 
blue 


14.25 
14/2/03 


45-3 
7-4 C. 


7-0 

7-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


9-0 
14-5 
19-8 
25-4 
30-8 


6-8437 
■0403 
■1765 


1-02584 


1-02432 


l-02654\ 




7-1 


5-60 


19-9 


7-0605 


. 13 


16.0 








Surface 


32-7 


301 
-11 C. 


Ice about 100 

yards away 
Reeve's French 


14.45 
14/2/03 


46-0 
7-8 C. 


7-3 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


11-5 
17-0 

22-2 


6-8437 


























blue 






7-5 


5-65 
5-70 


28-0 
33-0 


■0420 
■1978 


1-02572 


1-02425 


1-02647 




7-4 


5-60 


22-3 


7-0835 


Feb. 


13 


20.0 








Surface 


32-0 


30-2 
-1-0 C. 


Amongst ice, but 
none touching 


15.15 
14/2/03 


47-0 
8-3 C. 


7-6 


5-50 
5-55 


9-3 
140 


























Reeve's French 








5-60 


19-7 


6-8437 


























blue 






7-8 


5-65 
5-70 


24-5 
30-2 


■0437 
■1729 


1-02584 


1-02440 


1-02663) 




7-7 


5-60 


19S 


7-0603 




13 


24.0 








Surface 


32-2 


300 
-1-1 C. 




15.40 
14/2/03 


46-7 
8-2 C. 


7-4 
7-6 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


6-5 
11-5 
17-0 
22-0 
27-5 


6-8437 
■0425 
■1499 


1-02598 


1-02451 


1-02674 




7S 


5-60 


16-9 


7-0361 


Feb. 


14 


4.0 








Surface 


32-0 


30-2 
-1-0 C. 


In pack ice 


16.0 


46-8 
8-2 C. 


7-2 
7-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


6-0 
110 
16-0 
22-0 
27-2 


6-8437 
■0414 
■1455 


1-02601 


1-02451 


1-02674 




7-3 


5-60 


16-4 


7-0306 


usrsj 


OY 


. SOC 


. EDIN., 


VOL. L 


[, PA 


RT I ( 


NO. 


4). 


















15 





96 



DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Samp 


l 


Date(E 


) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density of S. 
















at time of 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


(Density ol 














d. 


Water at 4° C-' 


o 

"o 
u 

- 

= 


O. 
| 

a 

"S 

u 

c 

i 

a 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 






of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


Reducec 

to 
13°-56C 




T. 


t. 




of 

the 


of 
the 


of 
the 














S5 


a 












L. 


lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


«B*. 


4S1PB 








1903. 






o / 


o / 






o p 


o p 






o p> 


°C. 














206 


144 


Feb. 


14 


8.0 








Surface 


32-6 


30-3 
-0-9 C. 


Open water 
Reeve's French 
blue 


14.0 

15/2/03 


52-8 
11-6 C. 


8-3 

8-7 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


12-8 
18-5 
24-0 
29-9 
35-3 


6-8437 
■0482 
■2137 


1-02559 




8-5 


5-60 


24:1 


7-1056 


1-02OI 




207 


145 


Feb. 


14 


12.0 








Surface 


320 


30-8 
-0-7 C. 


Very small 
pieces of ice 
floating about, 


14.22 
15/2/03 


54-0 

12-2 C. 


8-6 


5-50 
5-55 


100 
15-7 






































5-60 


20-8 


6-8437 






























no pack to be 








5-65 


26-0 


■0499 






























seen 






90 


5-70 


31-5 


■1845 








































































blue 






8-8 


5-60 


20-8 


7-0781 


1-02574 


1-0244C 




208 


146 


Feb. 


14 


16.0 








Surface 


31-9 


30-5 
-0-8 C. 


No ice anywhere 
near 


• • 


53-2 
11-8 C. 


8-6 
91 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


9-0 
14-0 
19-0 
24-9 
300 


6-8437 
■0502 
■1721 


1-02581 


1-02454 




8-85 


5-60 


19-4 


7-0660 




209 


147 


Feb. 


14 


20.0 








Surface 


31-5 


30-2 
-1-0 C. 


No ice anywhere 
near 


15.0 

15/2/03 


52-1 
11-2 C. 


8-8 
9-0 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


8-7 
13-7 
19-0 
24-0 
29-5 


6-8437 
■0505 
■1685 


1-02583 


1-02456 




8-9 


5-60 


19-0 


7-0627 


I. 


210 


148 


Feb. 


14 


24.0 








Surface 


31-0 


29-1 
—1-6 C. 


Amongst ice 
touching ship 


15.20 
15/2/03 


50-8 
10-4 C. 


8-5 
8-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


9-8 
14-9 
200 
25-2 
30-2 


6-8437 
■0490 
•1774 


1-02579 


i-om 




8-65 


5-60 


20-0 


7-0701 


; 


211 


149 


Feb. 


15 


4.0 








Surface 


30-4 


29-8 
-1-2 C. 


Near pack ice 
Reeve's French 
blue 


15.40 


51-0 
10-6 C. 


7-7 
8-0 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


4-0 

9-0 

141 

19-7 
25-0 


6-8437 
■0445 
■1277 


1-02609 


mm 




7-85 


5-60 


14-4 


7-0159 


j 


212 


150 


Feb. 


15 


8.0 








Surface 


300 


30-0 
-1-1 C. 


Amongst loose 

pack ice 
Reeve's French 

blue 


16.0 


50-5 
10-3 C. 


7-6 
7-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-00 
5-65 
5-70 


1-7 

6-8 

12-1 

17-7 
230 


6-8437 
■0439 
■1091 


1-02619 


i-oun 




7-75 


5-60 


12-3 


6-9967 


HI 


213 


151 


Feb 


15 


12.0 








Surface 


30-4 


31'0 
-0-6 C. 


Ice about 100 

yards off 
Reeve's French 

blue 


16.30 


49-0 
9-4 C. 


6-8 

6-7 


5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


3-0 

8-0 

13-1 

18-4 

23-3 


6-8437 
■0383 
■1171 


1-02645 


1-024S6 




6-75 


5-65 


13-2 


6-9991 
































































AND SALINITIES OF THE WEDDELL SEA AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN. 97 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to 


the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




,te(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 






during 


Weights 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 




Day. 


Hour. 


Lat, 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Water at 4°C. = 1.) 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


r. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 


M<J 


T. 


t. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 

the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 


























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


«Sf. 


4 S 15--56. 


4&t. 


1 






O / 


o / 






•F. 


o p 






o p^ 


°C. 














H 


15 


16.0 








Surface 


30-3 


31-0 ' 
-0-6 C. 


Ice about two 

miles off 
Reeve's French 

blue 


16.20 
16/2/03 


47-3* 
8-5 C. 


7-9 

8-4 


5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 


4-0 
9-2 
14-8 
220 
26-0 
31-5 
37-0 
430 
48-0 


6-8437 
■0462 
•2324 


1-02630 


1-02491 


1-02714 




8-15 


5- 75 


26-2 


7-1223 


eh. 


15 


20.0 


61 58 S. 


26 3 W. 


•• 


Surface 


30-2 


31-0 
-0-6 C. 


Ice about three 
miles off 


5.50 

16/2/03 


49-0 
9-4 C. 


8-3 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


2-0 

6-8 

120 


































5-65 


18-0 


































5-70 


23-0 


































5-75 


28-2 


































5-80 


33-5 


6-8437 
































5-85 


390 


■0482 




























49-2 


8-7 


5-90 


45-0 


■2049 




























9-6 C. 






































8-5 


5-70 


23-1 


7-0968 


1-02618 


1-02485 


1-02707 


Feb 


15 


24.0 








Surface 


30-2 


31-1 
-0-5 C. 


Only a few small 
distant bergs, 
no pack ice 


6.15 

16/2/03 


49-4 
9-7 C. 


7-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


1-0 
6-0 
11-5 
16-8 
230 
28-0 
33-5 
39-2 


6-8437 
•0456 




























49-8 


8-3 


5-90 


45-0 


■2013 




























9-9 C. 




































8-05 


5- 70 


22-7 


7-0906 


1-02621 


1-02482 


1-02704 


Feb. 


16 


4.0 








Surface 


29-3 


30-9 


Only a few dis- 


5.50 


49-1 


6-7 


5-55 


3-5 
























-0-6 C. 


tant bergs, no 


17/2/03 


9-5 C. 




5-60 


8-0 


























pack 








5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


14-0 
20-2 
26-0 
31-0 
36-5 


6-8437 
































5-90 


42-0 


■0405 


























47-0 
8-3 C. 


7-6 


5-95 


48-5 


■2262 




























7-15 


5-75 


25-5 


7-1104 


1-02637 


1-02485 


1-02707 
















Again 


tested at 6.25 on 


17/2/03 


47-0 
8-3 C. 


7-6 


5-55 
5-60 


5-0 
10-5 




































5-65 


16-0 




































5-70 


210 




































5-75 


27-0 




































5-80 


330 




































5-85 


38-0 


6-8437 


































5-90 


43-7 


■0442 






























47-8 
8-8 C. 


8-0 


5-95 


49-0 


■2395 






























7-8 


5-75 


27-0 


7-1274 


1-02628 


1-02485 


1-02707 


Feb 


16 


8.0 








Surface 


30-4 


31-0 
-0-6 C. 


Only a few dis- 
tant bergs, no 
pack 

Reeve's French 
blue 


7.35 

18/2/03 


38-6 
3-7 C. 

43-0 


3-8 
4-8 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


5-5 
110 
16-2 
22-0 
27-0 
330 
38-2 
44-0 
49-5 


6-8437 
■0244 
■2430 






























6-1 C. 




































4-3 


5-80 


27-4 


7-1111 102663 


1-02476 1-02698 


























■ 















98 



DK W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of the Sample, 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.' 


Densil 




d 

o 
(8 

35 

O 


EL 








at time of 
Collection of 
! Sampie. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density o 


Month. 


Day 


Ilour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Water at 4° ( 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 






T. 


t. 


In 


S 


fa 

S 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 

tie 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-5GC 












fc 


fc 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4S 15 ..j5 








1903. 






O ' 


o 






°F. 


o F _ 






o p 


°C. 














220 


157 


Feb. 


16 


12.0 








Surface 


30-7 


30-9 
-0-6 C. 


Only a few small 
bergs in sight, 
no pack 

Reeve's French 
blue 


9.40 

18/2/03 


52-0 
11-1 C 

50'0 
10-0 C. 


6-3 

7-0 


5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 


4-0 
9-5 

15-0 
20-2 
26-0 
31-5 
37-5 
42-0 
47-5 


6-8437 
•0377 
•2297 


































6-65 


5-75 


25-9 


7-1111 


1-02637 


102m 




221 


158 


Feb. 


16 


1G.0 








Surface 


30-9 


30-5 
-0-8 C. 


Very consider- 
able number 
of bergs a- 
round, and 
some broken 
off berg ice, 
but none very 


10.10 

18/2/03 


49-0 
9-4 C. 


6-0 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


11-0 

17-0 
22-2 
27-5 
33-0 
38-0 
45-0 


6-8437 






























near 




50-6 
10-3 C. 


7-0 


5-95 
6-00 


50-0 
56-0 


■0369 
■2953 
































6-5 


5-80 


33-3 


7-1759 


1-02628 




222 


159 


Feb. 


16 


20.0 








Surface 


310 


30-4 
-0-9 C. 


Ice about 100 
yards off 


14.50 

18/2/03 


43-8 
6-6 C. 


5-8 


5-55 
5-60 


4-8 
100 






































5-65 


16-0 








































5-70 


21-0 








































5-75 


26-0 








































5-80 


32-0 








































5-85 


37-0 


6-8437 






































5-90 


42-5 


■0335 




































6-0 


5-95 


48-0 


■2341 


1-02636 


1-024U 




5-9 


5-75 


26-4 


7-1113 


/•", 


223 


160 


Feb. 


16 


24.0 








Surface 


31-0 


31-0 
-0-6 C. 


- 


15.20 

18/2/03 


43-8 
6-6 C. 


5-8 
6-0 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


9-5 
14-0 
18-5 
24-0 
29-0 


6-8437 
■0335 
■1685 


1-02646 


lmn 




5-9 


5-70 


19-0 


7-0457 


Mi 


224 


161 


Feb. 


17 


4.0 








Surface 


31-4 


31-1 

-0-5 C. 


No ice at 5.15 
Dull greenish 
blue 


15.45 

18/2/03 


44'2 
6-8 C. 


5-5 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


6-0 
11-0 
16-0 
21-0 








































5-80 


26-0 


6-8437 




































5-85 


31-5 


■0326 




































6-0 


5-90 


37-0 


■1880 


1-02662 


1-02491 




5-75 


5-75 


21-2 


7-0643 




225 


162 


Feb 


17 


8.0 








Surface 


31-0 


31-4 
-0-3 C. 


4 bergs on hori- 
zon 
Slaty blue 


16.20 
18/2/03 


44-2 
6-8 C. 


5-7 
6-1 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


3-0 
8-0 
13-5 
18-0 
25-0 
300 
360 


6-8437 
■0335 
■1694 


1-02672 


1-02503 




5-9 


5-75 


19-1 


7-0466 




226 


163 


Feb. 


17 


12.0 


64 18 S. 


23 9 W. 




Surface 


31-5 


31-7 
-0-2 C. 


Berg about J 

mile off 
Slaty blue 


11.15 
19/2/03 


47-7 
8-7 C. 


4-9 
5-1 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


100 
15-5 
21-8 
27-0 
32-5 


6-8437 
■0283 
■1898 


V02990\ 


102W 




5-0 


5-80 


21-4 


7-0618 










NE 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




99 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to 


the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




e(E.) 


Position (L.) 


in FatCns Tem P erature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density of Sample. 










at time of 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 


























D. 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 


Time 
and 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 


ing 
of 

Hydro- 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 






of 


from 




Ob- 


Reduced Reduced 




,_, 


t. 


T'. 


t'. 


. m 


3ay. 


Hour. 


T,t t- 


Sea 


which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 




Remarks. 


Date. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 

(cub. 

centims.) 


served 


to 


to 


JLat. 




at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 






















L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


i&V. 


4 S 15°-56. 


i&t. 


, : ,.._ 






o / 


o / 




°F. 


°F. 






o p_ 


°C. 
















17 


16.0 








Surface 


310 


32-0 
0-0 C. 


No ice in sight 
Light slaty blue 


11.50 

19/2/03 


44-0 
6-7 C. 


5-3 
5-6 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


12-0 
17-5 
23-0 
28-5 
33-5 


6-8437 
■0309 
■2031 


1-02682 


102507 


1-02728 




5-45 


5- 80 


22-9 


7-0777 




17 


20.0 








Surface 


29-5 


31-7 
-0-2 C. 


One or two bergs 
on horizon 


14.10 

19/2/03 


47-7 
8-7 C. 


5-6 
5-7 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


12-8 

18-0 
23-2 
28-8 
34-5 


6-8437 
■0320 
■2084 


1-02678 


1-02506 


1-02728 




5-65 


5-80 


23-5 


7-0841 


Pel 


17 


24.0 








Surface 


29-6 


31-2 
-0-4 C. 


Distant bergs only 


14.25 
19/2/03 


43-2 
6-2 C. 


5-7 
5-9 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


140 
20-0 
25-8 
31-5 
37-0 


6-8437 
■0329 
■2279 


1-02667 


1-02496 


1-02718 




5-8 


5-80 


25-7 


7-1045 


Feb. 


lb 


4.0 








Surface 


29-2 


31-1 

-0-5 C. 


No ice in sight 


14.50 

19/2/03 


44-0 
6-7 C. 


5-7 
5-9 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


15-0 
20-0 
25 
300 

35-8 


6-8437 
■0329 
■2235 


1-02669 


1-02498 


1-02721 




5-8 


5-80 


25-2 


7-1001 


Feb. 


18 


8.0 








Surface 


30-0 


31-0 
-0-6 C. 


No ice in sight 
Slaty blue 


15.0 

19/2/03 


44-5 
6-9 C. 


5-7 
5-9 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


4-5 
10-0 
15-5 
20-5 
26-0 


6-8437 
■0329 
•1357 


1-02664 


1-02493 


1-02716 




5-8 


5-70 


15-3 


7-0123 


Feb. 


18 


12.0 








Surface 


30-0 


31-0 
-0-6 C. 


No ice in sight 
Green 


13.30 

19/2/03 


44-7 
7-1 C. 


5-6 
6-1 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 
605 
6-10 


13-0 

18-0 
24-0 
30-0 
35-5 
40-0 
45-0 
50-2 
55-5 


6-8437 
■0332 
■3069 


1-02677 


1-02506 


1-02730 




5-85 


5-90 


34-6 


7-1838 


Feb. 


.8 


16.0 


66 5S. 


23 9 W. 




Surface 


30-7 


310 
-0-6 C. 


No ice in sight 


10.20 
20/2/03 


52-9 
11-6 C. 


7-6 
8-0 
8-5 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


8-0 
13-5 
19-5 
25-0 
30-5 
36-5 
42-2 
47-0 
53-0 


6-8437 
■0456 
•2714 


1-02636 


1-02496 

1 


1-02719 




8-05 


5-80 


30-6 


7-1607 








• 

































100 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 









Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to 


,he Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sam 


c 
o 

a 

55 

o 
h 
c 
-Q 

E 

3 


a 

o 

3 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Dk 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Water at 4' C.--. 


of 
Sea 
at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at fc'. 


^ 


T. 


t. 


Reduced I- 
to 1 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


15°-56C. 












fc 


S3 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


i&V. 


4 S 1F«, , 

1 






1903. 






O ' 


o / 






•F. 


o p_ 






o p_ 


°C. 












234 


171 


Feb. 


18 


20.0 








Surface 


31-0 


30-9 
-0-6 C. 


No ice in sight 
Green 


11.0 

20/2/03 


54-1 
12-3 C. 


8-2 

8-6 
9-0 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


9-8 
15-0 
20-8 
26-5 
32-0 
37-8 
43-3 
48-0 
53-5 


6-8437 
■0488 
■2820 


1-02629 


1-02491 H 


8-6 


5-80 


31-8 


7-1745 


235 


172 


Feb. 


18 


24.0 








Surface 


30-4 


30-7 
-0-7 C. 




11.30 
20/2/03 


55-0 
12-8 C. 


8-4 
8-9 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


25-2 
30-5 
36-5 
42-0 
47-5 


6-8437 
■0490 
■3219 


1-02607 


l-oun :■ 


8-65 


5-80 


36-3 


7-2146 


236 


173 


Feb. 


19 


4.0 








Surface 


30-0 


30-2 
-1-0 C. 


No ice in sight 




47-8 
8-8 C. 


4-8 
5-6 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


11-0 

16-2 
21-8 
27-5 
32-8 


6-8437 
■0295 
■1942 


1-02634 


i-omsi h 


5-2 


5-70 


21-9 


7-0674 


237 


174 


Feb. 


19 


8.0 








Surface 


30-0 


30-0 
-1-1 C. 


No ice in sight 
Light blue 




50-2 
10-1 C. 


3-5 
3-7 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


9-5 
150 
20-0 
25-5 
30-8 


6-8437 
■0204 
■1792 


1-02647 


i-om i 


3-6 


5-70 


20-2 


7-0433 


238 


175 


Feb. 


19 


12.0 


68 33 S. 


24 31 W. 




Surface 


29-5 


29-7 
-1-3 C. 


Several small 
broken pieces 
of ice floating 
about 

Reeve's French 
blue 


12.0 
20/2/03 


55-9 
13-3 C. 


9-0 
9-5 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


30-0 
35-8 
41-0 
46-5 
52-0 


6-8437 
■0524 
■3645 
































9-25 


5-80 


411 


7-2606 


1-02581 




239 


176 


Feb. 


19 


16.0 








Surface 


29-8 


29-6 
-1-3 C. 


No ice in sight 
Reeve's French 
blue 


13.55 

20/2/03 


55-3 

12-9 C. 


9-4 
9-6 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


200 
26-0 
31-2 
36-8 
42-2 


6-8437 
•0539 
■2767 


1-02575 




9-5 


5-70 


31-2 


7-1743 


240 


177 


Feb. 


19 


20.0 








Surface 


27-1 


29-1 
-1-6 C. 


Pieces of ice 
floating about 

Reeve's French 
blue 


14.10 
20/2/03 


55-3 
12-9 C. 


10-0 
10-3 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


33-5 
38-9 
44-0 
49-5 
54-5 


6-8437 
■0576 
■3911 


1-02564 




10-15 


5-80 


441 


7-2924 


241 


178 


Feb. 


19 


24.0 








Surface 


23-1 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Amongst 
brackish ice 


14.30 
20/2/03 


54 8 
72-7 C. 


10-2 
10-6 

10-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


10-5 
15-8 
21-2 
26-5 
31-8 
37-8 
42-8 
48-0 
53-5 


6-8437 
■0595 
■2838 


1-02568 


: 


10-5 


5-70 


32-0 


7-1870 





LND SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH 


AND 


SOUTH ATLANTIC 


OCEAN. 


101 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to 


she Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


B.e(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


1 
Temperature ; 




Temperature 




1 Volume 


Density of Sample. 






at time of 






during 


Weights 


Read- 


oi im- 
mersed 


(Density of Distilled 
















Collection of 






Experiment. 


added 


Water at 4°C. = 1.) 












D. 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 


Time 
and 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 


ing 
of 

Hydro- 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 






of 


from 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 


Reduced 


Reduced 




T. 




1 UK 


3ay 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Sea 


which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


t. 


Remarks. 


Date. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 

(cub. 

centims.] 


served 


to 


to 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 


























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4^t'. 


4 S 15»-56. 


4 S t . 


L9fl 






o , 


o / 






i 
F. i ° F. 






o p_ 


°C. 












i 'b 


20 


4.0 








Surface 


224 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Amongst brash 

ice 
Reeve's French 

blue 


15.0 


55-o' 
12-8 C. 


9-9 
10-1 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


10-0 

14-8 
19-5 
23-8 
28-8 




































5-75 


33-5 


































5-80 


38-8 


6-8437 


































5-85 


44-8 


■0571 
































10-2 


5-90 


52-2 


•262-5 


1-02581 


1-02473 


1-02699 




10-07 


5-70 


29-6 


7-1633 


> ^b. 


20 


8.0 


• • 






Surface 


23-0 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Amongst brash 
ice 


13.30 


52-5 
11-4 C. 


9-0 


5-50 
5-55 


6-5 
11-8 


























Slaty blue 








5-60 
5-65 


17-5 

22-5 


































9-2 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


27-5 
33-5 
38-5 
43-8 


6-8437 
■0519 
































9-3 


5-90 


49-2 


■2474 


1-02592 


1-02469 


1-02695 




9-15 


5-70 


27-9 


7-1430 


FebJ 


20 


12.0 


69 39 S. 


22 58 W. 




Surface 


24-1 


29-0 


All day steaming 


16.15 


50-0 


7-3 


5-70 


33-5 










1 














-1-7 C. 


through light 
ice; pancake ice 
on the water 




10-0 C. 




5-75 

5-80 
5-85 


390 
44-2 
49-5 


6-8437 
■0417 


























Freshly formed 






7-4 


5-90 


55-0 


■3920 


























ice in sample 
















































Slaty blue (dark) 






7-35 


5- SO 


44-2 


7-2774 


1-02572 


1-02424 


1-02648 


FdB 


20 


16.0 








Surface 


21-6 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Amongst loose 

pieces of ice 
Dark slaty blue 


11.40 

21/2/03 


48-9 
9-4 C. 


7-7 
7-8 
7-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


15-6 

22-0 
26-5 
31-2 
36-5 
42-0 
47-0 
52-3 
57-9 


6-8437 
•0442 
■3264 


1-02553 


1-02411 


1-02634 




7-8 


5-70 


36-8 


7-2143 


Feb. 


20 


20.0 


69 40 S. 


21 50 W. 




Surface 


22-0 


29-1 
-1-6 C. 


• • 


11.7 

21/2/03 


48-6 
9-2 C. 


7-6 

7-7 
7-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


4-8 
9-2 
14-0 
19-8 
24-8 
30-2 
35-9 
41-2 
46-7 


6-8437 
■0437 
■2235 


1-02610 


1-02466 


1-02692 




7-7 


5-70 


25-2 


7-1109 


Feb. 


JO 


24.0 








Surface 


21-1 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 




11.30 
21/2/03 


48-4 
9-1 C. 


7-5 

7-5 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


25-9 
31-0 
36-5 
41-2 
46-5 


6-8437 
■0425 
■3211 


1-02611 


1-02464 


1-02691 




7-5 


5-80 


36-2 


7-2073 


Feb. 


! 


4.0 








Surface 


21-0 


29-0 




11.50 


48-5 


7-0 


5-70 


25-8 
























-1-7 C. 






9-2 C. 




5-75 


30-8 




































5-80 


36-2 


6-8437 


































5-85 


41-3 


•0403 
































7-2 


5-90 


46-8 


■3211 


1-02612 ! 


1-02459 


1-02686 












7-1 


5-80 


36-2 ' 7-2051 



102 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sarapl 




Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 




Volume 
of im- 


Density of 9e 














at time of 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


(Density ol 
Water at 4° C-' 


1 














o 

<a 

—> 
/ 

o 


a. 
£ 

CO 

"3 


Month. 


1 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


il. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 






to 
Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


mg 

of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
^entims.) 






of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


Time | 




t'. 


Ob- 
served 






T. 


t. 


and i T'. 
Date. 1 


to 


- 

£ 


O 

£ 

3 


Day.l 




at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 




1 ! 

of of 






at t'. 






the 


the 










fc 


^ 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 










1903. 






, 






o F 


o p 






o p 


°C. 












249 


186 


Feb. 


21 


8.0 








Surface 


22-0 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Slush in sample 
Sailing through 

pancake and 

brash ice 
Reeve's French 

blue 


9.45 

22/2/03 


50-0 
10-0 C. 


7-6 

7-6 
7-9 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


4-8 
9-2 
14-8 
20-0 
25-5 
31-0 
37-0 
42-5 
48-0 


6-8437 
■0437 
■2297 


1-02446 


1-02M 




7-7 


5-40 


25-9 


7-1171 




250 


187 


Feb. 


21 


12.0 


69 46 S. 


20 58 W. 




Surface 


22-0 


29-8 
-1-2 C. 


Steaming through 
pancake and 
brash ice 

Pancake ice in 
sample 

Dark slaty blue 


10.20 

22/2/03 


49-6 
9-8 C. 


7-8 
8-1 


530 
5-35 
5-40 

5-45 
5-50 
5-55 


10 

6-2 

12-0 

17-5 

23-0 
28-5 








































5-60 


34-0 


6-8437 




































5-65 


39-4 


■0458 


































8-3 


5-70 


44-9 


■2031 


1-02513 




8-05 


5-50 


22-9 


7-0926 


1-OiS/S 




251 


188 


Feb. 


21 


16.0 


69 58 S. 


18 55 W . 




Surface 


23-0 


30-0 
-1-1 C. 


Sounding a- 

mongst ioe 
Dull slaty blue 


11.30 

22/2/03 


46-3 
7-9 C. 


7-8 
7-9 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


26-0 
31-5 
36-9 
41-9 

47-2 


6-8437 
■0445 
■3255 


1-02607 


1-OUM 




7-85 


5- 80 


36-7 


7-2137 




252 


189 


Feb. 


21 


20.0 








Surface 


22--0 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 

ice 
Ice spicules in 

sample 
Dark slaty blue 


11.45 

22/2/03 


48-6 
9-2 C. 


7-6 
7-9 


5-70 
5'75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


27-4 
32-5 
37-8 
43-5 
48-5 


6-8437 
■0439 
■3361 


1-02602 


1-0245S 




7-75 


5- 80 


37-9 


7-2237 


H 


253 


l!t(l 


Feb. 


21 


24.0 








Surface 


18-6 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Sample so full of 
ice that it was 
left in lab. for 
3 hours before 
being poured 
into glass 
bottle 


12.0 

22/2/03 


49-7 
9-8 C. 


7-2 
7-4 
7-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


16-5 
21-7 
27-2 
32-8 
38-0 
43-3 
48-5 
54-2 
59-6 


6-8437 
■0428 
■3370 


1-02548 


nun 




7-55 


5-70 


38-0 


7-2235 




254 


191 


Feb. 


22 


4.0 








Surface 


15-5 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Ship stationary 
amongst ice 


14.0 


50-4 
10-2 C. 


8-0 
8-3 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


2-9 
8-0 
130 
18-3 
23-9 
29-6 








































5-80 


35-0 


6-8437 




































5-85 


40-5 


■0476 


































8-8 


5-90 


45-8 


■2137 


1-02613 


mm 




8-4 


6-70 


24-1 


7-1050 


/■». 





ND 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELI 


. SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




103 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


• e(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 

Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Waterat4°C. = l.) 




Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


.1. 




of 
Sea 
at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 

of 

the 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


Reduced 

to 
15°-56C. 


Reduced 
to 
t. 




T. 


t. 


h )ay. 


of 
the 


of 

the 


























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


«s t ,. 


4Si 6 °-56, 


4S t . 


13. 






o / 


o / 






o p_ 


o p_ 






o p^ 


°C. 
















22 


8.0 








Surface 


18-7 


29-0 
-hi C. 


Lying to amongst 
pack ice touch- 
ing ship 


14.30 


54-5 
12-5 C. 


7-8 
8-1 
8-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


1-8 
6-8 
11-9 
17-0 
220 
27-7 
32-8 
37-9 
430 


6-8437 
■0459 
■1978 


1-02623 


1-02484 


1-02710 




8-1 


5-70 


22-3 


7-0874 


!','b. 


22 


12.0 


70 21 S. 


17 0W. 




Surface 


19-6 


290 
-1-7 C. 


Reeve's French 

blue 
Slush ice in 

sample 


14.55 


53-7 
12-1 C. 


6-0 
6-0 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5'70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


21-1 

20-7 
32-0 
37-7 
43-0 
48-5 
53-8 
59-2 


6-8437 
■0337 
































5-9 


5-45 


15-3 


■3326 


1-02529 


1-02364 


1-02585 




5-95 


5-65 


37-5 


7-2100 


Feb. 


22 


24.0 








Surface 


200 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Lying to amongst 
ice ; none in 
sample 


11.30 
23/2/03 


52-5 
11-4 C. 


7-4 

7-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


3-5 

8-5 

13-8 

19-0 

24-5 


































8-1 


5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


300 
35-0 
41-0 
46-0 


6-8437 
■0439 
■2182 


1-02613 


1-02469 


1-02695 




7-75 


5-70 


24-6 


7-1058 




L 


8.0 








Surface 


20-1 


290 
-hi C. 


Steaming through 

bay ice 
Reeve's French 

blue 


12.12 


51-8 
11-0 C. 


6-9 

7-2 
7-5 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 
5-65 
5-60 
5-55 


27-0 
32-5 
38-0 
43-2 
48-5 
54-9 
22-0 
16-5 
10-8 


6-8437 
■0408 
■2891 


1-02602 


1-02451 


1-02676 




7-2 


5-75 


32-6 


7-1736 


r sb. 


23 


12.0 


65 57 S. 


16 53J W. 




Surface 


21-0 


28-9 
-27 C. 


Steaming through 
thin ice ; some 
in sample 

Reeve's French 
blue 


14.30 

25/2/03 


48-5 
9-2 C. 


101 

9-9 
9-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-45 
5-40 


31-8 
37-0 
42-5 
47-5 
52-0 
57-0 
61-5 
23-2 
17-8 


6-8437 
■0564 
■3645 


1-02472 


1-02364 


1-02585 




9-95 


5-60 


41-1 


7-2646 


Feb. 


24 


12.0 


69 52 S. 


1712W. 




Surface 


23-8 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 

pack 
A few ice spicules 

in sample 
Reeve's French 

blue 


15.0 

25/2/03 


47-2 
8-4 C. 


101 
101 
10-2 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-C5 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


10 
6-0 
11-5 
16-5 
22-0 
27-0 
320 
37-2 
43-2 


6-8437 
■0576 
■1933 


1-02565 


1-02459 


1-02685 






1015 


5-60 


21-8 


7-0946 


lNS. 


UY 


. soc 


. EDIN., 


VOL. L 


[, PA 


.RT I ( 


NO. 


4). 


















16 





104 




DR W. S 


. BRUCE, MR A. KING 


, ANE 


• MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC 


GRAVITIES, 






Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


Df the Density of the Sample. 


Datc(L\) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Densi, 


= 

o 

la 

"3 
u 

— 

£ 

3 


E 

"3 
u 

= 
3 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Densi 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 

of 
Sea 
at 
Posi- 
tion 


d. 


Water 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 


r. 


t'. 

of 
the 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 




T. 


t. 


Reduced!;- 
to 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


15°-56C. 












fc 


»5 












L. 


lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


*s*. 








1903. 






o / 


o , 






° F. ° F. 






°F. 


°C. 












260 


198 


Feb. 


24 










Surface 


22-1 


A piece of ice 
(hard blue) 
about 8 inches 
thick 


18.0 

25/2/03 


46-8 
8-2 C. 


2-6 
3-1 


0-80 
0-85 
0-90 
0-95 
1-00 


12-8 
18-5 
24-5 
29-7 
35-0 






































105 


41-0 






































1-10 


46-5 


6-8437 




































115 


51-9 


■0167 
































45-5 


3-3 


1-20 


57-2 


■3121 
































7-5 C. 








































2-95 


1-00 


35-2 


7-1725 


1-00065 


■99961 


261 


199 


Feb. 


24 


24.0 








Surface 


22-0 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


After testing the 
last sample 
(199) I unfor- 


18.40 
25/2/03 


52-6 
11-4 C. 


10-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


11-5 
16-5 
21-5 

26-5 
32-0 
38-0 
43-5 


6-8437 


























tunately broke 








5-85 


49-0 


■0607 


























the hydro- 






11-0 


5-90 


54-0 


■2882 






























































| 








10-7 


5-70 


32-5 


7-1926 


1-02565 


1-02469 H 



Hydrometer No. 14. Weight =181-0189 Grams. 



262 



LSI 



265 



200 Feb. ' 25 16.0 



201 



202 



Feb. 



Feb. 



26 



26 



12.0 



20.0 



09 36 S. 



20 20 W. 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



22-7 



23-2 



27-0 



29-2 
-1-6 C. 



29-1 
-1-6 C. 



29-1 
-1-6 C. 



Dull blue 



Light dull 
blue 



Sailing through 
pancake ice 

Light greeny 
blue 



9.0 


58-7 


9-2 


5-50 


27-0 




28/2/03 


14-8 C. 




5-55 
5-60 
5-65 


32-8 
38-0 
43-2 








9-9 


5-70 

5-75 


48-8 
54-5 










5-80 


59-0 


1-5471 








5-45 


22-8 


■0605 






10-2 


5-40 


17-8 


■3456 


9-7 


5-60 


38-2 


1-9532 


10.0 


58-7 


9-9" 


5-40 


16-0 




28/2/03 


14-8 C. 




5-45 
5-50 
5-55 


22-2 
27-8 
33-5 








10-4 


5-60 
5-65 


38-5 
44-0 










5-70 


49-0 


1-5471 








5-75 


54-0 


■0646 






10-8 


5-80 


590 


■3456 


10-35 


5-60 


38-2 


1-9573 


10.40 


63-6 


13-2 


5-50 


25-5 




28/2/03 


17-6 C. 




5-55 
5-60 
5-65 


310 
35-5 
400 








13'6 


5'70 
5-75 


45-0 
50-0 










5-80 


56-0 


1-5471 








5-85 


62-0 


■0849 






14-0 


5-90 


68-0 


■4152 


13-6 


5-70 


45-9 


2-0472 



1-02564 



1-02451 l« 



1-02562 



1-02459 1- 








*D 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




105 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of the Sample. 




s(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 






Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 


'ontl 


T. 


t. 


:<iy. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 


























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


1&V. 


4 S 15--56. 


48k 


1 1 j 






o / 


o / 






o -p 


o F 






o p_ 


C. 














Feb. 


26 


24.0 








Surface 


28-6 


29-1 
-1-6 C. 




11.45 

28/2/03 


62-8 
17-1 C. 


11-7 
11-5 
11-5 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


30-0 
35-0 
40-0 
42-0 
46-0 
51-0 
56-0 
61-0 
65-8 


1-5471 
■0724 
■4288 


1-02566 


1-02486 


1-02712 




11-6 


5-70 


47-4 


2-0483 


M 


27 


12.0 








Surface 


28-9 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 


Sailing through 
bay, and old 
ice touching 


12.10 

28/2/03 


55-0 
12-8 C. 


10-6 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


14-5 
19-8 
24-0 




























ship 
Dull blue 






10-6 

10-5 


5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80- 


28-8 
34-0 
38-5 
42-8 
47'0 
52-0 


1-5471 
■0658 
■3032 


1-02585 


1-02485 


1-02712 




10-55 


5-60 


33-5 


1-9161 


Feb. 


57 


16.0 








Surface 


29-0 


29-1 
-1-6 C. 


Lying to for 
sounding, ice 
touching ship 


13.40 

28/2/03 


53-5 
11-9 C. 


10-7 
10-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


29-0 
34-5 
39-8 
45-0 
50-0 


1-5471 
■0674 
■3591 


1-02553 


1-02458 


1-02685 




10-8 


5-60 


39-7 


1-9736 


Feb. 


37 


20.0 








Surface 


28-7 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Sailing through 
mostly pan- 
cake ice; some 
in sample 


14.0 

28/2/03 


55-0 

12-8 C. 


10-8 
11-2 
11-5 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-15 
5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


9'5 
13-5 
18-5 
22-5 
27-5 
33-5 
39-5 
44-5 
49-5 


1-5471 
■0696 
■2596 


1-02388 


1-02301 


1-02516 




11-15 


5-20 


28-7 


1-8763 


Feb. 


« 


24.0 








Surface 


27-3 


29-0 
-2-7 C. 




14.40 

28/2/03 


55-6 
13-1 C. 


11-2 
11-4 
11-5 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 

5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-25 


21-2 

26-5 
31-8 
37-0 
42-0 
47-8 
53-0 
57-8 
15-5 


1-5471 
■0708 
■3347 


1-02482 


1-02398 


1-02619 




11-35 


5-45 


37-0 


1-9526 


Feb. 


!8 


4.0 








Surface 


26-5 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 




15.10 


54-5 
12-5 C. 


10-2 
10-4 
10-5 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


22-8 
27-8 
32-0 
37-0 
41-0 
500 
54-0 
58-0 
62-8 


1-5471 

■0646 
■3872 


1-02593 


1-02490 


1-02717 




10-35 


5-70 


42-8 


1-9989 



106 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D, W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Densn 












at time of 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


(Density of LI; , 
Water 
















o 
'-3 

a 

QQ 

o 
u 

c 

.0 
£ 


— 

a 

a 
"3 

u 

E 

3 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


ii. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 




of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


to 
15°-56C. 


T. 


t. 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 










fc 


fc 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 Stf. 








1903. 






.- • 


/ 






o p 


o -p t 






o p_ 


°C. 












272 


209 


Feb. 


28 


8.0 








Surface 


24-9 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Sailing through 
bay and pan- 
cake ice ; some 
in sample 

Reeve's French 
blue 


16.0 


51-5 
10-8 C. 


11-1 
11-1 
111 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-45 
5-40 
5-35 
5-30 


37-0 
42-0 
46-5 
51-0 
55-8 
30-2 
24-5 
18-0 
12-5 


1-5471 
■0693 
■3193 


1-0261'J 




11-1 


5-50 


35-3 


1-9357 


1-02431 h 


273 


210 


Feb. 


28 




69 22 S. 


26 36 W. 




2587, 
bottom 




38-66 
3-7 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard reversing 
thermometer 
and bottle 

Memot thermo- 
meter 65,743 


















273 


211 


Feb. 


28 


15.30 








Surface 


24-6 


29-4 
-1-4 C. 


Lying for stop- 
ping in open 
pool 
Slush in sample 
Reeve's French 
blue (light) 


16.30 


50-5 

10-3 C. 


8-3 
8-3 
8-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


23-5 
28-0 
330 
38-0 
42-8 
49-7 
540 
59-0 
63-5 


1-5471 
■0521 
■3935 


1-02596 


l-omi i 


8-35 


5-70 


43-5 


1-9927 


v>73 


212 


Feb. 


28 


16.0 








50 


24-7 


29-40 
-1-44 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 
water-bottle 

Thermometer No. 
18,725 


10.0 

1/3/03 


59-0 
15-0 C. 


8-5 
8-8 
9-1 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


6-5 
11-7 
17-0 
22-5 
27-9 
33-7 
39-3 
44-7 
500 


1-5471 
■0549 
■2542 


1-02674 




8-8 


5-70 


28-1 


1-8562 


273 


213 


Feb. 


28 


17.0 








500 


25-0 


32-6 
0-33 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 
water-battle 

Thermometer No. 
18,725 


10.35 
1/3/03 


55-9 
13-3 C. 


8-2 
8-5 
8-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


3-0 
8-0 
13-0 
18-1 
23-8 
29-2 
350 
40-0 
46-0 


1-5471 
■0530 
■2171 


1-02695 


i-ow » 


8-5 


5-70 


24-0 


1-8172 


273 


214a 


Feb. 


28 


17.30 








1000 


25-0 


Not 
recorded 


Nansen-Pettersson 
water-bottle 

Thermometer No. 
18,725 


15.25 
1/3/03 


49-2 
9-6 C. 


90 

9-2 
9-3 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


3-3 
8-0 
13-5 
19-0 
24-5 
29-5 
350 
40-1 
46-0 


1-5471 
■0571 
■2198 






9-15 


5-70 


24-3 


1-8240 


102692 1-025H 


















— 








ND SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




107 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




s(E.) Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 


Time 
and 


during 

Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 






| 


D. 


rl. 








of 


from 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 


Reduced 


Reduced 








T. 




I , . . , [ 


>ay. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Sea 


which 
the 


t. 


Remarks. 


Date. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 
(cub. 


served 


to 


to 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


















at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 












Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 




centims.) 
































L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4 S l5»-66. 


4^1 


1 )3. 






/ 


o / 






°F. 


o -p_ 






o -p^ 


° C. 














F:?il. 


28 


20.0 








1000 


24-0 


32-05 ' 
0-03 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 
water-bottle 

Thermometer No. 
18,725 


11.0 

1/3/03 


54-8 
12-7 C. 


8-4 
8-7 
8-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


3-8 
8-9 
14-5 
19-8 
25-6 
30-2 
35-8 
41-0 
46-0 


1-5471 
■0540 
•2271 


1-02690 


1-02559 


1-02782 




8-65 


5-70 


25-1 


1-8282 


F/0. 


28 


20.30 


•• 






.1500 


24-0 


31-52 
-0-29 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 

water-bottle 
Thermometer No. 


11.35 

1/3/03 


51-5 
10-8 C. 


8-7 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


15-8 
21-0 
26-5 




























18,725 






8-9 
9-0 


5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


32-0 
37-8 
43-2 
48-7 
54-0 
59-3 


1-5471 
■0552 
■3401 


1-02681 


1-02552 


1-02775 




8-85 


5-80 


37-6 


1-9424 


Mar. 


1 


8.0 








Surface 


25-0 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 
pancake ice 

Slush (little) in 
sample 

Reeve's French 
blue 


14.25 


47-5 
8-6 C. 


11-3 
10-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


31-7 
36-5 
41-7 
44-8 
49-9 
53-9 




































5-80 


58-5 


1-5471 
































5-85 


62-5 


■0690 






























10-8 


5-45 


21-0 


■4025 


1-02555 


1-02466 


1-02690 




11-05 


5-65 


44-5 


2-0186 


Mar. 1 1 


12.0 


69 3S. 


28 2 W. 




Surface 


25-0 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 


Steaming in open 

pool of water 
Dull blue 


15.0 


48-7 
9-3 C. 


8-3 

8-4 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 


6-9 
12-0 
17-0 
22-2 
27-0 
31-8 




































5-70 


36-5 


1-5471 


































5-75 


410 


■0527 
































8-6 


5-80 


46-2 


■2415 


1-02627 


1-02493 


1-02720 




8-45 


5-60 


26-7 


1-8413 


Mar. 
• 


1 


16.0 








Surface 


25-6 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 

loose ice 
A little slush in 

sample 
Reeve's French 

blue (light) 


10.20 

2/3/03 


47-5 
8-6 C. 


7-9 
8-0 
8-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


25-5 
30-5 
36-0 
41-0 
46-5 
51-5 
57-0 
62-0 
67-0 


1-5471 
■0502 
■4188 


1-02584 


1-02446 


1-02669 




8-05 


5-70 


46-3 


2-0161 


Mar. 




20.0 








Surface 


25-8 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming in open 
pool sur- 
rounded by ice 

Turquoise ? (light 


10.45 
2/3/03 


50-0 
10-0 C. 


8-2 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


38-0 
43-5 
49-0 
54-0 


1-5471 
■0524 


























bad) 






8-6 


5-90 


59-0 


■4405 


1-02625 


1-02490 1-02717 




8-4 


5-80 


48-7 


2-0400 









































108 




DR W. S. 


BRUCE, MR A. KING, 


AND 


MR 


D. W 


. WILTON ON THE 


, TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC 


GRAVITIES, 








■?• 






Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Si 


o 


E 
"o 


Date(E.) 


Ppsilion (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Dcnsi i 

(Density of Du 
Water 


Month. 




Hour. 


1 
Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 

col- 

.i 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


in 


T. 


t. 


- 


I 
— 

E 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 












fe 


£ 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 






1903. 




/ o / 






° F. 


o -p 






o p 


°C. 












278 


220 


Mar. 1 


24.0 






Surface 


25-4 


29-0 




11.30 


51-5 


9-4 


5-70 


36-0 






















-1-7 C. 




2/3/03 


10-8 C. 




5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


. 41-0 
46-0 
51-0 


1-5471 
■0599 


















• 














9-8 


5-90 


56-0 


■4161 


1-02635 




9-6 


5-80 


46-0 


2-0231 


279 


221 


Mar. 


2 


4.0 








Surface 


25-6 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Ice crystals in 
sample 

• 


12.0 


55-5 
13-1 C. 


8-9 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


42-0 
47-0 
52-0 
57-0 


1-5471 
■0571 


























/ 






9-4 


5-90 


61-5 


■4705 


1-02606 








9-15 


5-80 


51-9 


2-0747 


280 


.'-•_' 


Mar. 


2 


8.0 








Surface 


25-7 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 
pancake ice 

Ice crystals in 
sample 

Reeve's French 
blue 


14.30 


47-2 
8-4 C. 


7-2 

7-4 
7-6 


5-50 
5-10 
5-15 
5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 


59-5 
16-2 
22-0 
27-0 
32-5 
38-0 
43-5 
48-8 
54-0 


1-5471 
■0462 
■3428 


1-02409 




7-4 


5-30 


37-9 


1-9361 


280 


223 


Mar. 


2 


11.0 








2511 


25-7 


Thermo- 
meter 
came up 
twisted, 
not 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard sounding- 
tube 
Thermometer No. 
102,504 


10.30 
6/3/03 


55-9 
13-3 C. 


9-6 
10-2 


5-45 
5-50 
5-55 


20 

7-6 

13-0 


1-5471 
■0618 
■0678 






























9-9 


5-50 


7-5 


1-6767 


1-02665 


1-025H 






















reliable 




















280 


223 


Mar. 


2 


11.0 








2511 






Tested again on 
10/3/03 at 11 
hours 


11.0 


50-3 
10-2 C. 


7-6 

7-8 


5-50 
5-60 
5-65 
5-55 


1-8 
12-8 
18-3 

7-8 


1-5471 
■0480 
■0923 


1-02700 


1-OiiU 


7-7 


5-575 


10-2 


1-6874 


280 


2-J 1 


Mar. 


2 


11.50 








500 


25-0 


32-65 
0-36 C. 

* 


Nansen-Pettersson 
water-bottle 

Thermometer No. 
18,725 


7.20 
3/3/03 


55-3 
12-9 C. 


7-8 
8-0 
8-4 


5-60 

5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


12-2 
17-6 
23-0 

28-5 
34-2 
39-9 
45-2 
50-5 
50-0 


1-5471 
■0505 
■3085 


1-02701 


1 


8-1 


5-80 


34-1 


1-9061 


280 


223 


Mar. 


2 


12.0 








Surfaa 


25-0 


28-9 

-i-rc. 


Stopped for 
sounding in 
open pool, 
amongst ice, 
mostly pan- 
cake 

Reeve's French 
blue 


15.50 


48-3 
9-1 C. 


5-9 
6-4 

6-7 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-05 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


100 

16-0 
21-0 
2(>-0 
31-5 
36-5 
41-5 
46-5 
51-8 


1-5471 
■0393 
■2822 


1-02667 




6-3 


5-70 


31-2 


1-86S6 





D SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




109 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


5f the Density of the Sample. 


El 


E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


of im- 
mersed 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 
















y. Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


a. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 






of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced Reduced 
to to 




T. 


t. 


u. j.i 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S t '. 


4 S 15--56. 


4St. 


hi:. 1 




o / 


o / 






° F. 


° F. 






o -p 


C. 














:■ •: 


1 14.0 








1000 


26-2 


31-84 
-0-08 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 

water-bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


9.35 

3/3/03 


52-5 
11-4 C. 


8-8 
9-1 
9-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


3-7 
9-3 
14-8 
20-5 
26-0 
31-6 
37-1 
42-5 
48-0 


1-5471 
■0568 
■2343 


1-02684 


1-02559 


1-02782 




9-1 


5-70 


25-9 


1-8382 


- 


! 15.40 








1500 


26-2 


31-71 


Nansen-Pettersson 


10.10 


53-6 


8-9 


5-50 


4-8 






















-0-17 C. 


water-bottle 


3/3/03 


12-0 C. 




5-55 


9-9 


























Thermometer No. 








5-60 


15-0 


























18,725 






9-2 
9-4 


5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


21-0 
26-6 
31-6 
36-9 
42-3 
47-7 


1-5471 
■0571 
■2370 


1-02682 


1-02558 


1-02782 




9-15 


5-70 


26-2 


1-8412 


lar. Ij 


16.0 








400 


26-2 


32-82 
0-45 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 
water-bottle 

Thermometer No. 
18,725 


10.45 
3/3/03 


52-9 
11-6 C. 


9-0 
9-3 
9-6 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


4-5 
9-8 
15-6 
21-1 
27-0 
31-9 
37-2 
42-9 
48-1 


1-5471 
■0580 
■2397 


1-02680 


1-02559 


1-02784 




9-3 


5-70 


266 


1-8448 


,, 


! 16.15 








300 


26-2 


33-1 

0-61 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 
water-bottle 

Thermometer No. 
18,725 


11.10 

3/3/03 


53-0 
11-7 C. 


9-4 
9-6 

9-8 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


16-5 
21-9 

27-5 
32-8 
38-5 
43-5 
49-5 
54-8 
60-0 


1-5471 
■0599 
■3465 


1-02674 


1-02558 


1-02783 




9-6 


5-80 


38-3 


1-9535 


lar. | 


! 16.25 








200 


26-2 


32-72 
0-40 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 

water-bottle 
Thermomteer No. 
18,725 


11.50 
3/3/03 


52-8 
11-6 C. 


9-4 

9-6 

10-0 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


161 

21-5 
27-0 
32-7 
38-0 
43-2 
49-1 
54-6 
61-0 


1-5471 
■0605 
•3447 




1-02560 


1-02735 




9-7 


5-80 


35-2 


1-9523 


1-02675 


lar. 


14.30 








100 


26-2 


32-30 
0-17 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 

water-bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


12.15 

3/3/03 


52-3 
11-3 C. 


9-2 
9-4 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
5-95 


14-9 

20-2 
25-9 
310 
36-5 
41-7 
47-5 
52-7 


1-5471 
■0587 




























9-6 


6-00 


58-2 


■3302 


1-02684 










9-4 


5-80 


36-5 


1-9360 


1-02564 1-02787 







































110 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, 



c 
o 
tS3 

d 


o 

"c. 
S 
w 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


Df the Density of the Sampt 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 


Time 
and 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 


Density of 8, 
(Don 












D. 


rl. 


Water at 4*C 


of 


from 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 




T. 




Reductd 

to 


O 

a 

— 

= 


ta-l 
o 
u 

o 

£ 
a 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 


which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


t. 


Remarks. 


Date. 


of 
the 
Air. 


of 

the 

Sample. 


(grams). 


meter. 


meter 

(cub. 

centims.) 


served 
at t'. 


of 
the 
Air. 


of 

the 

Water. 


15°-5Gr 


w. 


R. 


V. 


*&v. 


4S iyi , 






1903. 






o / 


o / 






o p 


°F. 






o p_ 


°C. 












281 ! 


232 


Mar. 


2 


16.40 








50 


26-2 


29-02 
-1-65 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 
water-bottle 

Thermometer No. 
18,725 


13.35 
3/3/03 


48-7 
9-3 C. 


S-9 

9-1 
9-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


6-2 
11-8 
17-0 
22-5 
28-0 
33-0 
37-8 
42-8 
48-2 


1-5471 
■0565 
■2488 


1-02676 




9-05 


5-70 


27-5 


1-8524 


281 


233 


Mar. 


3 


8.0 








Surface 


25-9 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 
mostly pan- 
cake ice 

Ice crystals in 
sample 

Reeve's French 
blue 


14.15 


50-9 
10-6 C. 


12-0 
11-9 
11-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-45 
5-40 
5-35 
5-30 


33-0 

38-0 
43-2 
48-7 
53-8 
27-0 
21-7 
16-0 
10-6 


1-5471 
■0746 
■2931 


1-02531 




11-95 


5-50 


32-4 


1-9148 




282 


234 


Mar. 


3 


12.0 


68 35 S. 


31 56 W. 




Surface 


26-6 


29-4 
-1-4 C. 


Steaming through 
pancake ice 

Reeve's French 
blue 


14.50 


51-5 
10-8 C. 


8-8 
9-2 
9-5 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


18-0 
23-5 
29-0 
34-0 
390 
44-0 
49-6 
54-6 
59-6 


1-5471 
■0571 
■3528 


1-02617 




9-15 


5-70 


39-0 


1-9570 


282 


235 


Mar. 


3 


15.50 








2452 


27-4 


31-89 
-0-05 C. 


Thermometer No. 
102,504 


14.35 
4/3/03 


56-8 
13-8 C. 


11-7 
12-0 
12-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


11-5 

16-7 
22-4 
27-8 
33-5 
39-0 
44-5 
50-0 
55-5 


1-5471 
■0752 
■3021 


1-02635 




12-05 


5-70 


33-4 


1-9244 


282 


236 


Mar. 


3 


17.30 








1952 


27-0 


33-29 
0-71 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,514 


















282 


237 


Mar. 


3 


17.45 








2442 


27-0 


30-12 
-1-05 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,514 


















282 


238 


Mar. 


3 


20.0 








Surface 


28-0 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 


Steaming in open 

pool 
Reeve's French 

blue 


10.20 
5/3/03 


46-9 
8-3 C. 


5-8 
60 
6-1 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


12-0 
17-0 
22-5 
27-7 
33-0 
38-0 
43-5 
490 
53-8 


1-5471 
■0371 
■2976 


1-02659 


1-OlM '• 


5-95 


5-70 


32-9 


1-8818 



I, 






112 



])R W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of the Samp; 


Date (E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 




Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of & 


a 
.2 

a! 


V 

— 

e 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 


during 


Weights 
added 

to 
Hydro- 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Di 












D. 


d. 




Experiment. 


Water at 4' C 






Time 










en 

o 
u 

V 


"3 

u 

CD 

I 
* 


Month. 


Day. Hour. 


Lat, 


Long. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T. 


t. 


Current, and 
Remarks. 


and 
Date. 


T'. 


t'. 


meter 
(grams). 


Ob- 
served 
att'. 


to 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


15"-56i;. 












^ 










L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S f. 








1903. 






i 

o / o / 






° F. 


° F. 






F. 


°C. 












286 


244b 


Mar. 


5 


10.40 








2488, 
bottom 


Same 


as 2-14a 


Buchanan's 
sounding-tube 


9.20 

7/3/03 


50-9 
10-5 C. 


8-2 
9-3 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


5-2 
10-9 
17-0 
22-6 
27-8 
33-2 


1-5471 
■0546 
■1760 


1-02677 


urn 


8-75 


5-625 


19-4 


1-7777 


286 


244b 


Mar. 


5 


10.40 










Teste 


d again 


at 11.20 on the 


10/3/03. 


50-0 
100 C. 


7-8 
8-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


3-8 
8-9 
14'8 
200 
250 
30-3 


1-5471 
■0505 
■1547 


1-02691 




8-1 


5-625 


17- 


1-7523 


l-omi 


287 


245 


Mar. 


5 


20.0 








Surface 


23-6 


28-8 
-1-8 C. 




11.0 

6/3/03 


54-7 
12-6 C. 


8-8 
9-0 
9-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


160 
21-0 
26-0 
31-0 
36-7 
41-8 
47-0 
52-0 
57-0 


1-5471 
■0562 
■3302 


1-02630 




90 


5-70 


36-5 


1-9335 


288 


246 


Mar. 


5 


24.0 








Surface 


24-0 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 




11.30 

6/3/03 


52-9 
11-6 C. 


8-6 
8-8 
9-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


13-8 
18-8 
23-8 
29-0 
341 
39-6 
44-5 
49-5 
"54-0 


1-5471 

■0555 
■3085 


102643 




8-9 


5-70 


34-1 


1-9111 


289 


247 


Mar. 


6 


4.0 








Surface 


21-9 


28-9 

-17 C. 


Spicules of ice 
in sample 


12.0 


52-5 
11-4 C. 


8-4 
8-6 
8-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-05 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


15-7 

20-7 
25-9 
30-9 
36-0 
41-1 
46-5 
51-8 
56-5 


1-5471 
■0537 
■3266 


10263d 


l-OttM 


8-6 


5-70 


361 


1-9274 




248 


Mar. 


6 9.0 


67 39 3. 


36 10 W. 




Surface 


240 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 


Taken whilst 

sounding 
Reeve's French 

blue 


11.30 


52-6 
11-4 C. 


8-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 


11-2 
16-3 
21-2 

26-6 




































8-6 


5-70 
5-75 
5'80 
5-85 


31-6 
36-6 
41-2 
46-7 


1-5471 
■0537 












• 


















' 




90 


5-90 


5T0 


■2840 


102658 




8-6 


5-70 


31-4 


1-8848 









































W SALINITIES OF THE WED DELL SEA AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 



113 



Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 



(K.) 



Hour. 



Position (L.) 



Lat. 



Long. 



Depth 
in Fathoms. 



D. 



of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 



d. 

from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 



Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 



T. 



of 
the 
Air. 



of 

the 

Water. 



Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 



Time 
and 
Date. 



[ar. 



9.45 



8 9.53 



9.50 



ar. ] 



8.0 



12.0 



20.0 



8.50 



9.0 



9.5 





2000 


25-4 


o p 

31-44 
-0-31 C. 




2485 


25-4 


31-42 
-0-32 C. 




2500, 

bottom 


Same 


as 250a 




Surface 


27-0 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 




Surface 


29-5 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 




Surface 


29-2 


29-3 
-15 C. 




1925 


28-0 


31-46 
-0-30 C. 




2410 


28-0 


31-37 
-0-35 C. 




2425, 
bottom 


28-0 


Same as 
255a 



Buchanan-Rich- 
ard reversing 
thermometer 
and bottle 
Thermometer No 
102,509 

Buchanan-Rich- 
ard reversing 
bottle 
Thermometer No 
102,504 

Buchanan's 
sounding- tube 



Steaming through 
closely packed 
pancake ice 
Ice in sample 
Reeve's French 
blue 



Steaming through 

loose pack 
Ice crystals in 

sample 
Reeve's French 

blue 



Ice touching ship 
on all sides 



Buchanan- Rich- 
ard water-bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,509 

Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water-bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,504 

Buchanan's 
sounding-tube 



Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 



T'. 



of 
the 
Air. 



of 

the 

Sample, 



Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 



11.55 
10/3/03 



10.40 
11/3/03 



11.10 

11/3/03 



11.30 
11/3/03 



14.0 
11/3/03 



51-5 
10-8 C 



56-3 
13-5 C 



52-7 
11-5 C. 



52-2 
11-2 C 



53-5 
11-9 C. 



C. 



8-7 



■55 
•4 



9-1 



8-8 



10-4 



110 



10-7 



5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 



5-60 

5-00 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 



5-25 

5-35 

5-45 
5-55 
5-65 
5-75 
5-85 
5-95 



5-65 

5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 



5-70 



5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 



5-50 



Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 



Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 



5-2 
10-2 
15-6 
20-8 
25-8 



155 

7-0 
18-0 
28-7 
39-3 
50-0 
60-2 



33-9 

5-0 
15-8 
26-5 
37-0 

47-5 
57-8 
67-8 



36-8 

3-5 
14-2 
25-3 
360 
46-8 
57-2 
67-7 



35-8 



2-9 

8-7 

14-2 

200 

25-6 



14-3 



V. 



1-5471 
■0534 
■1402 



1-7407 



1-5471 
■0543 
■3067 



Density of Sample. 
(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 



Ob- 
served 
at t'. 



Reduced 

to 
15°-56C 



Reduced 
to 
t. 



1-02684 1-02551 



1-9072 



1-5471 
■0537 
■3329 



1-9337 



1-5471 
■0549 
■3238 



1-9258 



1-5471 
•0668 
■1293 



1-7432 



1-02398 



1-02603 



1-02635 



1-02628 



1-02270 



1-02473 



1-02506 



1-02531 



1-02775 



1-02485 



1-02696 



1-02732 



1-02753 






114 DR W. S. BRUCE, AIR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of 1 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Densi 


c 

o 


9 

"3. 
E 

a 

w 

"o 

u 
e 

J3 

E 

3 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of & 












D. 


d. 


Water at 4'.' 


C3 

' 
O 

U 

a 
E 

3 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 

col- 

lecied. 




Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


~ 


T. 


t. 


to 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 














a 


S5 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4»f. 






1903. 




1 ° ' 


o / 






o p_ 


o p_ 






°F. 


°C. 












295 256 


Mar. 


10 


10.0 


•• 




Surface 


28-9 


29-3 
-15 C. 


Just after sound- 
ing, ice quite 


12.10 
11/3/03 


52-2 
11-2 C. 


8-3 


5-50 
5-60 


13-3 

24-2 




























near 








5-70 


34-9 


1-5471 




























Reeve's French 








5-80 


45-8 


■0524 




























blue 






8-5 


5-90 


56-2 


■3157 


102641 




8-4 


5-70 


34-9 


1-9152 




29C 


257 


Mar. 


11 


8.0 








Surface 


25-0 


29-1 
-1-6 C. 


In open pool, 
ice about J 
mile away 

Reeve's French 
blue 


14.40 


56-3 
13-5 C. 


13-6 

13-4 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


24-5 
34-8 
45-0 
53-0 
62-8 


1-5471 
■0842 
■3980 


1-02576 




13-5 


5-70 


44-0 


20293 




297 


258 


Mar. 


11 


12.0 


66 22 S. 


42 20 W. 




Surface 


25-8 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 


Very little ice 

about 
Reeve's French 

blue 


15.0 


53-8 
12-1 C. 


11-2 
11-3 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


15-0 
25-3 
35-7 
46-0 
55-6 


1-5471 
■0702 
■3211 


1-02628 




11-25 


5-70 


35-5 


1-9384 




298 


259 


Mar. 


11 


16.0 








Surface 


26-0 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Amongst ice, 
some in sample 

Reeve's French 
blue 


11.35 
12/3/03 


46-5 
8-1 C. 


8-5 
8-6 

8'6 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 


5-7 

15-8 
26-0 
36-2 
47-0 
57-9 
68-0 
76-4 
86-5 


1-5471 
■0534 
■4215 


1-02525 


mm 


8-55 


5-60 


46-6 


2-0220 


299 


260 


Mar. 


11 


20.0 








Surface 


25-0 


28-8 
-1-8 C. 


Sailing through 
pancake ice ; 
so much ice in 
sample that it 
had to be 
melted before 
pouring in 
bottle 

Too dark to see 


12.0 
12/3/03 


46-4 
8-0 C. 


6-7 
6-8 
7-0 


4-10 
4-20 
4-30 
4-40 
4-50 
4-60 
4-70 
4-80 
4-90 


8-5 
19-0 
300 
41-0 
52-0 
62-8 
73-2 
83-2 
94-0 


1-5471 
•0427 
■4659 


1-01902 


M 


6-85 


4-50 


51-5 


2-0557 


300 


261 


Mar. 


12 


9.10 








Surface 


20-5 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Taken whilst 

sounding 
Ice in sample 
Reeve's French 

blue (light) 


13.50 


48-7 
9-3 C. 


4-7 
5-1 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


2-0 
12-8 
23-5 
34-0 
45-5 


1-5471 
■0306 
■2135 


1-02691 


H 


4-9 


5-50 


23-6 


1-7912 


300 


262 


Mar. 


12 


10.15 








2000 


19-7 


31-48 
-0-29 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 


14.0 


49-0 

9-4 C. 


5-3 
5-6 
5-9 


5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 
6-30 
6-40 
6-50 


2-5 
12-7 
23-2 
. 33-0 
430 
54-2 
63-6 
71-9 
80-7 


1-5471 
■0349 
■3872 


1-02830 




5-6 


6-10 


42-8 


1-9692 


1 



















































JD SALINITIES OF THE WEDDELL SEA AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN. 115 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


1 


(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 






Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


J. 




of 

Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 

to 


... ill 


T. 


t. 




at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






v .- . at t'. 

centims.) 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4 S l5°-56. 


*s fc 


M.i. 






o t 


o / 






°F. 


o p 






"F. 


■c. 














M :iT. 


12 


10.25 








2485 


19-7 


32-15 
0-08 C. 


Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,509 




















Mar. 


12 


10.30 








2500 


Same 


as 263a 


Buchanan's 
sounding-tube 


11.20 
14/3/03 


61-0 
16-1 C. 


10-8 
12-0 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 


40 
9-2 
15-0 
20-8 
26-3 
31-8 


1-5471 
■0711 
•1610 


1-02621 


1-02536 


1-02757 


Mar. 


11-4 


5-525 


17-8 


1-7792 


L2 


19.0 








1500 


14-6 


32-00 


Nansen Pettersson 


9.0 


60-3 


12-8 


5-40 


0-0 


























0-00 C. 


water-bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


13/3/03 


15-7 C. 


130 
13-4 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 


11-0 
22-0 
32-1 
43-0 
52-9 
62-8 
73-0 
83-6 


1-5471 
■0817 
■3825 


1-02641 


1-02589 


1-02814 




13-1 


5-80 


42-3 


2-0113 


Mar 


12 


19.40 








100 


14-2 


3201 
0-01 C. 


Nansen-Pettersson 
water-bottle 

Thermometer No. 
18,725 


9.30 
13/3/03 


61-8 
16-6 C. 


12-9 
12-8 
12-9 


5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 


2-8 
13-5 
24-2 
34-4 
45-1 
56-0 
64-8 
75-0 
86-0 


1-5471 

■0805 
■4034 


1'02630 


1-02574 


1-02797 




12-9 


5-80 


44-6 


2-0310 


Mar. 


12 


20.0 








Surface 


14-2 


28-8 


Sample about half 


13.30 


57-3 


11-8 


5-00 


1-0 


























-1-8 C. 


full of ice 


13/3/03 


14-1 C. 




5-10 
5-20 


11-7 
21-8 


































11-8 
12-2 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


32-4 
43-2 
54-0 
63-9 

74-1 
84-2 


1-5471 
•0749 
■3881 


1-02422 


102349 


1-02569 




12-0 


5-40 


42-9 


2-0101 




13 


8.40 








Surface 


7-4 


29-4 
-1-4 C. 


Bay ice near 

ship 
No ice in sample 


14.0 


59-9 
15-5 C. 


11-2 


5-40 
5-50 
5-60 


4-8 
15-6 
26-0 


























Reeve's French 








5-70 


37-0 


























blue 






11-4 


5-80 
5-90 


47-2 
58-0 




































6-00 


68-0 


1-5471 


































6-10 


79-0 


■0718 
































11-8 


6-20 


88-2 


■4261 


1-02622 


1-02539 


1-02767 




11-5 


5-80 


47-1 


2-0450 









































116 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 





— 

E 

d 
/. 

*o 

01 

S 
3 


Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


af the Density of IL 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 






Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 


Read- 
ing 

of 
Hydro- 
meter. 

• 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 


Density oI8 

(Den..: 










D. 


d. 


Water 


"3 
U 

c 

g 

3 


.Month. 




Lat. 


Long. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 




Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 

Date. 


T'. 

of 


t'. 

of 


Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


Ob- 
served 




T. 


t. 


ti 


Day. 




of 


of 


(cub. , 
centims.) 


15 












tion 


was 


the 


the 






the 


the 












fc 


fc 












L. 


lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


t&v. 


|S 






1903. 






o / 


O / 






o y 


O J^ 




- 


°F. 


° C. 












301 


268 


Mar. 


13 


9.10 








500 


7-4 


330 
0-56 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 


10.0 

14/3/03 


57-2 
14-0 C. 


11-2 
11-4 

11-7 


5-45 
5-55 
5-65 
5-75 
5-85 
5-95 
6-05 
615 
6-25 


3-0 
14-2 
25-0 
36-0 
46-5 
57-6 
67-5 
78-0 
88-9 


1-5471 
■0714 
■4188 


1-02654 




11-45 


5-85 


46-3 


2-0373 




301 


269 


Mar. 


13 


9.25 








1000 


7-4 


32-17 
0-09 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,509 


10.40 
14/3/03 


57-0 
13-9 C. 


12-0 
12-3 

12-7 


5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


4-8 
10-2 
16-0 
21-0 
26-8 
31-9 
37-0 
42-3 
47-4 


15471 
■0771 
■2388 


1-02643 




12-35 


5-65 


26-4 


1-8630 




301 


270 


Mar. 


13 


9.50 








300 


7-7 


33-3 
0-72 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 


11.40 
14/3/03 


59-0 
15-0 C. 


131 
13-1 
13-1 


5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 


2-7 
13-6 
24-2 
35-0 
45-5 
56-0 
66-5 
76-6 
86-8 


1-5471 
■0817 
■4089 


1-02626 




131 


5-80 


45-2 


2-0377 


i-om i 


301 


271 


Mar. 


13 


10.0 








400 


7-7 


32-9 
0-50 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,509 


12.10 
14/3/03 


56-3 
13-5 C. 


130 

130 
12-9 


5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 


2-9 
13-9 
24-7 
35-6 
46-0 
56-7 
660 
77-0 


1-5471 
■0808 
■3645 


1-02625 




12-95 


5-75 


40-3 


1-9924 


i-om 


301 


272 


Mar. 


13 


10.10 








50 


7-7 


29-43 
-Vi2 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 


14.10 
14/3/03 


58-4 
14-7 C. 


12-1 
12-2 
12-5 


5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 


30 
13-9 
24-6 
35-8 
46-0 
56-2 
65-8 
77-0 
87-2 


1-5471 
■0768 
■4116 


1-02628 




12-3 


5-80 


45-5 


2-0355 




301 


273 

i 


Mar. 


13 


10.15 








200 


7-7 


33-14 
0-63 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,509 


14.50 
14/3/03 


57-8 
14-3 C. 


12-2 
12-6 
12-8 


5-45 
5-55 
5-65 
5-75 
5-85 
5-95 
6-05 
615 
6-25 


5-5 
16-5 

27-2 
380 
48-8 
60-0 
69-5 
80-9 
90-8 


1-5471 
•0780 
■4396 


102639 




12-5 


5-85 


48-6 


2-0647 


1-90 



D SALINITIES OF THE WEDDELL SEA AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 



117 



Data Belating to the Collection of the Sample. 



(E.) 



■y- 



Hour. 



Position (L.) 



Lat. 



Long. 



Depth 

in Fathoms. 



of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 



d. 



from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 



Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 



T. 

of 
the 
Air. 



:! 





o / 


12.0 




17.45 




17.45 


•• 


12.0 




18.40 




19.0 





Surface 



2470 



2485, 
bottom 



Surface 



Surface 



2007 



op 

9-4 



10-9 



Same 



20-3 



25-1 



24-9 



of 

the 

Water. 



op 

29-2 
-1-6 C. 



31-25 
-0-12 C 



as 275a 



290 
-1-7 C. 



29-0 
-1-7 C. 



31-33 
-0-37 C. 



Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



Trawl down, 
steaming slow 
ly through 
bay ice 
No ice in sample 
Reeve's French 
blue 



Large Buchanan 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No, 
102,509 



Buchanan sound 
ing-tube 



Ice crystals in 

sample 
Reeve's French 

blue 



Stopped for 

sounding a- 
mongst pan- 
cake ice 

No ice in sample 



Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No 
102,504 



Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 



Time 
and 
Date. 



Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 



15.15 
14/3/03 



10.40 
15/3/03 



11.10 
15/3/03 



10.0 
15/3/03 



10.20 
15/3/03 



12.10 
15/3/03 



T'. 



of 
the 
Air. 



op 

57-5 
14-2 C 



58-9 
14-9 C. 



58-8 
14-9 C. 



60-2 
15-7 C 



59-7 
15-4 C. 



59-4 
15-2 C. 



of 
the 

Sample. 



Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 



Read- 
ing 
of 

Hydro- 
meter. 



Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 



V. 



Density of Sample. 
(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 



Ob- 
served 
at t'. 



i S„ 



°c. 

12-1 



12-5 



12-6 



12-35 



18-1 



17-9 



17-7 



17-9 



18-3 



17-6 



17-95 



16-4 



16-3 
16-2 



16-3 



161 



160 
160 



1605 



15-9 



15-6 



5-35 
5-45 
5-55 
5-65 
5-75 
5-85 
5-95 
6-05 
6-15 



5-75 



5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 



5-60 



5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 



5-325 



5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 



5-50 



5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 



5-50 



5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 



15-75 5-45 



2-0 
12-6 
23-6 
33-8 
44-1 
54-5 
64-7 
75-2 
84-6 



43-9 



1-2 
12-0 
22-7 
33-5 
43-8 
54-3 
64-2 
74-8 
84-0 



43- 



0-8 
5-9 
10-9 
16-0 
21-3 
26-0 



13-5 



3-2 
13-6 
24-6 
35-0 
45-5 
560 
66-5 



34-9 



00 
10-2 
20-8 
31-7 
42-0 
52-3 
62-6 



31- 



2-7 
8-2 
13-5 
18-6 
24-2 
30-4 
35-6 

190 



1-5471 
■0771 
■3971 



2-0213 



1-5471 
■1117 
■3925 



2-0513 



1-5471 
■1120 
■1221 



1-7812 



1-5471 
■1017 
■3103 



1-9591 



1-5471 
■1002 
■2845 



1-9318 



1-5471 
■0983 
■1719 

1-8173 



Reduced 

to 
15°-56C. 



Reduced 
to 

t. 



«S t 



1-02608 



1-02509 



1-02509 



102506 



1-02521 



1-02558 



1-02541 



1-02565 



1-02566 



1-02524 



102533 



1-02770 



1-02787 



1-02788 



1-02750 



102759 



1-02563 



1-02788 



118 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the 3a 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Deusi 


c 


_i 








at time hi 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


(Den,, 
Wain ,, 
















o 
33 
09 

W 

"3 
u 

XL 

§ 

3 


E 


01 

5 

3 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 




of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 




T. 


t. 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 










fc 


fc 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


i^Wi 






1903. 






o , 1 . , 




o p. 


•F. 






° F. ° C. 












303 


279a 


Mar. 


14 


19.30 






2532 


25-6 31 '0 


Large Buchanan- 


11.45 


58-8 17-1 


5-25 


1-7 
























-0-5G C. 


Richard water- 


15/3/03 14-9 C. 




5-30 


7-2 




























bottle 






5-35 


12-6 




























Thermometer No. 








5-40 


17-7 




























102,509 






17-0 


5-45 
5-50 


23-2 
28-3 






































5-55 


33-3 


1-5471 




































5-60 


38-8 


■1061 


































16-9 


5-65 


43'8 


■2081 


1-02534 




17-0 


5-45 


23-0 


1-8613 


303 


279b 


Mar. 


14 


19.40 








2547, 
bottom 


Same 


as 279a 


Sounding - tube 
with long 
nozzle 


16.0 
15/3/03 


57-5 
14-2 C. 


17-5 
17-2 

P 

17-0 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-25 


10-3 

15-2 
20-2 
25-9 
31-2 
36-5 
410 
46-0 
2-8 


1-5471 
■1076 
■2298 


1-02520 




17-25 


5-45 


25-4 


1-8845 


30-1 


280 


Mar. 


15 


4.0 




f 




Surface 


29-2 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 
pancake ice, 
some in sample 


14.55 
15/3/03 


58-3 
14-6 C. 


15-7 
15-6 
15-6 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 


5-1 
15-1 
25-6 
36-1 
46-2 
60-2 
70-1 
80-0 
91-7 


1-5471 
■0977 
■4324 


1-02495 




15-65 


5-60 


47-8 


2-0772 


305 


281 


Mar. 


15 


8.0 








Surface 


30-2 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 
pancake ice, 
some in sample 

Reeve's French 
blue 


15.30 
15/3/03 


57'8 
14-3 C. 


17-6 

17-3 
17-2 


4-70 
4-80 
4-90 
5'00 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 


1-0 
11-4 
22-5 
33-0 
43-6 
54-0 
64-5 


1-5471 
■1086 
■2967 


1-02235 




17-4 


5-00 


32-8 


1-9524 


30C 


282 


Mar. 


15 


12.0 


C4 11 S. 


42 12 W. 




Surface 


29-8 


29-1 
— 1-6 C. 


Steaming through 
pancake ice, 
spicules in 
sample 

Reeve's French 
blue 


16.30 


55-2 
12-9 C. 


14-6 

14-6 
14-5 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


5-3 
16-2 
26-9 
37-8 
48-5 
58-8 
68-0 


1-5471 
■0908 
■3383 


102496 




14-55 


5-50 


37-4 


1-9762 


307 


283 


Mar. 


15 


16.0 




•• 




Surface 


29-6 


29-1 
-1-6 C. 


Taken whilst 
sounding,loose 


10.30 
16/3/03 


61-1 

16-2 C. 


17-2 


5-20 
530 


7-0 
17-6 




























ice near, none 






5-40 


28-0 






























in sample 








5-50 


38-6 






























Reeve's French 






17-0 


5-60 


49-0 






























blue 








5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


60-0 
69-9 
80-6 


1-5471 
■1061 






















• 












16-8 


6'00 


90-1 


■4432 


1-02484 




170 


5-60 


49-0 


2-0964 


: 1 



s 


) SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




119 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


at 


5.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 




Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


during 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at4°C. = l.) 




. Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


hspenment. 




of 

Sea 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 




T. 


t. 




at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L - leered. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4^t'. 


4 S l5°-56. 


4 S t . 






o / 


o > 






°F. 


°F. 




1 


°C. 














1 


17.30 








1900 


29-0 


31-31 


Large Buchanan- 


11.0 00-8 


16-8 


5-30 


6-0 
























-0-39 C. 


Richard water- 


16/3/03 160 C. 


5-35 


11-6 


























bottle 






5-40 


16-8 


























Thermometer No. 








5-45 


21-9 


























102,509 






16-7 
16-6 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


27-1 
33-5 
38-7 
43-8 
49-0 


1-5471 
■1042 
•2497 


1-02539 


1-02565 


1-02792 




16-7 


5-50 


27-6 


1-9010 




17.43 








2400 


29-4 


31-03 
-0-54 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 


11.30 

16/3/03 


58-8 
14-9 C. 


16-3 
160 
160 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 


4-2 
15-0 
25-8 
36-0 
47-6 
57-7. 
68-0 
78-0 
87-5 


1-5471 
■1008 
■4215 


1-02554 


1-02567 


1-02795 




1615 


5-70 


46-6 


20694 


1 


\ 24.0 








Surface 


28-3 


290 
-1-7 C. 




12.15 
16/3/03 


60-7 
15-9 C. 


17-4 

17-2 
16-8 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 


8-0 
18-5 
290 
400 
50-8 
60-5 
69-8 
79-8 
89-8 


1-5471 
■1067 
■4487 


1-02481 


1-02515 


1-92743 




171 


5-60 


49-6 


2-1025 




J 8.45 








Surface 


300 


29-9 
-1-2 C. 


Stopped for 
sounding in 
open pool 

Reeve's French 

blue 


11.35 

17/3/03 


51-0 
10-6 C. 


111 
11-2 
11-4 


5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 


7-0 
18-5 
29-5 
400 
50-6 
61-0 
71-8 
82-5 
930 


1-5471 
■0702 
■4568 


1-02606 


1-02518 


1-02745 




11-25 


5-80 


50-5 


2-0741 




1 9.45 








2050 


29-8 


31-23 
-0-42 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 

Tested by 


7.5 
18/3/03 


650 
18-3 C. 


16-6 
16-5 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 


5-5 
10-3 
160 
21-3 
26-2 
31-5 
























W. S. B. 






16-5 


5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


35-8 
41-2 
46-5 


1-5471 
■1033 
■2352 


1-02547 


1-02570 


1-02796 




16-55 


5-50 


260 


1-8856 




B| 9.50 








2533 29-8 


31-06 


Large Buchanan- 


7.50-8.15 


65-2 


16-5 


5-30 


3-2 






















-0-53 C. 


Richard water- 
bottle 


18/3/03 \18-4C. 




5-35 
5-40 


90 
150 
























Thermometer No. 








5-45 


200 
























102,509 






16-5 


5-50 


25-5 


1-5471 






















Tested by 








5-55 


31-5 


■1033 


















i 




W. S. B. 






16-6 


5-60 


36-6 


■1818 


1-02550 


1-02573 


1-02798 




16-55 


5-45 


201 


1-8322 




1 soc 


EDIN., 


VOL. LI 


[, PA 


RT I ( 


NO. < 


1)- 


















18 





120 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Da 






Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Deter 


nination 


if the Density of the 


te(:E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fal hums. 


Temperature 

at tune of 

Collection of 






Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


Volume 
of i m- 
mersed 


Density 
(Densitj 
















Wafer; 


a 


E 

"8 


Month. 


Day. 


Ilour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 




to 

Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 




of 
Sea 


from 

which 

the 

Sample 
was 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 




T. 


t. 


V, 


- 


u 
6 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






centims.) 


at t'. 


v. 












« 


^ 












L. 


looted. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 
°F. 


Sample. 

° C. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St\ 


if 






1903. 






o / 


o / 






F. 


°F. 












309 


289b 


Mar. 


16 


9.55 








2550 


Same 


as 289a 


Sounding-tube 


8.30 

18/3/03 


62-2 
16-8 C. 


15-6 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


3-0 

8-2 

14-0 




































5-45 


19-8 


1-5471 




































5-50 


25-0 


■0973 


































15-6 


5-55 


30-2 


■1511 


1-02557 




15-6 


5-425 


16-7 


1-7955 


i 


309 


290 


Mar. 


16 


20.0 








Surface 


29-0 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 
pancake ice ; 
some in sample 


15.50 
17/3/03 


52-8 
11-6 C. 


15-7 

15-3 
15-3 


5-05 
5-15 
5-25 
5-35 
5-45 
5-55 
5-65 


4-0 
14-0 
25-5 
36-0 
46-5 
56-5 
66-0 


1-5471 
■0967 
•3211 


102420 




15-5 


5-35 


35-5 


1-9649 


I 


310 


291 


Mar. 


17 


8.0 








Surface 


29-9 


29-7 
-1-3 C. 


Outside edge of 

pack 
Reeve's French 

blue (light) 


16.20 


55-8 
13-2 C. 


17-9 

17-4 
17-2 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


11-6 

22-0 
32-0 
44-0 
54-0 
62-0 
74-0 


1-5471 
■1095 
■3872 


1-02450, 




17-55 


5-50 


42-8 


2-0438 


1 


311 


292 


Mar. 


17 


12.0 


63 8S. 


42 30 W. 




Surface 


25-8 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Steaming through 

pancake ice ; 

some in 

sample 
Reeve's French 

blue (light) 


9.30 

18/3/03 


57-0 
13-9 C. 


17-5 

17-1 
16-9 


5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


6-0 
16-2 
26-8 
37-0 
48-8 
58-6 
68-8 


1-5471 
■1073 
■3392 


1-02431 




17-2 


5-40 


37-5 


1-9936 


1 


312 


293 


Mar. 


17 


16.0 








Surface 


22-0 


29-5 
-1-39 C. 


Just stopped 
for sounding 
outside edge 


10.30 

18/3/03 


60-0 
15-6 C. 


16-9 

16-8 
16-8 


5-15 

5-25 
5-35 
5-45 
5-55 
5-65 
5-75 


2-5 
130 
24-5 
35-0 
46-0 
56-5 
66-5 


1-5471 
■1051 
■3157 


1-02474 




16-85 


5-45 


34-9 


1-9679 


!■ 


312 


294 


Mar. 


17 


16.55 








1456 


21-0 


31-3 
-0-39 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 


11.0 

18/3/03 


60-9 
16-1 C. 


16-1 

15-8 
15-6 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 


4-5 
15-2 
26-0 
36-8 
47-0 
57-6 
67-0 
77-5 


1-5471 
■0989 
■3745 


I 02554 




15-85 


5-65 


41-4 


2-0205 


H 


312 


295a 


Mar. 


17 


17.li 








L939 


21-0 


33-44 
0-80 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,509 


11.30 

18/3/03 


56-6 
13-7 C. 


15-4 

15-1 

14-8 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


11-0 
16-0 
21-5 
26-8 
320 
37-2 
42-5 
47-6 
53-0 


1-5471 
■0942 
•2895 










77- 7 


r, ,;n 


32-0 


1-9308 





D SALINITIES OF THE WEDDELL SEA AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 



121 



Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 



»a 



Hour, 



1 17.0 



17.30 



17.40 



17.50 



10.10 



10.15 



Position (L.) 



Lat. 



Lorn; 



Depth 
in Fathoms. 


D. 


d. 


of 
Sea 
at 
Posi- 
tion 
L. 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 



Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 



of 
the 

Air. 



195G 



100 



500 



1000 



1758 



1775 



Same 



21-0 



20-9 



20-9 



29-8 



Same 



of 

the 

Water. 



o p_ 

as 295a 



30-62 
-0-79 C 



32-73 
0-40 C 



32-95 ■ 
0-53 C. 



3102 
-0-55 C. 



as 299a 



Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 



Time 
and 
Date. 



Sounding-tube 



Large Buchanan- 

Richard-water 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,513 



Large Buchanan- 
Richard water 
bottle 

Thermometer No 
102,504 



Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No 
102,509 



Large Buchanan 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 



Sounding-tube 



14.0 

18/3/03 



Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 



T'. 



of 
the 

Air. 



F. 

54-3 
12-4 C. 



14.30 
18/3/03 



15.0 
18/3/03 



15.50 
18/3/03 



10.25 
19/3/03 



12.20 



of 

the 

Sample, 



Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 



55-3 
12-9 C 



55-4 
130 C 



55-0 
12-8 C 



54-7 
12-6 C 



56-4 
13-6 C, 



°C. 
14-0 



13-0 



13-8 

14-8 

14-7 
14-6 



14-7 
15-9 



15-4 



151 



15-5 
15-2 

150 

14-8 



15-0 
13-0 

13-2 

13-4 



13-2 
13-3 



13-2 



13-25 



Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 



Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 



R. 



Density of Sample. 
(Density of Distilled 
Waterat4°C. = l.) 



Ob- 
served 
at t'. 



Reduced 

to 
15°-56C. 



Reduced 
to 



5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-G0 
5-65 



5-50 

5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 



4-2 
100 
15-0 
200 
25-6 
30-6 
35-8 



5- 70 

5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 



5- 70 

5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 



5-70 

5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 



5- 80 

5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 



5-50 



20-2 

10 
ll-(i 
22-5 
330 
44-0 
53-4 
03-5 
74-2 
85-0 



43-1 

2-0 
12-2 
23-2 
33-8 
44-8 
54-0 
63-5 
74-8 
84-8 



43-7 

0-5 
110 
22-0 
32-8 
43-6 
54-0 
04-5 
75-0 
84-0 



43-1 

40 
150 
20-0 
37-0 
48-0 
58-5 
69-5 
79-8 
90-0 



47-5 

00 
5-2 
10-8 
16-7 
21-8 
26-8 
32-0 



16-2 



1-5471 
■0861 
■1827 



1-8159 



1-5471 
■0917 
■3899 



1-02587 



2-0287 



1-5471 

■0967 
■3953 



2-0391 



1-5471 
■0936 
■3899 



2-0306 



1-5471 

■0824 
■4297 



2-0592 



1-5471 
■0827 
•1465 



1-7763 



1-02548 



1-02577 



1-02571 



1-02576 



1-02614 



1-02609 



1-02558 



1-02775 



1-02570 



1-02564 



1-02565 



1-02786 



1-02797 



1-02792 



1-02792 



1-02560 1-02787 



I-- DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. VV. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITY 



c 
_o 

DO 

"3 


"5. 
S 
a 
CO 

o 


Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


ol the Density of 


MlV 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

('uncut, and 

Kemarks. 


Time 

and 

Dale. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 

of 

Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Den 

(Den 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Wateril ; 


of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 

Col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


' 


T. 


t. 




it 

o 

XI 

a 

3 


a 
X) 

E 

3 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 

the 


of 
the 






att'. 














fe 


fc 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 «t'. 


» S r 






1903. 






o / 


/ 


i 


o F _ 


o p 






°F. 


°C. 










313 300 Mar. 


18 


11.10 








500 29-5 


32-54 


Large BuchananH 


11.12 


57-0 


13-0 


5-40 


30 






















0-30 C. 


Richard water- 


19/3/03 


13-9 C. 




5-50 


14-5 




























bottle 








5-60 


26-0 






























Thermometer No. 








5-70 


37-0 






























102,509 






13-4 
13-6 


5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 


47-8 
58-6 
69-2 
800 
91-0 


1-5471 
■0830 
■4297 


1-02614 






13-3 


5-80 


47-5 


2-0598 




313 


301 Mar. 


18 


11.20 




t 




1000 


29-5 


31-68 


Large Buchanan- 


6.30-6.52 


60-0 


14-7 


5-35 


3-2 




























-0-18 C. 


Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,513 

Tested by 
W.S. B. 


20/3/03 


15-6 C. 

60-0 
15-6 C. 


14-9 
15-0 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


9-0 
13-7 
200 
25-6 
30-5 
36-2 
42-0 
48-0 


1-5471 
•0927 
■2298 
































14-85 


5-55 


25-4 


1-8696 


1-02584 




313 


302 


Mar. 


18 


11.25 








1500 


29-5 


31-23 
-0-42 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 

Tested by 
W. S. B. 


7.7-7.30 
20/3/03 




14-4 
14-4 
14-7 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


7-0 
12-2 
17-0 
23-5 
26-2 
32-6 
38-0 
43-5 
500 


1-5471 
■0908 
•2515 


1-02600 




14-55 


5-60 


27-8 


1-8894 




313 


303 


Mar. 


18 


12.0 








Surface 


29-3 


29-6 
-1-3 C. 


In open pool, 

trawling 
Ice spicules in 

sample 
Reeve's French 

blue 
Tested by 

W.S. B. 


7.35-7.55 
20/3/03 


60-3 
15-7 C. 


14-5 
14-6 
14-8 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


50 
10-0 
15-2 
20-5 
26-5 
31-2 
37-0 
430 
49-0 


1-5471 
■0914 
■2388 


1-02491 




14-65 


5-40 


26-4 


1-8773 


314 


304 


Mar. 


19 


8.0 








Surface 


26-0 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


A few ice spicules 

in sample 
Reeve's French 

blue 


10.0 
24/3/03 


48-4 
91 C. 


8-8 
9-2 


5-35 
5-45 
5-55 
5-65 
5-75 


3-8 
14-3 
25-6 
36-5 
47-3 


1-5471 
■0562 
■2307 


1-02604 




9-0 


5-55 


25-5 


1-8340 


315 


305 


Mar. 


19 


12.0 








312 

Bcttom 
at 327 


26-2 


31-81 
-011 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 


10.15 

24/3/03 


53-1 
11-7 C. 


9-4 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


4-9 
15-9 
27-0 
























fms. 






Thermometer No. 
102,504 


, 




9-7 


5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 


380 
48-9 
59-9 
70-3 
81-0 


1-5471 ' 
■0605 
































100 


6-30 


91-0 


■4387 


1-02677 




9-7 


5-90 


48-5 


20463 





w 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELI 


SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




123 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


Df the Density of the Sample. 


1 


(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 


Density of Sample. 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at4°C. = l.) 












D. 


d. 




,iy. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 




Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


T'. 

of 


t'. 


Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


Ob- 
served 




il. 


T. 


t. 


Reduced 

to 
15°-56C. 


Reduced 
to 
t. 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


centims.) 




the 






















L - Iected. 


Air. 


Water. 




Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S t\ 


4^15°'56. 


4 S t. 








o / 


o / 






o p_ 


o p 






F. °C. 
















9 


12.0 








Surface 


20-2 


300 
-hi C. 


In open pool 
outside edge of 


10.45 
24/3/03 


55-2 9-8 
12-9 C. 


5-50 
5-60 


21-1 

32-2 




























pack 








5-70 


43-2 


1-5471 
























Reeve's French 








5-80 


54-0 


■0624 


























blue 






10-2 


5-90 


650 


■3899 


1-02593 


1-02485 


1-02709 




100 


5-70 


43-1 


1-9994 




9 


12.25 








100 


26-2 


31-4 

-0-33 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 


11.0 

24/3/03 


55-7 
13-2 C. 


9-5 


5-50 
5-60 


6-5 

17-7 


























bottle 








5-70 


28-7 


























Thermometer No. 








5-80 


39-9 


























102,513 




■ 


100 
10-2 


5-90 
600 
6-10 
6-20 
6-30 


50-8 
61-2 
71-9 
82-2 
89-9 


1-5471 
■0615 
•4514 


1-02669 


1-02557 


1-02783 




9-85 


5-90 


49-9 


2-0600 




9 


12.30 








200 


26-2 


31-91 
-0-06 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 


11.30 
24/3/03 


56-1 
13-4 C. 


9-8 
10-2 
10-6 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 
6-30 


61 
16-9 
27-9 
38-8 
49-9 
60-7 
71-2 
82-0 
92-3 


1-5471 
■0636 
■4478 


1-02670 


1-02564 


1-02789 




10-2 


5-90 


49-5 


2-0585 


9 


12.35 








25 


27-0 


29-12 
-1-6 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 


12.0 
24/3/03 


57-5 
14-2 C. 


10-4 


5-40 
5-50 
5-60 


6-0 
17-1 
28-2 




























Thermometer No. 








5-70 


39-4 




























102,513 






10-7 
10-8 


5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 


50-8 
61-4 

71-7 
82-0 
92-8 


1-5471 
■0661 
•4514 


1-02611 


1-02512 


1-02740 




10-6 


5-80 


49-9 


2-0646 




J 


12.40 








50 


27-0 


29-86 
-1-19 C. 


Large Buchanan- 
Richard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,504 


14.15 

24/3/03 


50-0 
100 C. 


10-0 
10-2 
10-5 


5-45 
5-55 
5-65 
5-75 
5-85 
5-95 
6-05 
6-15 
6-25 


5-1 
16-5 
27-1 
38-6 
49-6 
60-1 
70-6 
79-8 
90-2 


1-5471 
■0640 
■4396 


1-02647 


1-02542 


1-02770 




10-25 


5-85 


48-6 


2-0507 




) 


16.0 








Surface 


28-1 


29-1 
-1-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


13.45 
24/3/03 


45-0 
7-2 C. 


9-6 
9-6 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


22-2 
330 
43-9 
54-9 
65-6 


1-5471 
■0599 
■3971 


1-02591 


1-02475 


102701 




9-6 


5-70 


43-9 


20041 




) 


12.0 








Surface 


311 


29-4 
-1-4 C. 


Outside edge of 

pack 
Ice spicules in 


14.0 

24/3/03 


47-3 
8-5 C. 


9-8 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


34-5 
45-0 
55-7 


1-5471 
























sample 








5-80 


66-0 


•0612 
























Reeve's French 






9-8 


5-90 


76-5 


■5030 
























blue 








































9-8 


5-70 


55-6 


21113 1 1-02530 


1-02417 


1-02639 \ 









































124 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination 


}f the Density of the Samplt 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of i m- 

mersed 

Portion 
of 

Hydro- 
meter 


Densi i 


d 
_o 

w 
*o 

u 
o 

— 
E 

3 


V 

— 
E 
a 
CO 

"3 

h 

— 
E 

3 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Dig 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Water 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 

of 
the 


Ob- 
served 




T. 


I. 


l" 


of 
the 


of 
the 


(cub. 
centims.) 










is 


S« 












L. 


lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


v. 1 4 s t ,. 








1903. 


1 

o / or 

I 




°F. 


°F. 






°F. 


°c. 












820 


313 


Mar. 


22 12.0 


Lewthwa ite Chan- 




Surface 


24-7 


300 


Reeve's French 


14.40 


53-2 


10-2 


5-50 


26-3 
















nel, South 


Orkneys. 








-11 C. 


blue 


24/3/03 


11-S C. 




5-60 


37-0 






































5-70 


47-9 


1-5471 




































5-80 


58-7 


■0643 


































10-4 


5-90 


69-5 


■4333 


1-02568 




10-3 


5-70 


47-9 


2-0447 




321 


314 


Mar. 


23 


10.15 








Surface 


23-0 


29-8 
-1-2G. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


15.0 

24/3/03 


54-2 
12-3 C. 


10-2 

10-5 


5-50 
5-60 
5'70 
5-80 
5-90 


25-0 
35-7 
46-8 
57-1 
67-6 


1-5471 
■0646 
•4197 


1-02575 




10-35 


5-70 


46-4 


2-0314 


322 


315 


Mar. 


25 


9.0 








Surface 


31-0 


29-5 
-1-4 C. 


Open water, no 
ice anywhere 
near 

Reeve's French 
blue (pale) 


10.15 

2/4/03 


56'2 
13-4 0. 


10-7 
11-0 
11-2 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
610 


3-8 
14-7 
25-7 
36-6 
47-6 
58-0 
68-2 
78-9 
89-7 


1-5471 
•0683 
■4252 


1-02570 




10-95 


5-70 


47-0 


20406 


323 


31G 


Mar. 


25 


12.0 


Abreast 

Island 
Orkne 


Murray 
s, South 

ys- 




Surface 


30-5 


29-8 
—1-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.40 

2/4/03 


57-3 
14-0 C. 


10-6 
111 
10-9 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6'00 
6-10 


5-6 
16-7 
28-0 
39-0 
50-0 
60-6 
70-3 
80-0 
91-8 


1-5471 
■0671 
■4442 


1-02560 




10-75 


5-70 


491 


2-0584 


i-om i 


325 


317 


June 


11 


14.0 


Bay A, 
Orkn 


Soul ii 
eys. 






23-2 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Sample taken 
from freshly 
dug hole in 
bay ice 


10.30 
14/6/03 


48-8 
9-3 C. 


7-5 
7-8 
7-9 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 
6-30 


12-0 ' 

230 

340 

44-7 
55-0 
65-2 
74-8 
85-5 
96-3 


1-5471 
■0480 
■4930 


1-02653 




7-7 


5-90 


54-5 


2-0881 


325 


318a 


June 


11 




Upper surface of a piece of ice 23 
inches thick taken from a hole 
in ice in Bay A. 

Temperature taken, after some of 
the ice had been melted, with 
thermometer belonging to No. 
14 hydrometer. 


23-6 


0-3 C. 




11.35 

14/6/03 


51-4 
10-8 C. 


8-9 
91 


0-90 
1-00 
1-10 
1-20 
1-30 
1-40 
1-50 
1-60 


4-0 
14-5 
25-8 
36-7 
47-8 
58-7 
69-5 
80-1 


1-5471 
■0568 




























9-3 


1-70 


89-9 


•4288 












91 


1-30 


47-4 


2-0327 


1-0,0157 


won 



n 


D SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL 


SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




125 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


( 


E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 


Read- 


(Density of Distilled 














Collection of 






added 






Water at 4° C. = l.) 




j. Hour. 




Long. 


D. 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 






of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 


1 


T. 


t. 


Lat. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 




















L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4 ° l5°-56. 


4 S t . 






O / o - 




o F> 


°C. 






o F 


°C. 












..' i] 




Same as 318a, second 


At 14.3 1 


0-2 


Taken in labora- 


10.5 


54-3 


8-85 


0-75 


1-2 












inciting. 








tory (more ice 


15/6/03 


12-4 C. 




0-85 


14-2 












Temperature taken with 








than water in 








0-95 


26-0 














thermometer belonging 








sample) 








1-05 


37-1 














to No. 25 hydrometer. 


At 14.4 

At 16.1 
At 19.0 


5 hrs. 

5 hrs. 

hrs. 


0-0 

0-0 
0-2 


Taken outside 
(more ice than 
water in sample) 
Taken in labora- 
tory 

Do. do. 
Tested by W.S.B. 




50-9 
10-5 C. 


9-4 


1-15 
125 
1-35 
1-45 
1-55 


46-2 
58-2 
71-0 
82-0 
92-8 


1-5471 
■0568 
■4306 
















9-1 


1-15 


47-6 


2-0345 


100074 


0-99996 




i 




Tested by W. S. B. at 10.5-10.25 




■, . 




, , 


54-3 


8-85 


0-75 


1-2 














on 15th June 1903. 










12-4 C. 

521 
11-2 0,. 


9-3 


0-80 
0-85 
0-90 
0-95 
1-00 
1-05 
1-10 
115 


8-0 
14-2 
20-2 
26-0 
32-0 
37-1 
41-5 
46-2 


1-5471 
■0566 
■2280 






















9-05 


0-95 


25-2 


1-8317 


1-00076 


0-99997 




ie 1 J 




Middle part of the same piece 


23-6 


-0-2 




11.0 


51-4 


7-2 


2-10 


110 














of ice as sample 318a taken 








14/6/03 


10-8 C. 




2-15 


16-3 














from. 














2-20 


21-9 














First melting. Temperature 














2-25 


27-3 














taken with thermometer be- 












7-7 


2-30 


32'7 














longing to No. 14 hydrometer. 














2-35 


38-2 






























2-40 


43-9 


1-5471 




























2-45 


49-3 


■0474 


























8-0 


2-50 


54-8 


■2967 


1-00785 


1-00680 






7-6 


2-30 


32-8 


1-8912 


"' i 




Same as 319a, second 


At 14.3 


hrs. 


-0-2 


Taken in labora- 


11.15 


56-3 


10-2 


1-40 


5-0 














melting. 








tory (more ice 


15/6/03 


13-5 C. 




1-50 


16-2 














Temperature taken with 








than water in 








1-60 


28-2 














thermometer belonging 








sample) 








1-70 


40-8 














to No. 25 hydrometer. 


At 14.4 


5 hrs. 


-0-3 


Taken outside 
(more ice than 
water in sample) 








1-80 
1-90 
200 


500 
63-0 
75-2 


1-5471 
■0646 














At 16.1 


hrs. 


-0-2 


Taken in labora- 
tory 




55-0 
12-8 C. 


10-5 


2-10 


85-8 


•4116 
























At 19.0 


hrs. 


-0-1 


Do. do. 

Tested by W.S.B. 






10-35 


1-75 


45-5 


2-0233 


1-004096 


1-003366 








Tested by W. S. B. at 11.15-11.34 










56-3 


10-2 


1-50 


16-2 














on the 15th June 1903. 










13-5 C. 

53-9 
12-2 C. 


10-4 


1-55 
1-60 
1-65 
1-70 
1-75 
1-80 
1-85 
1-90 


23-6 
28-2 
350 
40-8 
46-2 
500 
56-0 
63-0 


1-5471 
■0643 
■3609 






















10-3 


1-70 


39-9 


1-9723 


1004103 


1-003373 








Bottom surface of the same 


23-6 


-0-4 




12.0 


51-1 


9-4 


1-90 


5-2 














piece of ice as samples 318 








14/6/03 10-6 C. 




2-00 


16-3 














and 319 taken from. 














210 


27-0 














First melting. Temperature 














2-20 


38-5 














taken with thermometer be- 












9-6 


2-30 


49-5 












■ 


longing to No. 14 hydrometer. 












9-7 


2-40 
2-50 
2-60 


60' 6 
71-0 
81-8 


1-5471 
■0596 
■3953 


1-00696 








9-55 


2-25 


43-7 


2-0020 


1-00610 







































126 DR W. 8. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Samr 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of 5 


c 
"3 

u 

— 
£ 

3 


"E. 

a 

rt 
f. 
• — 
O 
u 

91 

-a 

a 

3 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 

and 

Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Den^ 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Water at ¥ ( 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 




T. 


t. 


to 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 














z, 


X 












L. 


leeted. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4S t ,. 








1903. 






o / o / o p_ 


°C. 






° F. 


°C. 






1 




325 


320b 


June 


11 




Same as 320a, second melting. 




-0-25 


Very little ice 


11.50 


56-0 


9'6 


1-45 


2-8 


















Temperature taken with thermo- 




in sample 


15/6/03 


13-3 C. 




1-55 


13-8 


















meter belonging to No. 25 














1-65 


24-0 


















hydrometer. 










56-3 
13-5 C. 


. 10-6 


1-75 

1-85 
1-95 
2-05 
2-15 
2-25 


35-2 

47-2 
58-8 
71-0 
82'0 
930 


1-5471 
■0630 
■4297 




i 






















10-1 


1-85 


47-5 


2-0398 


1-00455 




325 


320b 








Tested by W. S. B. at 11.50-12.7 
on the 15th June 1903. 






• • 


«e» 


56-0 
13-3 C. 


9-6 
10-4 


1-45 
1-50 
155 
1-60 
1-65 
1-70 
1-75 
1-80 
1-85 


2-8 
9-5 
13-8 
17-4 
24-0 
30-3 
35-2 
43-2 
47-2 


1-5471 
■0624 
•2243 


1-00459 




10-0 


1-65 


24-8 


1-8338 


325 


318a 


June 


11 




Upper surface of a piece of ice 
23 inches thick taken from a 
hole in ice in Scotia Bay. 

Temperature taken, after some of 
the ice had been melted, with 
thermometer belonging to No. 


23-6 


03 




Tested 
again at 

11.20 
30/11/03 


39-0 
3-9 C. 


4-1 
4-2 


1-00 
110 
1-20 
1-30 
1-40 


14-0 
24-5 
36-0 

47-2 
58'0 


1-5471 
■0259 
■3248 
























14 hydrometer. 












4-15 


1-20 


35-9 


1-8978 


1-00177 




325 


318b 


June 


11 




Same as 318a, second melting. 

Temperature taken with thermo- 
meter belonging to No. 25 
hydrometer. 




0-3 




Tested 
again at 

11.45 
30/11/03 


39-2 
4-0 C. 


4'0 
4-1 


0-80 
0-90 
1-00 
1-10 
1-20 


11-0 

22-2 
33-5 
44-0 
55-0 


1-5471 
■0253 
■2994 


1-00081 




4-05 


1-00 


33-1 


1-8718 


325 


319a 


June 


11 




Middle part of the same piece of 
ice as sample 318a taken from. 

First melting. Temperature 
taken with thermometer be- 
longing to No. 14 hydrometer. 


23-6 


-0-2 




Tested 

again at 

11.55. 

30/11/03 


39-8 
4-3 C. 


4-0 
4-1 


2-10 
2-15 
2-20 
2-25 
2-30 


9-2 
14-5 
19-8 
24-8 
304 


1-5471 
■0253 
■1782 


1-00808 




4-03 


2-20 


19-7 


1-7506 


325 


319b 


June 


11 




Same as 319a, second melting. 

Temperature taken with thermo- 
meter belonging to No. 25 
hydrometer. 




-0-2 




Tested 
again at 

12.5 
30/11/03 


39-8 
4-3 C. 


4-2 
4-3 


1-50 
1-60 
1-70 
1-80 
1-90 


18-0 
28-5 
39-5 
50-0 
61-0 


1-5471 
■0265 
■3564 


100434 


;•«.»; 


4-25 


1-70 


39-4 


1-9300 


325 


320a June 


11 




Bottom surface of the same piece 
of ice as samples 318 and 319 


23-6 


-0-4 




Tested 


39-9 


4-2 


2-00 


12-5 
























again at 


4-4 C. 




210 


24-0 


















taken from. 








13.20 






2-20 


350 


1-5471 
















First melting. Temperature 








30/11/03 






2-30 


46-0 


■0268 
















taken with thermometer be- 












4-4 


2-40 


57-0 


■3157 
















longing to No. 14 hydrometer. 






















































4-3 


2-20 


34-9 


1-8896 


100731 






320b 


June 


11 




Same as 320a, second melting. 

Temperature taken with thermo- 
meter belonging to No. 25 
hydrometer. 




-0-25 




Tested • 
again at 

13.40 
30/11/03 


40-1 
4-5 C. 


4-2 
4-4 


1-50 
1-60 
1-70 
1-80 
1-90 


9-5 
200 
30-5 
41-2 
52-2 


1-5471 
■0268 
■2777 
















4-3 


1-70 


30-7 


1-8516 j 


1-00477 





) SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL 


SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN. 




127 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




3.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 


Time 
and 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 


Read- 
ing 

of 
Hydro- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 










D. 


a. 




of 


from 


T'. 


t'. 


1 


Reduced 




T. 




Ob- 


Reduced 




. Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Sea 


which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


t. 


Remarks. 


Date. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 
(cub. 

centims.) 


served 


to 


to 




at 

Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 




1 


at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


i&V. 


4 S 15° 56. 


«s t 




c , 


o , 






o F 


o p_ 






°F. 


°C. 


















Water fr 


am humm 
Bay. 


sckin 


Scotia 








9.0 
30/11/03 


39-8 
4-3 C. 


40 
4-1 


0-70 
0-80 
0-90 
100 
110 


7-0 
17-5 
28-5 
390 
49-8 


1-5471 
■0253 
■2569 


1-00049 


0-99951 






4-05 


0-90 


28-4 


1-8293 




12.0 


59 43 S. 


48 10 W. 




Surface 


34-0 


32-7 
0-4 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.15 
12/12/03 


59-0 
15-0 C. 


13-6 
13-8 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


24-0 
35-0 
45-5 
57-0 
67-5 


1-5471 
■0855 
■4143 


1-02566 


1-02527 


1-02747 




13-7 


5-70 


45-8 


2-0469 




18.0 


59 23 S. 


49 8 W. 




Surface 


34-3 


330 
0-6 C. 


Pale green 


14.0 
12/12/03 


59-2 
15-1 C. 


14-0 
14-2 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


7-5 
17-8 
28-5 
39-0 
50-5 


1-5471 
■0880 
■2596 


1-02542 


1-02510 


1-02726 




14-1 


5-50 


28-7 


1-8947 




12.0 


58 28 S. 


51 56 W. 




Surface 


31-8 


33-3 
0-7 C. 


Pale blue 


14.20 
12/12/03 


59-8 
15-4 C. 


14-2 
14-4 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


30-5 
42-0 
53-0 
63-5 
74-5 


1-5471 
■0892 
•4767 


1-02529 


1-02501 


1-02717 




14-3 


5-70 


52-7 


2-1130 


r 


18.0 


58 OS. 


53 10 W. 




Surface 


33-6 


35-0 
1-7 C. 


Light blue 


18.15 
13/12/03 


62-0 
16-7 C. 


15-3 
15-5 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


11-5 
23-0 
34-5 
45-5 
55-8 


1-5471 
■0961 
•3085 


1-02510 


1-02507 


1-02717 




15-4 


5-50 


34-1 


1-9517 




9.0 


57 10 S. 


55 35 W. 




Surface 


30-9 


33-0 
0-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


16.30 
13/12/03 


62-0 
16-7 C. 


15-4 
15-5 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


35-0 
45-0 
56-0 
67-5 
78-0 


1-5471 
■0964 
■5093 


1-02507 


1-02505 


1-02720 




15-45 


5-70 


56-3 


2-1528 




18.0 


56 54 S. 


56 24 W. 




Surface 


30-8 


35-2 
1-8 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


18.50 
13/12/03 


62-2 
16-8 C. 


15-6 
15-8 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


34-8 
45-5 
56-0 
67-0 
78-0 


1-5471 
■0980 
■5093 


1-02506 


1-02509 


1-02717 




15-7 


5-70 


56-3 


2-1544 




10.0 


55 5S. 


57 25 W. 




Surface 


29-0 


42-2 
5-7 0. 


Dull blue 


14.40 
14/12/03 


62-0 
16-7 C. 


15-8 
15-9 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


35-0 
45-5 
57-0 
67-0 

77-2 


1-5471 
•0989 
■5093 


1-02506 


1-01513 


1-02683 


i 


15-85 


5-70 


56-3 


2-1553 




1 14.0 


54 38 S. 


57 32 W. 




Surface 


35-6 


42-0 
5-6 C 


Reeve's French 
blue 


15.0 

14/12/03 


62-0 
16-7 C 


15-8 
15-9 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


33-2 

45-0 
55-2 
66-2 
77-0 


1-5471 
■0989 
■5002 


1-02510 


1-02517 


1-02688 




15-85 


5-70 


55-3 


2-1462 




f. soc 


!. EDIN. 


VOL. L 


I, Pi 


IRT I 


(NO. 


4). 


















19 


■ 



128 1)R W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 



Date(E.) 



Month. Day 



310 



348 



350 332 



330 



331 



1903. 
Dec. 



Dec. 



352 



353 



333 



334 



' 



355 



335 



Dec. 



Dec. 



Dec. 



Dec. 



Hour. 



19.0 



12.0 



Position (L.) 



Lat. 



5 1 25 S. 



52 11 S. 



Dec. 12 



13 



14 



12.0 



12.0 



12.0 



15 



id 



Long. 



Depth 
in Fathoms. 



of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 



from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 



57 32 W. 



57 55 W. 



44 8S. 



42 30 S. 



40 32 S. 58 33 W 



57 30 W. 



59 18 W. 



12.0 



12.0 



38 24 S. 



Off Cape 
Mogotes 



57 42 W, 



i '.ii ientea 
lightlO-20 



Surface 



Surface 



Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 



T. 



of 
the 
Air. 



° F. 
33-8 



Surface 



Surface 



40-2 



t. 



of 

the 

Water. 



51-3 



53-0 



Surface 



miles 



Surface 



Surface 

distant. 



62r3 



G3-0 



°F. 
41-8 
5-4 C. 



Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sam* 



Time 
and 
Date. 



Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 



T'. 



of 
the 
Air. 



of 

the 

Sample. 



° F. 

Reeve's French 15.20 62-2 
blue 14/12/03 16-8 C. 



44-9 
7-2 0. 



49-3 
9-6 C. 



50-0 
10-0 C. 



Pale green 



Green 



56-0 54-8 

12-7 C. 



61-8 

16-6 C. 



Pale greenish 
blue 



Pale pea green 



Pale sage green 



02-0 Pale green 

16-7 C. 



15.40 

14/12/03 



9.45 
15/12/03 



°C. 
16-0 



1G-1 



G2-2 
16-8 C. 



61-2 
16-2 C. 



10.0 62-0 
15/12/03 16-7 C. 



10.20 
15/12/03 



14.0 



16-05 



1G-2 



1G-3 



Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 



16-25 



17-8 



18T 



17-95 



17-9 



18-1 



G2-0 
16-7 C 



G9-0 
20-6 C. 



1G.30 G8-0 

20-0 C. 



18-0 



18-0 



18-2 



18-1 



18-4 



18-G 



18-8 



18-6 
190 

19-2 

19-4 
19-2 



5-50 
5-GO 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 



5-70 



5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 



5-70 



5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 



Read- 
ing 
of 

Hydro- 
meter. 



R. 



340 
45-5 
5G-2 
GG-5 
77-0 



55-8 



40-0 
50-2 
Gl-0 
72-0 
82-5 



5-50 

5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5^70 



5-50 

5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 



61-1 



19-5 
30-8 
41-8 
52-5 
63-0 



41-5 

26-0 
37-2 
48-5 
59-5 
70-0 



48-2 

27-5 
38-8 
50-0 
GO-8 
72-0 



5-50 

510 

5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 



5-50 

5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5'60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 

5-50 



49-8 

8-2 
19-0 
30-5 
41-0 
52-0 
G2-5 
73-5 
84-0 
94-2 



51-7 

9© 

20-0 
30-8 
41-5 
52-8 
G3-5 
74-2 
85-0 
95-2 

52-4 



Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 



1-5471 
■1001 
■5048 



2-1520 



1-5471 
■1014 

■5527 



2-2012 



1-5471 
■1120 
■3754 



Derail 
(Densii 
Watei 



Ob- 
served 
at t'. 



Redu 



i s f. \A 



102507 






1-02480 



20345 



1-5471 
■1123 
■4360 



2-0954 



1-5471 
■1129 
■4505 



21105 



1-02464 



l-ir; 



H 



1-02429 



1-02421 









1-5471 
■1161 
■4677 



2-1309 



1-02409 



1-5471 
■1198 
■4740 

21409 



1-02404 



A 


) SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELI 


SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




129 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




3.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 










at time of 






during 


Weights 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 




. Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Water at 4°C. = 1.) 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T. 


t. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 


D 


at 

Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 






















L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


•jSf. 


4Sl5°-56. 


««l 






/ 






° P. 


°F. 






°F. 


°C. 














3 


12.0 


OH Mogo tes light. 




Surface 


66-4 


61-5 


Dark sage green 


14.0 


72-0 


20-6 


5'00 


11-0 
























16-4 C. 


• 


21/12/03 


22-2 C. 


20-9 
21-0 


5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


22-2 
33-0 
44-2 
55-0 
66-0 
76-5 
87-2 
97-5 


1-5471 
■1298 
■4948 


1-02331 


1-02459 


1-02440 




208 


5-40 


54-7 


21717 




12.0 


Off Mend 
(12 mil 
ing W. 


ana Point 
es) bear- 




Surface 


70-0 


67-2 
19-6 C. 


Dirty sage green 


14.30 
21/12/03 


72-5 
22-5 C. 


21-0 
21-2 
21-3 


4-20 
4-25 
4-30 
4-35 
4-40 
4-45 
4-50 
4-55 
4-60 


9-5 
14-0 

200 
25-5 
31-5 
36-5 
42-5 
47-5 
53-0 


1-5471 
■1320 
■2813 


101901 


1-02035 


1-01913 




2115 


4-40 


311 


1-9604 


! 


1 12, ° 


30 57 S. 


55 45 W. 




Surface 


731 


73-0 
22-8 C. 


Pale green 


14.0 

25/1/04 


62-4 
16-9 C. 


17-1 
17-1 


4-30 
4-40 
4-50 
4- GO 
4-70 


14 
25-0 
36-8 
47-0 
57-5 


1-5471 
■1067 
■3266 


1-01944 


1-01978 


1-01800 




171 


4-50 


36-1 


1-9804 




I'j 12.0 


39 24 S. 


55 2 W. 




Surface 


63-4 


58-2 
14-6 C. 


Pale blue 


14.20 
25/1/04 


02-2 
16-8 C. 


16-9 


5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 


190 
30-5 
4L5 
52-5 


1-5471 
■1055 










l.i 12.0 




















16-9 


5-70 


63 


■3736 


1-02468 


1-02498 


1-02519 




16-9 


5-50 


41-3 


2-0262 




40 59 S. 


55 4 W. 




Surface 


58-0 


61-6 


Light blue 


14.35 


02-1 


1G-7 


5-20 


11-0 






















16-4 C. 






16-7 C. 




5'30 


21-0 


































5-40 


32-5 


1-5471 
































5-50 


43-8 


■1045 




















- 










10-8 


5-60 


54-5 


■2949 


1-02458 


1-02485 


1-02466 




16-75 


5-40 


32-6 


1-9465 




[i 12.0 


43 33 S. 


55 7 W. 




Surface 


54-7 


600 
15-56 C. 


Blue 


14.0 

28/1/04 


01 -8 
16-6 C. 


15-8 

1G0 
1G-0 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


7-5 
18-2 
29-0 
40-5 
51-0 
61-5 
- 71-8 


1-5471 
■0992 
■3609 


1-02479 


1-02487 


1-02487 




15-9 


5-50 


39-9 


2-0072 




IS 12.0 


45 31 S. 


55 21 W. 




Surface 


55-5 


56-1 


Grey blue 


14.20 


62-0 


151 


5-50 


31-5 






















13-4 C. 






16-7 C. 




5-55 


36-5 


































5-60 


42-3 


































5-65 


48-0 
































15-3 


5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


53-5 
59-0 
64-0 
69-2 


1-5471 
■0955 






























15-5 


5-90 


74-8 


•4812 


1-02523 


1-02518 


1-02563 




15-3 


5-70 


53-2 


2-1238 














* 


• 























130 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of r 


c 
o 

d 

55 

"o 

u 
c 
XI 

E 

3 


.2 
"5. 

E 

cS 
M 

"3 

M 

E 

3 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.] 


Dens 

(Density of It. 
Wate 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


Red 

to 


T. 


t. 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 










■ 


fc 


15 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


«8v. 




1 


1904. 




o I 


o / 






o F o F 






°F. 


°C. 












365 


344 


Jan. 


•29 


12.0 


47 47 S. 


56 8 VV. 




Surface 


55-1 


54-2 
12-3 C. 


Grey blue 


13.35 
30/1/04 


55-5 
131 C. 


12-9 
13-0 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


24-0 
29-5 
34-5 
40-0 
45-0 


1-5471 
■0808 
■3130 


1-02511 




12-95 


5-60 


34-6 


1-9409 


3C6 


345 


Jan. 


30 


12.0 


50 3S. 


57 58 W. 




Surface 


51-2 


50'2 
10-1 C. 


Green 


13.50 


56-0 
13-3 C. 


12-0 
12-3 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


5-0 
10-5 
16-2 
21-0 
27-0 


1-5471 
•0758 
•1438 


1-02559 




12-15 


5-40 


15-9 


1-7667 


368 


346 


Feb. 


10 


12.0 


53 22S 


56 5 W. 




Surface 


501 


46-9 
8-3 C. 


Mue 


9.15 

17/2/04 


49-3 
9-6 C. 


6-4 
7-0 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


6-0 
17-5 
28-0 
38-8 
50-1 


1-5471 
•0418 
•2542 


1-02681 




6-7 


5-70 


28-1 


1-8431 


369 


347 


Feb. 


10 


20.0 


54 3S. 


55 23 W. 




Surface 


45-0 


44-9 
7-2 C. 


Too dark to see 


9.30 

17/2/04 


51-2 
10-7 C. 


6-8 
7-0 
7-6 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 
6-20 
6-30 


7-3 
19-0 
29-9 
40-2 
51-0 
62-1 
72-8 
83-1 
92-3 


1-5471 
■0445 
•4604 


1-02673 




7-13 


5-90 


50-9 


2-0520 


370 


348 


Feb. 


11 


12.0 


55 47 S. 


54 19 W. 


109 


Surface 


44-1 


39-8 
4-3 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.0 

17/2/04 


53-6 
12-0 C. 


7-4 
7-8 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


120 
23'0 
34-6 
45-0 
55-8 


1-5471 
■0474 
■3085 


1-02648 




7-6 


5-70 


34-1 


1-9030 


371 


349 


Feb. 


11 


20.0 


56 18 S. 


53 20 W. 




Surface 


43-9 


41-8 
5-4 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.20 

17/2/04 


54-7 
12-6 C. 


8-3 
8-7 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


13-3 
24-0 
35-0 
45-3 
56-2 


1-5471 
■0530 
■3148 


1-02641 




8-5 


5-70 


34-8 


1-9149 


372 


350 


Feb. 


12 


12.0 


57 47 S. 


51 40 W. 




Surface 


39-0 


38-0 
3-3 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.40 

17/2/04 


55-0 
12-8 C. 


8-6 
9-1 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


15-5 
26-5 
37-2 
48-2 
59-2 


1-5471 
■0552 
■3374 


1-02627 




8-85 


6-70 


37-3 


1-9397 


373 


351 


Feb. 


12 


24.0 


58 53 S. 


50 40 W. 




Surface 


35-8 


35-0 
1-7 C. 




11.0 

17/2/04 


55-3 
12-9 C. 


8-7 
9-1 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


10-3 
21-0 
31-5 
42-5 
53-5 


1-5471 
•0555 
•2877 


1-02655 




8-9 


5-70 


31-8 


1-8903 





D SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




131 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


rf the Density of the Sample. 


u 


=•) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 
Collection of 






during 

Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


(Density of Distilled 
Waterat4°C. = l.) 
















. Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 

of 
Sea 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 




to 

Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 

of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 






from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 




T. 


t. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


t&v. 


4Sl5=-36. 


«B t 






o / 


o / 






°F. 


° F. 






°F. 


°C. 














] 


| 12.0 


59 50 S. 


49 30 W. 




Surface 


33-7 


360 
2-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.15 
17/2/04 


55-2 
12-9 C. 


9-2 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


13-8 
24-8 
35-5 
46-5 


1-5471 
■0580 




























9-4 


5-90 


57-0 


■3211 


1-02634 


1-02514 


1-02720 




9-3 


5-70 


35-5 


1-9262 




Si'] 1.40 Scoti 


a Ray 




Surface 


31-9 


33-0 
0-6 C. 


Dull blue 


14,15 

23/2/04 


59-0 
15-0 C. 


11-7 


5-50 
5-55 


17-8 
23-0 












Note by D. W. Wilton. 














5-60 


28-0 












23rd Feb. 1904. 












119 


5-65 
5-70 


34-0 
40-5 










i I 


i\v I've always left the thermometer in the 














5-75 


46-0 










1 


i the hydrometer whilst testing sample : 
iv onwards I read the t', then take the 
)eter out, and after sample has been 
iut thermometer in again for a second 
if temperature. 












12-1 


5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


50-5 
56-2 
62-0 


1-5471 
■0743 
■3600 


1-02603 


1-02528 


1-02743 


'1 


11-9 


5-70 


39-8 


1-9814 




1 12.0 


61 28 S. 


41 55 W. 




Surface 


300 


33-3 
0-7 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


13.50 

24/2/04 


57-3 
14-1 C. 


13-4 
13-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


28-0 
33-5 
390 
44-0 
49-5 
55-0 
60-5 
65-5 
71-0 


1-5471 
■0849 
■4487 


1-02547 


1-02506 


1-02721 




13-6 


5-70 


49-6 


2-0807 


1 


H 18.0 


01 51 S. 


41 W. 




Surface 


29-5 


330 
0-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


14.15 
24/2/04 


60-0 
15-6 C. 


16-2 
16-3 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
600 


7-0 
17-5 
28-2 
39-0 
49-5 
60-0 
70-0 
80-0 
90-5 


1-5471 
•1014 
■4442 


1-02486 


1-02502 


1-02715 




16-25 


5-60 


49-1 


2-0927 




!-. 6.0 


62 30 S. 


3D 8 W. 




Surface 


29-5 


32-1 
0-1 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


14.40 

24/2/04 


60-0 
15-6 C. 


. 16-2 
16-2 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


6-0 
110 
16-8 
27-0 
38-0 
490 
59-5 
65-0 
69-8 


1-5471 
■1011 
■3437 


1-02487 


1-02502 


1-02715 




16-2 


5-50 


38-0 


1-9919 




!4| 12.0 


62 49 S. 

Two bergs 
about 


38 12 W. 

to wind 

three mile 


ward 
9 off. 


Surface 
and 


291 


31-6 

-0-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


13.45 

25/2/04 


56-2 
13-4 C. 


16-1 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 


6'0 
11-5 

17-0 
27-2 
38-0 
48-8 
59-8 
65-0 


1-5471 
■0995 






























15-8 


5-80 


700 


■3447 


1-02488 


1-02497 


1-02714 




15-95 


5-50 


38-1 


1-9913 







































132 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



o 


c 




B 


*-> 




«j 


m 






o 





u 


%* 






.0 


.0 


B 


£ 


3 


a 


Jz; 


» 



Data Relating to tho Collection of the Sample. 



Data Kelating to the Determination of the Density of the S 



Date(E.) 



Month. Day. 



Hour. 



Position (L.) 



Lat. 



Long. 



Depth 
in Fathoms. 



D. 



of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 



from 

which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 



Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 



T. 



of 
the 
Air. 



t. 



of 

the 

Water. 



Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



Time 
and 
Date. 



Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 



T'. 



of 
the 

Air. 



of 

the 

Sample. 



Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 



Read- 
ing 
of 

Hydro- 
meter. 



Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 



Densi 1 
(Densii 
Water 



Ob- 
served 
at t'. 



R. 






; 

4' 1;, 



381 



382 



383 



384 



:;»:, 



387 



358 



1904. 
Feb. 



35<J Feb. 



dCU 



301 



362 



Feb. 



Feb. 



Feb. 



303 



Feb. 



24 



25 



25 



25 



26 



26 



18.0 



0.0 



12.0 



18.0 



0.0 



12.0 



03 13 S 
Two or 



64 5S. 
Two or 



04 29 S 

A few be 



35 29 W. 
rgs far aw 



64 38 S. 
A few be 



65 35S 
Two ic 



65 59 S 
Ice abou 



37 33 W. 

three ber 
distance. 



gs in 



30 10 W. 

three ber 
distance. 



gs in 



ay. 



35 13 W. 

rgs far aw 



33 50 W, 
ebergs. 



33 6 W. 

1 1 mile off 
quite near 



ay. 



2625 

; loos 
ship. 



Surface 
the 



Surface 
the 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 
e pieces 



o F 
30-0 



29-3 



29-8 



29-8 



28-8 



28-8 



°F. 
31-4 
-0-3 C. 



30-8 
-0-7 C. 



31-0 
-0-6 C. 



31-1 
-0-5 C. 



30-5 
-0-8 C. 



30-2 
-1-0 C 



Reeve's French 
blue 



Reeve's French 
blue 



Reeve's French 
blue 



Reeve's French 
blue (light) 



Reeve's French 
blue 



Reeve's French 
blue (light) 





°F. 


°C. 








14.5 


57-0 


15-4 


5-30 


15-8 




25/2/04 


13-9 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5'60 

5-70 


20-8 
26-0 
36-2 
47-0 
57-5 










5-80 


68-0 


1-5471 








5-85 


73-0 


■0955 






15'2 


5-90 


78-2 


■4243 




15-3 


5-60 


40-9 


20669 


14.35 


57-2 


15-0 


5-30 


13-5 






14-0 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


190 
24-2 
34-8 
45-0 
56-0 










5-80 


66-3 


1-5471 








5-85 


71-5 


■0930 






14-8 


5-90 


76-5 


■4089 




14-9 


5-60 


45-2 


2-0490 


13.35 


54-2 


15 5 


5-30 


16-0 




26/2/04 


12-3 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


21-0 
26-0 
36-6 
47-0 
57-5 










5-80 


68-0 


1-5471 








5-85 


730 


■0977 






15-8 


5-90 


78-0 


■4251 




15-65 


5-60 


47-0 


2-0699 


14.0 


55-8 


16-0 


5-30 


12-8 




26/2/04 


13-2 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


18-0 
23-0 
33-5 
44-0 
54-2 










5-80 


65-5 


1-5471 








5-85 


70-5 


■0989 






15-7 


5-90 


76-0 


■3998 




15-85 


5-60 


44-2 


2-0458 


14.20 


57-0 


14-0 


5-30 


8-5 






13-9 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


13-5 
18-0 
28-2 
38-5 
49-0 










5-80 


60-0 


1-5471 








5-85 


65-0 


■0911 






14-6 


5-90 


70-2 


■3528 




14-6 


5-60 


39-0 


1-9910 


14.45 


57-2 


13-9 


5-30 


12-0 






14-0 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


17-2 
22-6 
33-8 
44-5 
55-0 










5-80 


65-5 


1-5471 








5-85 


69-0 


■0867 






13-9 


5-90 


74-8 


■3962 




13-9 


5-60 


43- 8 


2-0300 



1-02500 






1-02510 






1-02499 






1-02512 






1-02543 



102521 



\ 


) SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




133 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


ll 


3-) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 
at time of 






Temperature 
during 


Weights 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 
(Density of Distilled 




| 

;.. Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Water at 4° C. = l.) 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
Iected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 

to 




T. 


t. 




at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 

the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 




















L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4 S 15=56. 


4 St. 




o / 


o / 






° F. 


°F. 




° F. ° C. 










A 


i 7.0 


First piec 
met wi 


e of loose 
th this sea 


ice 
son. 


Surface 






13.35 

27/2/04 


58-7 
14-8 C. 


14-4 


0-70 
0-80 


7-5 
18-0 


































0-90 


28-5 


































1-00 


39-5 


































M0 


50-8 


































1-20 


61-0 


































1-30 


72-0 


1-5471 
































1-40 


83-0 


■0899 






























14-4 


1-50 


93-5 


■4559 


1-00014 


0-99995 






14-4 


1-10 


50-4 


2-0929 


C 


!| 7.0 


Same piec 
opaque 
364 a. 


e of ice ; m 
than sam 


ore 
pie 


Surface 








13.55 

27/2/04 


58-4 
14-7 C. 


13-3 
13-5 


0-70 
0-75 
0-80 
0-90 
1-00 
110 
1-20 
1-25 
1-30 


8-5 
140 
19-8 
30-5 
42-0 
52-8 
63-8 
690 
74-5 


1-5471 
■0836 
■3772 


1-00006 


0-99974 






13-4 


1-00 


41-7 


2-0079 




1 18.0 


66 6S. 
Ship ne 


32 45 W. 
ar ice. 




Surface 


28-8 


30-7 
-0-7 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


14.15 

27/2/04 


59-1 
15-1 C. 


15-3 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 


4-2 

9-3 

14-5 

25-2 

36-2 


































5-60 


47-0 
































5-70 


57-5 


1-5471 






























5-75 


62-8 


■0952 






























15-2 


5-80 


67-8 


■3266 


1-02500 


1-02494 


1-02715 




15-25 


5-50 


36-1 


1-9689 




\{ o.o 


66 30 S. 
In among 


31 50 W. 

loose pac 


k ice. 


Surface 


26-7 


29-3 
-1-5 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


14.45 


590 

15-0 C. 


14-3 
14-3 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


12-5 

17-8 
22-8 
33-5 
44-5 
55-2 
66-0 
71-0 
76-0 


1-5471 
■0892 
■4016 


1-0Q517 


1-02490 


1-02713 




14-3 


5-60 


44-4 


2-0379 


1 


y i2.o 


GO 2G S. 
In among 


31 25 W. 

loose pac 
ice. 


k and 


Surface 
young 


28-4 


29-5 

-HC. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


13.40 

28/2/04 


54-0 
12-2 C. 


130 
13-2 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


10-0 
150 
20-0 
310 
41-5 
52-5 
G30 
68-5 
74-0 


1-5471 
■0817 
•3772 


1-02535 


1-02484 


1-02707 




13-1 


5-60 


41-7 


2-0000 




'7 16.40 


G6 14 S. 


31 18 W. 


2630 


2625 


28-2 


29-70* 
-1-3 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 


15.30 

28/2/04 


50-9 
10-5 C. 


12-5 


5-40 
5-45 


10-5 
15-8 






















Read on 


bottle 








5-50 


21-0 






















bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,513 








5-60 
5-70 


31-2 

41-8 






















5-80 


52-8 












tlrmometer reversed satisfactorily as far as the frame was 










5-90 


63-2 


1-5471 










3jlumn of mercury was not broken when the instrument 










5-95 


68-2 -0774 










trimtil it was made to do so by giving it a sharp tap. The 








12-3 


6-00 


73-2 -3799 








illn 


























12- 


5-70 


42-0 1 2-0044 


1-02590 


1-02526 1 1-02751 



134 




DR W. S 


. BRUCE. MR A. KING, 


AND 


MR 


D. W 


. WILTON ON THE 


TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC 


GRAVITY 


d 

o 

la 
w 
"3 

h 

J3 


"E. 
S 
a 
tn 

"o 

M 

.O 
S 
3 


Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Samti. 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


1 

Read- 
ing 
of 

Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Deiisii 
(Densi 


Month. 






Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Water at i : 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


I;. 
15\56C 


i 
1 


T. 


t. 






of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 












a 


S5 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4S*. 


i s 




1901. 






o / 


/ 






°F. 


o p_ 






° F. ° C. 












391 3G9 


Feb. 


27 


17.50 


6614S. 


31 18 W. 


2630 


2000 


28-0 


32-62 


Buchanan-Rich- 


15.50 


51-7 


11-6 


5-40 


1-0 








kept 


















0-3 C. 


ard water- 


28/2/04 


10-9 C. 




5-45 


60 




























Read on 


bottle 








5-50 


11-0 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,513 








5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


22-0 
33-0 
43-2 






































5-90 


54-0 


1-5471 


































5-95 


59 5 


■0721 


































11-5 


600 


65-0 


•2958 


1-02641 


m 


11-55 


5-70 


32-7 


1-9150 


391 


370 
kept 


Feb. 


27 


17.45 


CO 14 S. 


31 18 W. 


2630 


1500 


28-0 


31-58 

-0-2 C. 

Read on 

bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,512 


16.15 

28/2/04 


54-0 

12-2 C. 


11-2 
11-6 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


11-5 

16-8 
22-2 
330 
43-8 
54-5 
65-0 
70-2 
75-4 


1-5471 
■0711 
■3944 


1-02641 


/■Ml 


11-4 


5-80 


43-6 


2-0126 


391 


371 


Feb. 


27 


18.0 


G6 14 S. 
In pac 


31 18 W. 
k ice. 




Surface 


280 


30-2 
-1-0 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


14.0 

28/2/04 


55-8 
13-2 C. 


12-6 
12-6 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


7-8 
130 
18-2 
29-0 
39-5 
50-3 
61-0 
66-0 
71-6 


1-5471 
■0786 
■3582 


1-02547 




12-6 


5-60 


39-6 


1-9839 


91 1 


391 


372 


Feb. 


27 


16.40 


66 14 S. 

Crack in 
out, 


31 18 W. 

small jar, 
could not 


2630 

water 
test 


all ran 

it. 


28-2 


See 368. 


Buchanan's 
sounding-tube 


















391 


373 

kept 


Feb. 


27 


18.40 


66 14 S. 


31 18 W. 


2630 


1000 


28-9 


31-90 

-0-1 C. 

Read on 

bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,513 


16.40 

28/2/04 


54-0 
12-2 C. 


11-2 
11-1 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


1-0 
6-0 
11-0 
21-5 
32-8 
43-5 
540 
59-8 
64-8 


1-5471 
■0696 
■2958 


1-02642 




11-15 


5-70 


32-7 


1-9125 


1 


:!!)! 


374 
kept 


Feb. 


27 


18.30 


66 14 S. 


31 18 W. 


2630 


500 


28-9 


32-42 
0-2 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard Mater- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,512 


17.35 

28/2/04 


54-2 
12-3 0, 


10-3 
10-3 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
5-05 
6-10 


9-0 
14-0 
20-0 
30-2 
410 
51-8 
62-5 
67-8 
73-0 


1-5471 
■0643 
■3709 


102658 




10-3 


5-80 


41-0 


1-9823 


1 



) SALINITIES OF THE WEDDELL SEA AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 



135 



D&ta Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 



' 3.) 



Hour. 



Position (L.) 



Lat. 



Long. 



Depth 
in Fathoms. 



D. 



of 

Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 



d. 



from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 



Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 



T. 

of 
the 
Air. 



t. 

of 

the 

Water. 



Colour of Water 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



6.0 66 9 S. 29 27 W. 
Among 1 oose pack, 



12.0 66 21 S. 



28 30 W. 



18.0 



19.35 



211 19.30 



6.0 



Among 1 oose pieces 



66 43 S. 
Ice abo 



27 55 W. 

ut one or 
away. 



66 43 S. 



66 43 S. 



67 40 S. 



of ice, 



27 55 W. 



27 55 W. 



27 24 W. 



No ice in sight. 



two 



2085 



2085 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 
miles 



2080 



2185 



Surface 



o p 

27-1 



29-9 



29-2 



29-0 



29-0 



27-0 



o p_ 

29-7 
-1-3 C, 



29-8 
-1-2 C, 



29-8 
-1-2 C. 



29-0 
-1-7 C 
Read on 
bridge 



32-42 
0-2 C. 
Read on 

bridge 



29-6 
-1-3 C 



Reeve's French 
blue 



Reeve's French 
blue 



Reeve's French 
blue 



Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No 
102,513 

Again mercury 
column did 
not break. 
See No. 368 



Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No 
102,512 



Reeve's French 
blue 



Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 



Time 
and 
Date. 



14.20 



14.45 



13.45 

29/2/04 



14.10 
29/2/04 



14.40 
29/2/04 



15.25 



Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 



T'. 



of 
the 
Air. 



t'. 



of 

the 

Sample. 



Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 



Read- 
ing 

of 
Hydro- 
meter. 



Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 



Density of Sample. 
(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 



Ob- 
served 
at t'. 



4 S t 



°F. 


° C. 








55-9 


11-7 


5-30 


5-5 




13-3 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


10-5 
160 
260 
37-0 
47-5 








5-80 


57-6 


1-5471 






5-85 


62-8 


■0733 




11-8 


5-90 


68-2 


■3329 




11-75 


5-60 


36-8 


1-9533 


55-0 


11-2 


5-40 


15-5 




12-8 C. 




5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


20-6 
26-0 
36-8 
47-2 
57-5 








590 


68-2 


1-5471 






6-00 


78-5 


■0699 




11-2 


6-10 


88-5 


■4414 




11-2 


5-7166 


48-8 


2-0584 


59-3 


11-8 


5-30 


6-5 




15-2 C. 




5-35 
540 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


110 
16-3 
27-2 
38-0 
48-5 








5-80 


59-0 


1-5471 






5-85 


65-0 


■0749 




12-2 


5-90 


69-5 


■3428 




12-0 


5-60 


37-9 


1-9648 


57-0 


12-0 


5 50 


13-2 




13-9 C. 




5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


18-5 
23-6 
340 
44-8 
56-0 








600 


66-5 


1-5471 






6-05 


72-0 


■0752 




12-1 


6-10 


76-3 


■4071 




12-05 


5-80 


45-0 


2-0294 


55-0 


11-7 


5-40 


2-6 




12-8 C. 




5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


7-8 
12-6 
23-5 
34-0 
45-0 








5-90 


55-8 


1-5471 






5-95 


610 


■0733 




11-8 


6-00 


66-6 


■3103 




11-75 


5-70 


34-3 


1-9307 


55-0 


13-5 


5-30 


10-2 




12-8 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


160 
21-5 
320 
43-0 
54-0 








5-80 


64-5 


1-5471 






5-85 


69-6 


■0852 




13-8 


5-90 


75-0 


■3881 




13-65 


5-60 


42-9 


2-0204 



1-02564 



1-02569 



1-02558 



1-02631 



1-02632 



j 02527 



Reduced 

to 
15°-5GC. 



1-02487 



1-02482 



1-02486 



1-02558 



1-02554 



Reduced 

to 

t. 



4S t 



1-02710 



1-02704 



1 02708 



1-02787 



102776 



1-02487 102710 



t. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 4). 



20 



136 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



c 
o 

d 
X 

wh 

o 

• 

£ 

3 


"5. 
E 
a 
W 

o 
u 
o 

.Q 

E 

3 


Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of tl 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.' 


Densi 

(Dim, 

Water 


Month. 


Day 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 


T. 


t. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


to 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 












- 












L. 


lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4^1'. 


I$\SH 




1904. 






O / 


o , 






op 


° F. 






op 


° C 












397 


38J 
kep 


Feb. 


29 


12.0 


68 8S. 


27 10 W. 




Surfaci 


i 28-8 


29-2 


Reeve's F ench 


15.50 


58-9 


11-9 


5-30 


9-0 


























-1-6 C 


blue 




14-9 C 




5-35 


14-0 


















In oper 


sea four 
pack edge 


miles 


i from 












121 


5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


19-5 
300 
40-5 
51-3 
62-0 
67-2 
73-0 


1-5471 
■0749 
•3682 


1-02543 




12-0 


5-60 


40-7 


1-9902 




398 


382 


Feb. 


29 


18.0 


68 25 S. 
A few be 


27 10 W. 
rgs in sigh 


t. 


Surface 


29-2 


30-0 
-1-1 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.15 

2/3/04 


55-0 
12-8 C 


9-7 
10-9 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


12-0 
17-0 
23-2 
33-8 
45-0 
56-0 
66-0 
71-5 
77-0 


1-5471 
■0643 
■4035 


102584 




10-3 


5-70 


44-6 


2-0149 




398 


382 


Feb. 


29 


18.0 


68 25 S. 


27 10 W. 




Surface 


29-2 


300 
-1-1 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


Tested 

again 

9.25 

3/3/04 


57-0 
13-9 C. 


91 
9-6 


5-40 
5-45 
5'50 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 


8-8 
14-6 
20-5 
31-5 
37-0 
41-5 
47-5 
53-0 
58-0 


1-5471 
•0583 
•3139 


102602 




9-35 


5-6333 


34-7 


1-9193 




399 


383 


Mar. 


1 


6.0 


68 38 S. 
Bay ice 


25 0W. 

forming in 


loose 


Surface 
pack. 


26-6 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.45 

2/3/04 


55-8 
13-2 C. 


11-4 
12-3 


5-30 
5-35 
540 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


8-5 
14-0 
19-0 
300 
41-0 
51-0 
62-5 
68-0 
73-0 


1-5471 
■0739 
•3691 


102543 




11-85 


5-60 


40-8 


1-9901 


399 


383 


Mar. 


1 


0.0 


68 38 S. 


25 W. 




Surface 


26-6 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


Tested 

again 

9.50 

3/3/04 


52-8 
11-6 C. 


9'5 
9-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 
600 


13-8 
19-0 
24-5 
35-0 
47-0 
56-5 
60-0 
65-5 
76-0 


1-5471 
■0593 
■3989 


1-025S9 


■ 


9-5 


5-6999 


44-1 


20053 


KXl 


■ '■> 1 


Mar. 


1 


12.0 


68 43 S. 
.Ship in 


21 15 \V. 
oose ice. 




Surface 


29-0 


31-0 
-0-GC. 


Reeve's French 
blue (light) 


10.15 
3/3/04 


19-3 
9-6 C. 


12-7 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 


7-2 
12-2 
17-0 
28-0 
38-8 
49-0 
59-6 
65-0 


1-5471 
■0780 
































12-3 


5-90 


70-0 


■3483 


1-02553 1 


" 






12-5 


5-60 


38-5 


1-9734 



A 


3 SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH 


AND 


SOUTH 


ATLANTIC 


OCEAN. 


137 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of the Sample. 


a( 


:■) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 

Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 


! 

I 


£ Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 




of 

Sea 
at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 

of 
the 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


Reduced 

to 
15°-56C. 


Reduced 
to 
t. 




T. 


t. 




of 
the 


of 
the 
























L. 


lee ted. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4 S l5»-56. 


4 S t . 




1 


o / 


O ' 






o p 


°F. 






° F. 


°C. 
















18.0 


69 1 S. 

Only a fe 


23 55 W. 

w distant 


bergs. 


Surface 


28-9 


30-2 
-1-0 C. 


Hooker's green 
(dull) 


10.45 
3/3/04 


50-0 
10-0 C. 


13-4 
12-9 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


11-6 
16-5 
22-0 
32-0 
42-8 
53-0 
63-0 
68-5 
73-6 


1-5471 
■0821 
■3854 


1-02530 


1-02480 


1-02704 




13-15 


5-60 


42-6 


20146 




J 6.0 


70 28 S. 

No 


23 38 W. 
ice. 




Surface 


30-6 


30-2 
-1-0 C. 


Dark green 


11.5 
3/3/04 


50-0 
100 C. 


14-7 
14-2 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
-5-80 
5-90 
6-00 


3-6 
14-0 
24-3 
35-0 
45-5 
56-0 
65-5 
75-8 
85-9 


1-5471 
•0902 
■4080 


1-02513 


1-02489 


1-02713 




14-45 


5-60 


45-1 


2-0453 




t 12.0 


71 4S. 

As berg a 
on port 
from th 


23 10 W. 

bout 500 

quarter, 

e lee side. 


yards 
samp] 


Surface 

away 
e taken 


29-6 


30-8 
-0-7 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.35 

3/3/04 


52-0 
111 C. 


15-4 
15-5 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


4-5 

9-8 

15-0 

25-8 
36-5 
47-5 
58-0 
63-5 
68-6 


1-5471 
■0964 
•3311 


1-02497 


1-02495 


1-02716 




15-45 


5-50 


36-6 


1-9746 




i 18.0 


71 30 S. 

Only one 
taken 


22 25 W. 

berg in si 
from the 


lee s 


Surface 

sample 
ide. 


28-4 


31-0 
-0-6 C. 


Light Antwerp 
blue 


12.15 
3/3/04 


58-0 
14-4 C. 


14-6 

14-8 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


10-2 
16-5 
20-8 
31-6 
42-0 
52-5 
63-0 
68-5 
73-8 


1-5471 
■0917 
■3808 


1-02527 


1-02509 


1-02731 




14-7 


5-60 


42-1 


2-0196 




«'i 7.0 


72 12 S. 
Two dis 


18 40 W. 
tant bergs 


only. 


Surface 


25-7 


30-5 
-0-8 C. 


Blue 


12.45 


58-0 
14-4 C. 


12-9 
12-9 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


6-2 
11-2 
16-5 
27-0 
37-6 
48-0 
58-2 
63-6 
69-0 


1-5471 
■0805 
■3392 


1-02557 


1-02502 


1-02725 




12-9 


5-60 


37-5 


1-9668 




3 10.45 


72 18 S. 


17 59J W. 


1131 


1131 


25-2 


32-00 
0-0 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,512 


15.40 


58-1 
14-5 C. 


13-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 


6-2 
11-5 
16-6 
27-8 
39-0 
49-6 
60-5 
65-3 


1-5471 
■0849 






























13-7 


6-00 


69-8 


•3483 


102604 


1-02563 


1-02786 




13-6 


5-70 


38-5 


1-9803 







































138 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITY 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to 


he Determination of the Density of U 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 


Dens, 


d 

o 


"H. 
£ 
tn 


h 
a 

XI 

E 

3 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 






during 

Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Den 
Watei 












D. 


<I. 


O 

u 

O 

.0 
£ 

3 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 
was 




Colour of Water, 
Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


r. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


Ob- 
served 




T. 


t. 


of 
the 


of 

the 


of 
the 


centims.V ' 












fc 


!z; 












L. 


lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4^'. 








190-1. 






O / 1 O / 






F 


° F. 






F 


°c. 












406 


391 
kept 


Mar. 


3 


11.45 


72 18 S. 17 59J W. 


1131 


1000 


25-2 


32-4 
0-2 C. 
Read on 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottie 


16.10 


58-0 
14-4 C. 


12-7 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


15-0 
19-9 
25-5 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,504 






130 


5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


30-5 
360 
41-0 
46-0 
52-0 
57-0 


1-5471 
■0802 
■3247 


1-02620 




12-85 


5-70 


35-9 


1-9520 


406 


392 
kept 


Mar. 


3 


11.45 


72 18 S. 


17 59i W. 


1131 


750 


25-2 


32-50 
0-3 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,512 


14.20 
4/3/01 


53-8 
12-1 C. 


13-2 
12-9 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


5-0 
100 
15-0 
26-0 
36-6 
48-0 
58-5 
63-5 
68-5 


1-5471 
■0814 
■3329 


1-02615 




1305 


5-70 


36-8 


1-9614 




406 


393 
kept 


Mar. 


3 


12.30 


72 18 S. 


17 59i W. 


1131 


500 


26-2 


32-92 
0-5 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,512 


15.0 

4/3/04 


52-0 
111 C. 


12-6 
12-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


3-8 
9-0 
14-2 
25-0 
35-5 
46-5 
56-6 
62-2 
67-2 


1-5471 
■0783 
■3220 


1-02623 




12-55 


5-70 


35-6 


1-9474 


406 


394 


Mar. 


3 


12.30 


72 18 S. 

Probably 
reverse 


17 59£ W. 

thermom 
till near 


1131 

eter d 
surfa 


COO 

id not 
ce. 


26-2 


29-7 
-1-3 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,504 


13.45 
' 4/3/04 


54^0 
12-2 C. 


14-3 
14-1 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-75 
5-65 
5-55 


120 
17-0 
23-0 
330 
43-5 
54-2 
49-0 
380 
27-5 


1-5471 
•0886 
■2985 


1-02575 




14-2 


5-60 


330 


1-9342 


406 


395 


Mar. 


3 


12.55 


72 18 S. 


17 59{ w. 


1131 


300 


26-2 


31-08 


BuchananVRich- 


15.35 


530 


17-0 


5-50 


31-8 










kept 
















-0-5 C. 


ard water- 


4/3/04 


11-7 C. 




5-30 


100 




























Read on 


bottle 








5-35 


15-0 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,512 






16-6 


5-40 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-75 
5-65 


20-3 
42-0 
52-2 
62-5 
57-5 
47-0 


1-5471 
■1048 
■3401 


1-02521 




16-8 


5-5611 


37-6 


1-9920 


406 


396 


Mar. 


3 


12.55 


72 18 S. 


17 59i W. 


1131 


400 


26-2 


29-2 
-1-6 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 


16.5 

4/3/04 


59-0 

150 C. 


170 


5-30 
5-35 


12-0 
17-2 


















Probably, thermom eter d 


id not 




Read on 


bottle 








5-40 


22-5 


















reverse 


till near 


surfa 


ce. 




bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,504 






170 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-75 


32-5 
44-0 
54-5 
64-6 
69-8 
60-0 


1-5471 
■1061 
•3790 


1-02511 


1 


17-0 


5-5833 


41-9 


2-0322 



\ 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL 


SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




139 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination 


jf the Density of the Sample. 




■) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 
at time of 






Temperature 
during 


Weights 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 
(Density of Distilled 




>a Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


A. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Water at 4° C.=l.) 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


r. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 




T. 


t. 




at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 

the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°'56C. 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


i a*.; 


^Sis-sg. 


*s fc 






o / / 






°F. 


o p 






° F. 


°C. 
















J 13.15 


72 18 S. 17 591 W. 1 


100 


26-2 


28-93 


Buchanan-Rich- 


16.35 


60-0 


16-6 


5-30 


11-0 






















-1-7 C. 


ard water- 


4/3/04 


15-9 C. 




5-35 


15-5 






















Read on 


bottle 








5-40 


20-0 
























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,512 






16-3 


5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


30-8 
41-0 
52-0 
62-5 
68-2 
72-0 


1-5471 
■1026 
■3745 


1-02524 


1-02544 


1-02767 




16-45 


5-60 


41-4 


2-0242 




: 13.15 


72 18 S. 


17 59J W. 


1131 


Surface 


20-2 


30-9 
-0-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.5 

5/3/04 


52-0 
11-1 C. 


11-6 


5-40 
5-45 


10-5 
15-8 














Distant 


berg or glacier 


about 














5-50 


210 
















twenty m 


iles. 














11-7 


5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


32-0 
42-8 
53-5 
64-2 
69-5 
75-0 


1-5471 
■0727 
■3863 


1-02590 


1-02511 


1-02733 




11-65 


5-70 


42-7 


2-0061 




• : 12.0 


72 22 S. 

D.R. Off 

No ice in 
and sn 


18 30 W. 

Coats La 
sight, we 
owing. 


nd. 
ather 


Surface 
misty 


28-2 


30-9 
-0-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.50 

5/3/04 


54-8 
12-7 C. 


12-2 
12-4 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


3-0 
8-0 
13-6 
24-5 
35-5 
46-0 
57-0 
62-2 
67-8 


1-5471 
•0768 
■3193 


1-02570 


1-02504 


1-02726 




12-3 


5-60 


35-3 


1-9432 




'J 18.0 


72 28 S. 


18 55 W. 




Surface 


26-6 


300 
-1-1 C. 


Indigo blue 


10.35 

5/3/04 


55-8 
13-2 C. 


11-5 


5-30 
5-35 


3-8 
8-8 














Ice abou 


t four miles a 


way to 














5-40 


13-8 














port ; a 


small ber ; g abo 


ut one 














5-50 


24-8 














mile a 


way to starboa 


rd. 












11-8 


5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


35-6 
46-5 
57-0 
62-0 
67-5 


1-5471 
•0727 
■3211 


1-02571 


1-02492 


1-02716 




11-65 


5-60 


35-5 


1-9409 




i 6.0 


72 31 S. 19 W. 


Surface 


26-8 


28'2 


Indigo blue 


10.55 


55-6 


10-4 


5-30 


2-2 






















-1-6 C. 






13-1 C. 




5-35 


7-2 














Off Coat 


s Land. 
















5-40 


12-4 














Pack ice 


about half a mil 


e away. 














5-50 
5-60 

5-70 


23-2 
34-0 
45-0 






























5-80 


55-6 


1-5471 






























5'85 


61-0 


■0665 




























10-9 


5-90 


66-0 


•3085 


1-02582 


1-02486 


1-02712 




10-65 


5-60 


34-1 


1-9221 




( 12.0 


73 30 S. 21 28 W. . . 


Surface 


24-8 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Indigo blue 


9.20 
11/3/04 


50-8 

10-4 C. 


8-8 


5-10 
5-20 


3-5 
14-2 














Steaming along edge of pack, 














5-30 


25-0 














about six miles distant from 














5-40 


35-6 














Coats Land — bay ice forming. 














5-50 


46-8 














Sample about three-quarters 














5-60 


57-0 














full of it. 














5-70 
5-80 


67-7 
77-5 


1-5471 
■0558 
























91 


5-90 


88-0 


■4170 


1-02472 


1-02347 


1-02568 




8-95 


5-50 


46-1 


2-0199 







































140 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



a 
_o 

a 

~ 

o 

- 

£ 

3 


C 

E 

!S 

M 

"3 

OJ 

i 

3 


Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of t 


ityoli 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Dens 

(Dens 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Walr 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 

of 
the 
Air. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 




T. 


t. 




of 
the 

Air. 


of 

the 

Water. 


of 

the 

Sample. 




\v. 


R. 


V. 


4 S,. 






1904. 






o / 


o / 






o y 


o p 






o F 


° C. 












410 


403 
kept 


Mar. 


6 


4.40 


73 30 S. 


21 28 W. 


159 


154 


23-6 


28-90 
-1-7 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,512 


9.55 
11/3/04 


54-8 
12-7 C. 


9-3 
9-8 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


6-6 
12-0 
17-6 
28-2 
39-2 
50-0 
60-6 
660 
71-4 


1-5471 
■0596 
■3537 


1-02615 




9-55 


5-70 


39-1 


1-9604 




411a 404 


Mar. 


14 


6.0 


73 25 S. 


23 45 W. 




Surface 


18-5 


29-0 


Indigo 


9.50 


58'0 


13-4 


5-30 


9-5 




























-1-7 C. 




15/3/04 


14-4 C. 




5-35 


14-6 


















Bay ice. 


Old ice h 


alf a 


mile off. 














5-40 


20-0 


















About 


a tablespo 


onful 


of ice 














5-50 


31-3 


















particl 


es in samp 


le. 














13-8 


5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


42-0 
52-7 
63-3 
69-0 
73-5 


1-5471 
■0849 
•3781 


1-02532 




13-6 


5-60 


41-8 


2-0101 




412 


405 
kept 


Mar. 


14 


12.0 


73 11 S. 

Steaming 
cake ic 
half 
Sample 
full of 


23 53 W. 

through 
e ; pack a 
a mile a 

about a q 
ice particl 


pan- 
bout 
way. 
uarter 
es. 


Surface 


25-0 


28-9 
-1-7 C. 


Indigo 


10.20 
15/3/04 


60-2 
15-7 C. 


14-4 
14-2 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


6-5 
11-5 
16-8 
27-0 
37-5 
48-0 
58-5 
63-0 
680 


1-5471 
■0892 
•3383 


1-02387 




14-3 


5-30 


37-4 


1-9746 




412 


406 


Mar. 


14 


15.0 


73 9S. 


23 53 W. 


1950 


1030 


20-0 


32-8 


Buchanan-Rich- 


10.50 


58-2 


130 


5-40 


60 










kept 


















0-4 C. 


ard water- 


15/3/04 


14-6 C. 




5-45 


110 


























Read on 


bottle 








5-50 


16-5 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,512 






131 


5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-10 


27-2 
37-5 
48-3 
59-0 
69-8 
80-5 


1-5471 
•0814 
■3573 


1-02610 








13-05 


5-7166 


39-5 


1-9858 




412 407 Mar. 


14 


15.0 73 9 S. 


23 53 W. 


1950* 


1535 


20-0 


31-6 


Buchanan-Rich- 


11.15 


57-5 


12-5 


5-40 


4-5 




























-0-2 C. 


ard water- 


15/3/04 


14-2 C. 




5-45 


10-0 




























Read on 


bottle 








5-50 


15-0 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,504 








5-60 
5-70 


26-0 
37-0 




































5-80 


47-2 












. 






















5-90 


58-0 


1-5471 






* Weights did not come off when bottom was reached, and, on hauling up, 








12-7 


5-95 
6-00 


64-0 
690 


■0786 
■3320 






lost about 1800 fathoms of wire, two Buchanan-Richard water-bottles, and 












Buc 


hanan's souni 


ling- 


,ube. 














12-6 


5-70 


36-7 


1-9577 


1-02617 




413 


408 


Mar. 


15 


6.0 


72 2S. 
No ice ne 


23 40 W. 

ar, only di 
bergs. 


stant 


Surface 


20-0 


29-3 
-1-5 C. 


Blue 


11.40 


58-0 
14-4 C. 


11-6 
120 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


8-6 
14-0 
19-0 
29-8 
40-2 
51-0 
61-5 
66-0 
71-5 


1-5471 
■0736 
■3636 


102602 




11-8 


5-70 


40-2 


1-9843 








Lfl 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




141 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 




Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 


Time 
and 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
. added 

to 
Hydro- 
meter 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 










D. 


d. 




of 


from 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 


Reduced 


Reduced 




T. 






Lat. 


. Long. 


Sea 


which 

the 

Sample 

was 


t. 


Remarks. 


Date. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 

(cub. 

centims.) 


served 


to 


to 




at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


lee ted. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 ^t'. 


4Si5"56. 


4S t . 






o / 


o / 






o p_ 


°F. 






o p_ 


°C. 














5 11.0 


71 50 S. 


23 30 W. 


2102 


2092 


16-0 


31-5 
-0-3 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,502 


10.0 

16/3/04 


61-0 
16-1 C. 


14-9 
14-7 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


2-0 
6-5 
11-6 
22-2 
33-2 
4-1-0 
54-8 
59-8 
65-0 


1-5471 
■0924 
■3003 


1-02572 


1-02556 


1-02777 




14-8 


5-60 


33-2 


1-9398 


1 


5 12.0 


71 50 S. 
No ice ne 


23 30 W. 

ar, only di 
bergs. 


stant 


Surface 


160 


29-1 
-1-6 C. 


Bright indigo 


10.40 
16/3/04 


600 
15-6 C. 


14-2 
14-4 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


6-7 
11-9 
17-2 
28-0 
38-6 
49-2 
59-5 
65-0 
70-2 


1-5471 
■0892 
■3483 


1-02547 


1-02520 


h02745 




14-3 


5-60 


38-5 


1-9846 




o 8.0 


71 28 S. 

No ice in 
tan 


22 32 W. 

sight, only 
t bergs. 


dis- 


Surface 


19-7 


29-0 
-1-7 C. 


Indigo 


11.5 


58-8 
14-9 C. 


11-9 
12-5 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


2-2 
7-4 
12-8 
23-9 
34-7 
45-2 
56-0 
61-2 
66-8 


1-5471 
■0761 
■3121 


1-02574 


1-02506 


1-02732 




12-2 


5-60 


34-5 


1-9353 




G 8.20 


71 28 S. 


22 32 W. 


2338 


1338 


19-7 


31-8 

-0-1 C. 

Read on 

bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


11.30 


60-0 
15-6 C. 


12-3 
12-8 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
600 


2-8 
8-0 
13-5 
24-6 
35-5 
46-5 
57-2 
62-6 
68-0 


1-5471 
■0783 
■3202 


1-02624 


1-02561 


1-02784 




12-55 


5-70 


35-4 


1-9456 




6 8.30 


71 28 S. 


22 32 W. 


2338 


2328 


19-7 


31-5 
-0-3 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,502 


12.0 


54-7 
12-6 C. 


12-4 
12-2 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


4-4 
9-8 
14-2 
25-0 
35-5 
46-0 
56-5 
62-0 
67-0 


1-5471 
•0768 
■3220 


102623 


1-02555 


1-02779 




12-3 


5-70 


35-6 


1-9459 




7 8.0 


71 22 S. 
Only dist 


18 15 W. 

ant bergs 
sight. 


in 


Surface 


29-8 


29-6 
-1-3 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.35 


58-1 
14-5 C. 


100 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 


90 
14-2 
19-8 
30-6 
41-5 
52-4 
63-0 
67-9 


1-5471 
■0674 










-H- 




















11-0 


6-00 


73-0 


■3736 


102600 


l-02r,04 


1-02732 




10-8 


5-70 


41-3 


I-08S1 







































142 




DR W. S 


BRUCE, MR A. KING, 


AND 


ME 


D. W 


. WILTON ON THE 


TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC 


GRAVITIES 


c 
o 


£ 

CO 

"S 

u 

01 

.a 
E 

3 


Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination 


)f the Density of the - 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Dapth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 






Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 

of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

Of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Densn 
(Den- 












D. 


d. 


Water i| 


"3 

u 

- 

E 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 




Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


Ob- 
served 
att'. 


i: 

1 
15 


T. 


t. 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 












a 


« 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


«8 tt 


i* 






1904. 






. / 


o / 






o p 


°F. 






°F. 


°c. 












416 


415 


Mar. 


17 


8.15 


71 22 S. 


18 15 W. 


2370 


200 


19-8 


330 


Buchanan-Rich- 


10.0 


53-8 


9-7 


5-50 


7-0 










kept 


















0-7 C. 


ard water- 


\l2-l C. 




5-55 


120 




























Read on 


bottle 








5-60 


17-0 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,505 






9-8 


5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


28-0 
38-8 
49-5 
60-2 
65-2 
70-5 


1-5471 
•0608 
•3501 


1-02672 


N 


9-75 


5-80 


38-7 


1-9580 


416 


416 

kept 


Mar. 


17 


8.15 


71 22 S. 


18 15 W. 


2370 


300 


19-8 


330 
0-6 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,502 


10.25 


50-2 
10-1 C. 


9-7 
9-5 


5-50 
5-60 
5-55 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


7-0 
17-5 
12-0 
27-5 
38-0 
49-0 
60-0 
65-0 
70-0 


1-5471 
•0599 
•3474 


1-02674 


M 


9-6 


5-80 


38-4 


1-9544 


416 


417 
kept 


Mar. 


17 


7.50 


71 22 S. 


18 15 W. 


2370 


1370 


19-8 


32-1 
0-1 C. 

Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,505 


11.0 


47-0 
8-3 C. 


9-5 
9-3 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


5-5 
10-5 
16-0 
26-8 
37-2 
47-0 
57-5 
62-6 
68-0 


1-5471 
•0587 
■3329 


1-02682 


M 


9-4 


5-80 


36-8 


1-9387 


416 


418 

kept 


Mar. 


17 


8.0 


71 22 S. 


18 15 W. 


2370 


2360 


19-8 


31-5 
-0-3 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,502 


11.30 


51-2 
10-7 C. 


100 
100 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
605 
6-10 


8-5 
13-5 
190 
28-8 
40-0 
50-0 
60-8 
66-0 
71-0 


1-5471 
■0624 
■3591 


1-02666 




10-0 


5-80 


39-7 


1-9686 


417 


419 


Mar. 


18 


8.0 


71 22 S. 
No ice in 


16 34 W. 

sight. 




Surface 


28-5 


29-9 
—1-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.0 


510 

10-6 C. 


10-6 
10-8 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


4-8 
9-8 
14-7 
27-0 
37-2 
480 
58-5 
63-8 
69-0 


1-5471 
■0668 
■3347 


1-02622 


1 


10-7 


5-70 


37-0 


1-9486 


417 420 


Mar. 


18 


8.0 


71 22 S. 


16 34 W. 


1410 


100 


28-5 


28-8 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


10.30 


52-0 


10-7 


5-50 


13-2 








kepi 


















-1-8 C. 

Read on 

bridge 




11-1 C. 




5-55 
5'60 
5-70 
5-80 


18-5 
22-8 
33-2 
44-5 




































5-90 


55-3 




































600 


65-5 


1-5471 


































6-05 


70-7 


■0661 


































10-5 


6-10 


76-0 


■4016 




N 


10-6 


5- 80 


44-4 


2-0148 





SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




143 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


}f the Density of the Sample. 






Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 

Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at4°C. = l.) 








Long. 


D. 


d. 




of 
Sea 


from 

which 

the 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 




T. 


t. 




Lour. 


Lat. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


















at t'. 


15°56C. 


t. 










Sample 
was 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






centims.) 




























u - lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4 S l5°-56. 


4 St. 






o > 


o - 






o F 


° F. 






F. 


°C. 
















8.10 


71 22 S. 


16 34 W. 


1410 


500 


28-5 


330 
0-6 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan- Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,502 


11.0 


50-8 
10-4 C. 


10-9 

lie 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
600 
6-05 
6-10 


10-0 
14-5 
20-7 
30-9 
41-6 
520 
62-6 
68-0 
73-2 


1-5471 
■0683 
■3754 


1-02653 


1-02560 


1-02781 




10-95 


5-80 


41-5 


1-9908 




7.45 


71 22 S. 


16 34 W. 


1410 


410 


28-5 


330 
0-6 C. 
Read on 

bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


11.20 


53-2 
11-8 C. 


13-2 
130 


5-50 
5-40 
5-45 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5'90 
6-00 
005 
6-10 


17-0 
5-0 
10-2 
26-2 
36-9 
47-2 
57-8 
68-5 
73-5 
79-0 


1-5471 
■0817 
■3808 


1-02615 


1-02563 


1-02782 




13-1 


S-7S 


421 


2-0096 




-.50 


71 22 S. 


16 34 W. 


1410 


1400 


28'5 


31-9 

-0-1 C. 

Read on 

bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,502 


11.45 


53-5 
11-9 C. 


15-4 
15-0 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
610 


130 

180 
23-5 
340 
44-7 
55-5 
06-0 
76-0 
81-0 
86-0 


1-5471 

■0948 
■4505 


1-02568 


1-02560 


1-02780 




15-2 


5-7-5 


49-8 


2-0924 




i.O 


71 32 S. 
No ice in 


17 15 W. 

sight, onl 
bergs. 


1221 
y two 


Surface 

distant 


27-2 


29-8 
-1-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.0 


37-0 
2-8 C. 


8-3 
8-1 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 

5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


8-5 
13-5 
19-5 
300 
40-3 
51-0 
61-8 
67-0 
72-2 


1-5471 

■0512 

■3655 


1-02668 


1-02530 


1-02758 




8-2 


5-80 


40-4 


1-963? 


I!) 




71 32 S. 


17 15 W. 


1221 


721 


27-2 


32-5 
0-3 C. 
Read on 

bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


10.20 


43-2 
6-2 C. 


7-9 

7-7 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


2-0 
7-0 
12-0 
22-6 
33-5 
44-2 
55-0 
60-0 
65-2 


1-5471 
■0487 
■3030 


1-02705 


1-02559 


1-02782 




7-8 


5-80 


33-5 


1-8988 


A ) i 


. ;o< 


. EDIN., 


VOL. L 


I, P^ 


lRT I 


NO. 


4). 


















21 





1" CWR W. s. BRUCE, MB A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



o 


— 


a 


E 






i. 


C/J 









o 




u 


- 


c 


— 


A 


B 


s 


3 


3 


fc 


jz; 



118 



419 



420 



kept 



427 



Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 



i(B.) 



Month 



420 



420 



421 



42') 
kepi 



430 

kept 



131 



1901. 
Mar. 



Mar. 



428 Mar. 



Day. 



Hour. 



19 



20 



21 



Mar. 



Mar. 



Mar. 



18.0 



Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 




Long. 


D. 


d. 


jat. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 



Temperature 

at lime of 

I Collection of 

Sample. 



T. 



of 
the 

Air. 



of 

the 

Water. 



Colour of Water. 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



71 32 S. 



70 43 S. 

No ice in 
bergs 



17 15 W. 



17 35 W. 

sight, only 
about six 



8.0 



21 



22 



c.8.0 



.8.0 



69 33 S. 
No ice an 



09 33 S. 



09 33 S. 



12.0 OS 32 S. 
No ice an 



15 19 W. 
ywherc in 



1221 



1221 



2513 

three 
miles 



2620 
sight. 



°F. 

27-2 



Surface 

small 
off. 



Surface 



15 19 W 



15 19 W. 



10 52 W. 
y where in 



26-0 



27-2 



2020 1015 



2020 



sight, 



2615 



Surface 



27-2 



27-2 



30-0 



°F. 
31-9 
-0-1 C. 

Read on 
bridge 



30-1 
-0-9 C, 



31-0 
-0-6 C. 



Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No 
102,502 



Antwerp blue 



Antwerp blue 



31-3 

-0-4 C. 

Read on 

bridge 



31-5 
-0-3 C. 
Read on 

bridge 



31-8 
-0-1 C, 



Buchanan-Rich 
ard water 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 



Buchanan-Rich 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,502 



Cobalt blue 



Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the S- 



Temperature 

dining 
Experiment. 



Time 
and 
Date. 



10.4:- 



of 
the 
Air. 



of 

the 

Sample. 







Volume 


Weights 


Read- 


of im- 
mersed 


to 


ing 


Portion 


Hydro- 


of 
Hydro- 


of 

Hydro- 


(grams). 


meter. 


meter 
(cub. 


w. 




centims.) 


R. 


V. 



Sir 






° F. I ° C. 
48-7 7-7 

9-3 C. 



8-1 



13.30 

21/3/04 



13.50 



14.15 



55-0 
12-8 C. 



54-4 
12-4 C. 



550 
12-8 C. 



13.5 
22/3/04 



13.40 



53-5 
11-9 C. 



52-0 
111 C. 



7-9 
13-7 



13-4 



13-55 
12-7 



12-7 



12-7 
12-7 



12-7 



12-7 
9-7 



9-7 



9-7 
9-0 



9-5 



9- 25 



5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 



5-80 

5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 



5-60 

5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 



5-60 

5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
000 



5- 70 

5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 



5- 80 

5-40 

5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 



0-8 
5-9 
11-2 
220 
32-8 
43-7 
54-5 
59'8 
65-2 



32-9 

3-5 
8-7 
13-6 
24'2 
35-0 
45-5 
56-0 
61-4 
66-5 



34-9 

20 
6-5 
11-5 
22-5 
33-0 
44-5 
55'0 
60-2 
65-6 



33-4 

3-8 
9-2 
14-5 
25-0 
36-0 
46-6 
57-1 
62-3 
67-6 



35-8 

7-5 
12-6 
17-8 
28-3 
38-8 
49-7 
60-2 
65'3 
69-0 



38-8 

2-2 
7-4 
13-0 
23-7 
340 
45-2 
56-0 
61-3 
66'5 



Ob- 
served 
at t'. 



1-5471 
■0493 
•2977 



1-8941 



1-5471 
■0846 
■3157 









102701 



1-9474 1-02568 



1-5471 
■0792 
■3021 



1-9284 



1-5471 
■0792 
■3238 






vozm 



1-9501 



1-5471 
■0605 
■3510 



1-9586 



1-5471 
■0577 
■3112 



1-02821 












5-70 



34-4 1-9160 






N 


SALINITIES 


OF THE WEDDELL 


SEA 


A.ND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC 


OCEAN. 


145 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


Df the Density of the Sample. 


te 


) Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density of Sample. 






at time of 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


(Density of Distilled 
Waterat4°C. = l.) . 
















D. d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 


Time 




to 
Hydro- 


ing 

of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 




















Long. 


of 1 trom 
J" ! which 

at the 
Posi- Sam P le 


T. 

of 
the 


t. 


Current, and 
Remarks. 


and 
Date. 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 

of 
the 


meter 
(grams). 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


Reduced 

to 
15°-56C. 


Reduced 
to 
t. 








of 

the 




tion 


col- 
lected. 




















L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4S t , 


4 S l S °-56. 


iSt 






o , | 






° F. 


of. ! 






O Jf_ 


°C. 
















1 1.57 


68 32S. 10 52 W. 


2487 


50 


32-2 


30-4 
-0-9 C. 
Read on 


Buchanan- Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 


14.50 


54-0 
12-2 C. 


12-6 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


8-7 
13-9 
19-2 
























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,502 








5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 


29-5 
40-0 
50-6 
61-2 


1-5471 






























5-95 


66-5 


■0786 






























12-0 


6-00 


71-5 


■3627 


1-02600 


1-02540 


1-02761 




120 


5-70 


40-1 


1-9884 




£ 18.0 68 32 S. 


10 52 W. 


2487 


100 


32-2 


33-5 


Buchanan-Rich- 


15.20 


550 


12-0 


5-40 


21 
























0-8 C. 


ard water- 




12-8 C. 




5-45 


7-2 
























Read on 


bottle 








5-50 


12-5 
























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,505 








5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


23-0 
33-2 
43-8 
































11-9 

11-95 


5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


54-3 

59-8 
65-0 


1-5471 

■0746 
■3021 


1-02636 


1-02561 


1-02779 




5-70 


33-4 


1-9238 


- 


1-1.20 


0b 32 S. 


10 52 W. 


2487 


200 


32-2 


33-5 
0-8 C. 
Bead on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,502 


15.45 


50-0 
10-0 C. 


11-7 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 


11-2 
10-2 
21-0 
31-2 
42-0 
52-6 
63-0 


1-5471 






























11-3 


6-05 
6-10 


68-0 
73-5 


■0718 
■3808 


1-02648 


1-02566 


1-02784 




11a 


5-80 


42-1 


1-9997 




.2 14.40 


G8 32 S. 


10 52 W. 


2487 


300 


32-2 


33-2 
0-7 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


10.10 


52-0 
111 C. 


150 
14-3 


5-50 
5-40 
5-45 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


21-0 
9-8 
150 
31-0 
41-5 
51-8 
62-0 
67-2 
72-0 


1-5471 
■0914 
■3736 


1-02586 


1-02567 


1-027S3 




14-65 


5-70 


41-3 


2-0121 




■ 14.40 


68 32 S. 


10 52 W. 


2487 


300 


32-2 


33-2 
0-7 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


Tested 

again 

9.30 

23/3/04 


50-0 
100 C. 


9-8 
9-9 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


7-0 
12-7 
17-4 
28-0 
38-5 
49-2 
60-0 
65-3 
70-0 


1-5471 
■0615 
■3500 


1-02671 


1-02558 


1-02779 




9-85 


5-80 


38-7 


1-9586 




-2 11.45 


68 32 S. 


10 52 W. 


2487 


400 


32-2 


331 
0-6 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,502 


10.0 

23/3/04 


51-0 
10-6 C. 


10-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 


8-2 
13-2 
18-5 
29-0 
39-9 
50-5 
61-2 
66-5 


1-5471 
■0649 






























10-4 


610 


71-8 


■3609 


1-02663 


1-02560 


1-02781 




10-4 


1 5-80 


39-9 


1-9729 



146 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 









Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of I 


Date(K.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 


Densi 


o 
la 

"3 


"5. 
E 

CS 
CO 
■** 

o 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 

and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 

of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Dens 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Watei 


of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 




T. 


t. 




— 
E 


OJ 

E 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
tie 


of 
the 






centims.) 


at t'. 














!5 


fe 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


•iSf. 


e"; 






1904. 




O / O ' 


1 


° F. 


°F. 






F. 


°C. 










421 


437 


Mar. 


22 


16.20 


68 32 S. 10 52 W. 


2487 2480 


290 


31-5 


Buchanan-Rich- 


10.35 


50-0 


11-3 


5-50 


11-0 










kept 


















-0-3 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,502 


23/3/04 


100 C. 


10-8 


5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


16-0 
21-5 
31-2 

41-8 
52-2 
62-5 
67-8 
72-5 


1-5471 
■0690 
■3781 






11-05 


5-80 


41-8 


1-9942 


1-026S1 


422 


438 
kept 


Mar. 


23 


8.0 


68 32 S. 


12 49 W. 


2660 


Surface 


30-0 


31-1 
-0-5 C. 


Indigo 


10.50 


45-0 
7-2 C. 


8-2 


5-40 
5-45 


50 
10'0 




































5-50 


15-0 


















No ice 


in sight. 


















5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


25-0 
35-5 
46-0 






























1 








5-90 


57-0 


1-5471 


































5-95 


62-0 


■0515 
































8-3 


6-00 


67-5 


•3248 






8-25 


5-70 


35-9 


1-9234 


1-02636 




422 


439 
kept 


Mar. 


23 


18.40 


68 32 S. 


12 49 W. 


2660 500 


30-0 


32-7 
0-4 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 


14.20 

24/3/04 


57-5 
14-2 C. 


13-1 


5-50 
5-40 


17-0 
6-0 


















Whilst heaving sample from 1000 




Read on 


bottle 








5-45 


11-5 


















fathoms, thermometer No. 




bridge 


Thermometer No. 








5-60 


27-5 


















102,502 wire snapped iust 






102,505 








5-70 


38-5 


















before reaching surface, thus 














. 5-80 


49-0 


















losing thermometer, Buch- 














5-90 


59-8 


1-5471 
















anan-Richard water-bottle,and 














5'95 


65-0 


■0821 
















weights. 












13-2 


6-00 


69'0 


■3447 


1-02608 












13-15 


5-70 


38-1 


1-9739 




422 


440 


Mar. 


23 


16.15 


68 32 S. 


12 49 W. 


2660 


600 


30-0 


32-5 
0-3 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,502 


15.0 

24/3/04 


54-5 
12-5 C. 


12-4 
12-4 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


3-0 

8-5 
13-5 
24-0 
35-0 
45-5 
56-8 
62-0 
67-5 . 


1-5471 
■0774 
■3175 


1-02626 




12-4 


5-70 


35-1 


1-9420 




422 


•111 


Mar. 


23 


17.50 


68 32 S. 


12 49 W. 


2660 


1500 


30-7 


31-5 
-0-3 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle _ 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


15.20 

24/3/04 


58-2 
14-6 C. 


14-2 
141 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


8-8 
14-0 
19-0 
30-0 
40-5 
51-5 
62-0 
67-0 
72'0 


1-5471 
■0883 
■3664 


1-02592 




14-15 


5-70 


40-5 


2-0018 


422 


442 
kept 


Mar. 


23 


18.0 


68 32 S. 


12 49 W. 


2660 


2009 


30-7 


31-4 

-0-3 C. 

Read on 

bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,502 


15.40 

24/3/04 


57-5 
14-2 C. 


150 
150 


5-50 
5-40 
5-45 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


22-5 
11-0 

16-0 
33-5 
45-0 
55-5 
65-8 
70-8 
76-0 


1-5471 
■0938 
■3980 






15-0 


5-70 


44-0 


2-0387 



1 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL 


SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




147 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Deter 


mination of the Density of the Sample. 


a 


■) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Waterat4°C. = l.) 




1 1 Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 




of 
Sea 


from 

which 

the 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reducet 
to 


Reduced 
to 




T. 


t. 




at 
Posi- 
tion 


















at t'. 


15°-56C 


t. 










Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


of 
the 


of- 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






centims.) 






























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S t '. 


4815=56. 


4S t . 




1 „ / | / 




■ F. ' : 




°F. 


°C. 








1 






8 11.10 68 41S. 


ID 36 VV. Cir. 
2500 


1000 


30-8 


31-82 
-0-1 C. 


Nansen- Pet tors- 
son water- 


16.5 


58-0 
14-4 C. 


13-6 


5-40 
5-45 


8-0 
13-5 






















Read on 


bottle 








5-50 


19-0 






















bridge 


Thermometer No. 
18,725 








5-60 
5-70 


29-2 
39-8 


































5-80 


50-5 


































5-90 


60-8 


1-5471 
































5-95 


66-0 


•0852 






























13-7 


6-00 


71-5 


■3600 


1-02597 


1-02557 


1-02780 




13-65 


5-70 


39-8 


1-9923 




Tl 18 ° 

1 


68 41 S. 


12 36 W. 


Cir. 
2500 


700 


30-0 


32-40 
0-2 C. 

Read on 
bridge 


Nansen- Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


13.50 

26/3/04 


59-5 

15-3 C. 


12-9 

12-8 

12-85 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


50 
10-0 
15-0 
26-5 
37-2 
47-2 
58-0 
63-0 
68-0 


1-5471 
■0802 
■3320 


1-02616 


1-02559 


102781 




5-70 


36-7 


1-9593 




U 18.25 


68 41 S. 


12 36 W. 


Cir. 


800 


30-0 


32-4 


Nansen-Petters- 


14.15 


54-0 


. 12-3 


5-40 


3-0 
















2500 






0-2 C. 


son water- 


26/3/01 


12-2 C. 




5-45 


8-0 
























Read on 


bottle 








5-50 


13-0 
























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
18,725 






12-5 


5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


24-5 
36-0 
46-0 
57-5 
62-5 
68-0 


1-5471 
■0774 
•3202 


1-02624 


1-02558 


1-02780 




12-1 


5-70 


35-4 


1-9447 




-'1 17.10 


68 41 S. 


12 36 W. 


Cir. 
2500 


900 


300 


32-1 
0-1 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


14.40 

26/3/04 


54-0 
12-2 C. 


12 6 
12-5 


5-50 
5-40 
5-45 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


16-0 
4-5 
9-0 
26-0 
36-0 
46-2 
57-2 
62-0 
67-0 


1-5471 
■0783 
■3257 


1-02621 


102558 


1-02780 




12-55 


5-70 


36-0 


1-9511 




25 8.0 


68 26 S. 
(noon po 
No ic 


11 11 W. 

sition) 
e. 




Surface 


30-2 


31-3 
-0-4 C. 


Antwerp blue 


14.15 


45-0 
7-2 C. 


11-7 
11-2 


5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 


4-0 
9-0 
14-5 
19-8 
25-0 
30-8 
36-0 
41-2 
45-5 


1-5471 
■0714 
■2271 


1-02597 


1-02514 


1-02739 




11-45 


5-55 


25-1 


1-8456 




26 6.0 


6T 48 S. 
Three 


11 52 W. 

distant 


bergs. 


Surface 


30-3 


30-9 
-0-6 C. 


Blue 


9.30 
30/3/04 


51-3 
10-7 C. 


8-8 
9-3 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5--95 
600 


6-0 
11-0 
16-7 
27-0 
38-0 
48-5 
59-0 
64-5 
69-5 


1-5471 
■0565 
•3419 


1-02624 


1-02499 


1-02724 






9-05 


5-70 


37-8 


1-9455 







































148 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



a 

a 

"is 

"o 
h 


— 
E 

I. 
"o 
<o 

.O 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of t 


tj 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 

to 
Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 

of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Dens 

(Dons 
Wah 




Hour. 


Lafc. 


Long. , 


D. 


d. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 




Month. 


Day. 


T. 

of 
the 


t. 

of 
the 




of 


of 
the 
















5 


S5 




1904. 








i 


L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S r. 










o / 


O / 






o pi 


o F 






o p 


°C. 












128 


449 


Mar. 


27 


6.30 


67 9 S. 


11 30 W. 




Surface 


30-5 


30-5 
-0-8 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.50 

30/3/04 


53-2 
11-8 C. 


14-1 
13'5 


5-40 
5-30 
5-35 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


22-0 
11-0 
16-8 
32-5 
43-0 
53-0 
64-0 
69-5 
74-0 


1-5471 
■0861 
•3881 


1-02526 




13-8 


5-60 


42-9 


2-0213 




428 


I.Mi 


Mar. 


27 


18.0 


66 41 S. 
Only on 


11 17 W. 

e berg in 
four miles 


2715 

sight, 
off. 


Surface 
about 


30-0 


3D0 
-0-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.30 
30/3/04 


52-0 
11-1 C. 


11-8 
11-7 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


3-8 
9-0 
14-0 
24-0 
35-0 
46'0 
56-5 
61-5 
66-5 


1-5471 
■0733 
■3175 


1-02573 




11-75 


5-60 


35-1 


1-9379 


im 


429 


451 


Mar. 


28 


0.0 


66 13 S. 
Several 


11 22 W. 
distant be 


rgs. 


Surface 


28-0 


30' 8 

-0-7 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.30 

30/3/04 


51-7 
10-9 C. 


12-5 

12-4 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


5-8 
10-8 
16-0 
26-0 
36'8 
47-2 
58-0 
63-0 
68-0 


1-5471 
■0777 
■3329 


1-02562 




12-45 


5-60 


36-8 


1-9577 




430 


452 
kept 


Mar. 


28 


12.0 


65 58 S. 
Only dist 


11 24 W. 

ant bergs 


in sig 


Surface 
ht. 


28-0 


31-2 
-0-4 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


12.0 

30/3/04 


53-0 
11-7 C. 


12-8 
12-6 


5-30 
5-35 
540 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


5-2 
10-2 
15-8 
26-5 
37-0 
48-0 
58-0 
63-2 
68-5 


1-5471 
■0792 
■3338 


1-02560 




12-7 


5-60 


36-9 


1-9601 




i.:i 


453 


Mar. 


29 


12.0 


63 54 S. 
No ice in 


10 42 W. 

sight. 




Surface 


29-0 


31-2 

-0-4 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


13.10 
30/3/04 


51-0 
10-6 C. 


10-5 
10-3 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


5-0 
10-0 
16-5 
27-5 
38-2 
49-0 
59-0 
64-5 
69-5 


1-5471 
■0649 
■3410 


1-02619 




10-4 


5-70 


37-7 


1-9530 




431i 


454 


Mar. 


30 


6.0 


62 4 8. 

Only dist 


12 21 W. 

ant bergs. 




Surface 


28-9 


30-9 
-0-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


13.30 


51-2 
10-7 C. 


10-3 
106 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


6-5 
11-5 
17-0 

27-5 
38-8 
50-0 
60-2 
65-2 
70-5 


1-5471 
■0652 
■3492 


102615 




10-45 


, 5-70 


38-6 


1-9615 





y 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




149 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


• 


) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 






during 


Weights 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 






Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water. 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Water at 4°C. = 1.) 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 

which 

the 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 

to 
15°50C. 


Reduced 
to 
t. 


T. 


t. 


1 1 our. 














Sample 
was 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 







centims.) 
























L. 


leeted. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4°t'. 


4 S i5»- 56 . 


4 S t . 






o , 


o / 






F. 


o F _ 






F. 


°C. 














12.0 


01 26 S. 

Only dist 


12 47 W. 

ant bergs. 




Surface 


29-3 


31-8 
-0-1 0. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.55 
31/3/04 


54-0 
12-2 C. 


12-3 
12-3 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


1-0 
60 
12-0 
22-0 
33-0 
43-5 
53-5 
59-0 
64-3 


1-5471 
■0768 
■2938 


1-02583 


1-02517 


1-02737 


12-3 


5-60 


32-7 


1-9197 


18.0 


61 21 S. 


13 2 W. 




30 


30-2 


30-75 
-0-7 C. 
Read on 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 


9.40 

8/4/04 


49-0 
9-4 C. 


9-7 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


3-5 

8-8 

14-0 
























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
18,725 




49-9 

9-9 C 


9-8 


5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


24-5 
35-5 
46-0 
56-5 
62-0 
68-0 


1-5471 
■0608 
■3202 






























9-75 


5-70 


35-4 


1-9281 


1-02633 


1-02519 


1-02745 


3| 17.30 


61 21 S. 


13 2 W. 


2764 


50 


30-0 


28-92 


Nansen-Petters- 


10.10 


50-3 


91 


5-50 


9-5 
























-1-7 C. 


son water- 


8/4/04 


10-2 C. 




5-55 


15-0 
























Read on 


bottle 








5-60 


20-0 
























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
18,725 




50-2 
10-1 C. 


9-4 


5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


30-5 
41-0 
52-0 
62-0 
67-5 
72-5 


1-5471 
■0577 
■3718 




























9-25 


5- 80 


41-1 


1-9766 


1-02661 


1-02538 


1-02770 




17.30 


61 21 S. 


13 2 W. 


2764 


80 


30-0 


29-60 

-1-3 C. 

Read on 

bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


10.35 

8/4/04 


49-9 
9-9 C. 

47-0 
8-3 C. 


8-9 
91 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


8-0 
13-5 
18-8 
29-5 
40-2 
50-8 
61-2 
66-0 
71-0 


1-5471 
■0562 
■3609 




























9-0 


5-80 


39-9 


1-9642 


1-02668 


1-02541 


1-02772 


30 


17.40 


61 21 S. 


13 2 W. 


2764 


90 


30-2 


30-80 
-0-7 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


11.0 

8/4/04 


47-0 
8-3 C. 

46-0 
7-8 C. 


7-7 
7-8 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
610 


5-0 
10-0 
15-0 
25-5 
36-5 
47-2 
58-0 
630 
68-0 


1-5471 
■0484 
■3302 




























7-75 


5-80 


36-5 


1-9257 


1-02690 


1-02544 


1-02772 




16.0 


61_21_S. 


13 2 W. 


2764 


100 


30-2 


32-01 
0-0 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
| son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


13.10 

8/4/04 


48-8 
9-3 C. 

50-0 
100 C. 


13-4 
12-8 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
600 


7-5 
12-5 
18-0 
28-0 
38-8 
49-8 
60-0 
65-0 
70-0 


1-5471 
■0817 
■3510 




























13-1 


5-70 


38-8 


1-9798 


1-02604 


1-02552 


1-02775 







































150 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 





















, 


c 

o 

oa 

o 
u 

o 
.0 
E 

3 


■-' 
£ 

eg 

"o 

V 

£ 

3 


Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination 


if the Density of thi 


Date(K.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 
of 


Densil 

(Don 
Water 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


a. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 
Mas 
col- 
lected. 


T'. 

of 
tie 


t'. 


Hydro- ' „, 
meter 0b - 

(cub. 1 se ™ d 

centims.) at l ■ 


Redi 


T. 


1. 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 

the 








fc 


fc 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


i° 






1904. 






O / 


/ 






° F. 


°F, 






°F. 


°C. 












432a 


461 


Mar. 


30 


16.50 


01 21 S. 


13 2 W. 


2704 


200 


30-0 


32-33 
0-2 C. 

Read on 
bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


13.30 

8/4/04 


50-2 
10-1 C. 

50-4 
10-2 C. 


12-8 
12-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


50 
9-8 
14-8 
250 
35-8 
46-0 
56-5 
61-8 
67-0 


1-5471 
■0789 
■3229 
































12-65 


5-70 


35-7 


1-9489 


1-02622 




432a 


462 


Mar. 


30 


16.30 


61 21 S. 


13 2 W. 


2764 


300 


30-0 


32-28 
0-2 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


14.0 

8/4/04 


50-2 
10-1 C. 

50-3 

10-2 C. 


11-7 
11-6 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


2-5 
7-8 
12-3 
23-0 
33-0 
43-6 
54-0 
59-0 
64-8 


1-5471 
■0727 
■3012 
































11-65 


5-70 


33-3 


1-9210 


1-02637 




432a 


463 


Mar. 


30 


17.0 


61 21 S. 


13 2 W. 


2764 


400 


30-0 


32-21 
0-1 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,725 


14.45 

8/4/04 


49-2 
9-6 C. 

48-0 
S-9C. 


10-6 
10-5 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
6-00 
6-05 
6-10 


9-8 
15-3 
20-0 
30-3 
40-5 
50-8 
61-5 
66-3 
72-0 


1-5471 
0658 
■3682 
































10-55 


5-80 


40-7 


1-9811 


1-02059 




433 


464 


Mar. 


31 


0.0 


60 50 S. 
Distant b 


12 30 W. 

ergs only. 




Surface 


30-2 


31-1 

-0-5 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue at 7.0 


10.15 


55-5 
13-1 C. 


9-4 
100 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
560 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


5-0 
100 
15-3 
26-0 
36-8 
47-5 
58-5 
63-5 
69-0 


1-5471 
■0605 
■3329 


1-02626 




9-7 


5-70 


36-8 


1-9405 


434 




Mar. 


31 


12.0 


60 37 S. 

No ice 
(w 


12 10 W. 

visible for 
eather mis 


two 

ty). 


Surface 
miles 


29-5 


31-2 
-0-4 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.50 

4/4/04 


59-6 
15-3 C. 

59-0 
15-0 C. 


140 
14-7 


5-30 
5-35 

5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


7-0 
12-2 
17-5 
28-0 
39-5 
50-2 
61-0 
66-0 
71-5 


1-5471 
■0914 
■3546 
































14-65 


5-60 


39-2 


1-9931 






436 


166 


Apr. 


2 


I- ii 


58 lo S. 

\,. ici i 


11 SOW. 
sight. 




Surface 


31-0 


330 
0-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.30 
3/4/04 


01-5 
16-4 C. 

01-0 
16-1 C. 


18-1 

17-9 


5-50 
5-00 
5-65 
5-70 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-10 
5-15 


51-0 
61-5 
66-0 
70-5 
18-0 
28-0 
38-0 
8-0 
10-0 


1-5471 
•1123 
■3528 
































18-0 


5-40 


39-0 


2-0122 











































N SALINITIES OF THE WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN. 151 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


sf the Density of the Sample. 


■ 




Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 






during 


Weights 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 




_ 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Water at 4°G. = 1.) 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 




T. 


t. 


, 


pour. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 

the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


col- 
lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


.»Sl5»-56. 


4 S t . 


o / 


o / 






o p 


°F. 




o -p 


°C. 














3 CO 


57 1G S. 
Two dist 


10 37 W. 

ant bergs. 




Surface 


31-6 


32-9 
0-5 C. 


Blue 


10.10 

4/4/04 


49-0 
9-4 C. 


13-3 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 


11-5 
17-0 
22-5 
32-5 
43-0 


































5-70 


54-0 


































5-80 


64-8 


1-5471 
































5-85 


70-2 


■0811 


























48-5 


12-7 


5-90 


75-0 


■3926 


























9-2 C. 


































13-0 


5-60 


43-4 


2-0208 


1-02526 


1-02473 


1-02688 


i 18.0 


56 23 S. 

Two dist 


10 OW. 
ant bergs 


in sig 


Surface 

ht. 


31-0 


33-8 
1-0 C. 


Turquoise 


10.35 

4/4/04 


47-4 
8-6 G. 

46-2 
7-9 C. 


120 
11-4 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


7-5 
12-5 
17-5 
28-8 
39-5 
44-5 
50-0 
55-5 
60-5 


1-5471 
■0730 
■3175 


























11-7 


5-5611 


35-1 


1-9376 


1-02552 


1-02474 


1-02688 


t 8.0 


55 8S. 


9 50W. 


2270 




32-2 


316 
-0-2 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 




Samp 


le lost d 


uring gal 


e on the 


night of 1 


8 th Apri 


I 1904. 






The water-bottle, which was 






bottle 






















fixed about 3 fathoms from the 






Thermometer No. 






















sounding-tube, came up with 






102,505 






















its sides pressed in ; some water, 




























with a little mud, was in the 




























bottle ; the sounding-tube, how- 




























ever, w 


as lost. 






























55 8S. 

A distant 


10 OW. 
berg in si 


gbt. 


Surface 


33-8 


34-2 
1-2 C. 


Turquoise 


9.15 

8/4/04 


50-7 
10-4 C. 


90 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 


7-5 
12-5 
19-0 
29-0 
39-8 
50-5 
60-8 
66-0 


1-5471 
■0565 




























47-0 


9-1 


6-00 


72-0 


■3591 




























8-3 C. 




































9-05 


5-70 


39-7 


1-9627 


1-02614 


1-02489 


1-02705 


8 


12.0 


52 33 S. 


9 47 W. 




Surface 


36-2 


35-0 


Cobalt 


15.8 


47-3 


9-8 


5-40 


13-0 






















1-7 C. 






8-5 C. 




5-45 
5-50 
5-60 


18-0 
23-0 
33-5 


































5-70 


43-5 


































5-80 


54-0 


































5-90 


64-5 


1-5471 
































5-95 


69-5 


-0605 




























46-5 


9-6 


6-00 


75-0 


■3962 




























8-1 C. 




































9-7 


5-70 


43-8 


2-0038 


1-02591 


1-02478 


1-02688 


9 


12.0 


51 7S. 


9 31 W. 




Surface 


36-0 


35-3 
1-8 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue (light) 


13.55 

15/4/04 


530 

11-7 C. 


11-0 


5-50 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-60 


27-5 
7-0 
12-2 
17-2 
38-0 
































5-70 


48-0 
































5-80 


59-0 


1-5471 






























5-85 


64-0 


■0696 


























52-8 


11-3 


5-90 


69-5 


■3437 


























11-6 C. 




















• 
















11-15 


5-60 


38-0 


1-9604 


1-02560 


1-02472 


102681 


\ soc 


. EDIN. 


VOL. L 


I, FJ 


lRT I 


(NO. 


4). 


















22 





152 DB W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to 


the Deter 


mi nation 


of the Density of 


he( 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
eentims. 


Den 


c 
_o 

09 

W 
o 

c 

s 

3 


£ 

o 

& 

3 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 

i 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Den 


Month. 


Day 


; 
.| Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 

of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


(1. 


Water at ! : 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


i ■* 


T. 


t. 


Ob- 
served | 


of 
the 


of 
the 


1 
of 
the 


of 
the 


at t'. 














fc 


^; 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. ISample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 








190-1. 






O / 


o / 






o p_ 


°F. 






o p_ 


°C. 










448 


473 


Apr. 


10 


12.0 


49 25 S. 


9 21 W. 




Surface 


38-5 


39-0 
3-9 


Cobalt 


14.0 

16/4/04 


51-9' 
11-1 C 


9-7 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


11-0 

16-0 
21-0 
32-5 
43-7 
54-2 






































5-90 


64-2 


1-5471 


































595 


69-5 


■0618 






























53-0 


10-1 


6-00 


74-5 


•3890 






























11-7 C. 






































9-9 


6-70 


43-0 


19979 


1-02594 




449 


474 


Apr. 


11 


12.0 


48 53 S. 


9 25 W. 




Surface 


38-7 


39-4 
4-1 C 


Dark blue 


14.30 

16/4/04 


53-0 
11-7 C. 

53-8 
12-1 C. 


100 
10-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


11-3 

17-0 
22-0 
33-5 
44-5 
55-0 
66-0 
71-0 
76'0 


1-5471 
■0640 
■3980 
































10-25 


5-70 


44-0 


2-0091 


1-0258$ 




450 


475 


Apr. 


12 


13.0 


48 OS. 


9 50 W. 
D.R. 




Surface 


38-8 


40-0 
4-4 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue (light) 


15.0 

16/4/04 


54-0 
72-2 C. 


10-3 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 


14-0 
19-0 
24-0 
35-0 










































































5'70 


45-5 






































5-80 


56-3 






































5-90 


66-5 


1-5471 




































5-95 


72-0 


■0661 
































54-5 


10-9 


6-00 


77-5 


■4116 
































12-5 C. 








































10-6 


5-70 


45-5 


2-0248 


1-02579 


451 


476 


Apr. 


13 


13.0 


48 GS. 


10 5 W. 




Surface 


35-8 


40-8 


Reeve's French 


9.15 


51-2 


10-6 


5-30 


1-0 


























4-9 C. 


blue 


20/4/04 


10-7 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 


6-0 
11-0 
22-0 


































51-5 
10-5 C. 


10-7 


5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


33-0 
44-0 
55-0 
60-0 
65'2 


1-5471 
■0665 
•2985 
































10-65 


5-60 


330 


1-9121 


1-02587 




453 


477 


Apr. 


14 


13.0 


46 35 S. 


10 10 W. 




Surface 


39-2 


42-9 
61 C. 


Cobalt blue 
(light) 


9.55 

20/4/04 


52-2 
11-2 C. 

52-7 
11-5 C. 


10-7 
110 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


0'5 
5-5 
10-5 
16-0 
21-0 
26-0 
32-0 
38-0 
42-5 


1-5471 
■0677 
■1927 
































10-85 


5-50 


21-3 


1-8075 


1-02591 




454 




Apr. 


15 


13.0 


45 54 S. 


10 4W. 




Surface 


48-9 


44-2 
6-8 C. 


Cobalt blue 


10.20 
20/4/04 


52-9 
11-6 C. 


10-8 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 


10-5 
16-0 

21-8 
32-5 
43-0 
54-0 
65-0 
70-0 


1-5471 
■0686 




























53-4 


11-2 


6-00 


75-0 


■3899 


























1 




11-9 C. 




1 














11-0 


5-70 1 


431 


2-0056 







SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




153 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


Df the Density of the Sample. 






Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 






















D. 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 


Time 
and 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 


ing 

of 
Hydro- 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 






of 


from 


r. 


t'. 


Ob- 


Reduced 


Reduced 




T. 




>y. 




Lat. 


Long. 


Sea 


which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


t. 


Remarks. 


Date. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 

(cub. 

centims.) 


served 


to 


to 


[our. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S t'. 


4 S 15°'56. 


«s fc 




o / 


o , 






°F. 


°F. 






F. ° C. 














< 13.0 


45 25S. 


10 19 W. 




Surface 


46-0 


45-2 

7-3 a 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.50 
20/4/04 


53'5 
11-9 C. 

53-8 
121 C. 


10-9 
113 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6'00 


10-5 
15-5 
20-5 
320 
42-5 
530 
64-0 
69-8 
75-0 


1-5471 
■0693 
■3845 


























111 


5-70 


42-5 


2-0009 


1-02592 


1-02503 


1-02653 


. 13.0 


44 30S. 


9 43 W. 




Surface 


44-8 


47-8 
8-8 C. 


Cobalt 


9.25 

27/4/04 


51-7 
111 C. 


11-4 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5'80 
5-90 


9-2 
14-5 
20-0 
31-0 
410 
520 
62-5 


1-5471 
































5-95 


68-5 


■0714 




























52-4 


11-5 


600 


73-0 


■3736 




























11-3 C. 




































11-45 


5-70 


41-3 


1-9921 


1-02597 


1-02514 


1-02642 


18 


L2.0 


43 41 S. 


8 30 W. 
D.R. 




Surface 


55-0 


52-0 
111 C. 


Cobalt 


9.50 

27/4/04 


53-0 
11-7 C. 


11-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 


8-0 
130 
18-8 
290 
39-8 
50-0 
61-0 
66-5 


1-5471 
■0721 


























53-2 


11-6 


6-00 


71-3 


■3590 


























11-8 C. 


































11-55 


5-70 


39-7 


1-9782 


1-02605 


1-02523 


1-02613 


L2.0 


42 57S. 


8 13W. 




Surface 


45-3 


50-8 


Cobalt 


9.0 


56-8 


12-6 


530 


1-5 
















D.R. 








10-4 C. 




28/4/04 


13-8 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 


6-7 
12-5 
23-5 
































5-60 


35-0 
































5-70 


45-8 


































5-80 


56-5 


1-5471 
































5-85 


61-5 


■0802 




























56-9 


131 


5-90 


66-5 


•3112 




























13-8 C. 




































12-85 


5-60 


34-4 


1-9385 


1-02573 


1-02518 


1-02619 


20 


L2.0 


41 30 S. 


9 55 W. 
D.R. 


1998 


Surface 


49-5 


55-0 
12-8 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.25 

28/4/04 


57-2 
14-0 C. 

57-2 
14-0 C. 


13-2 
13-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


100 
15-2 
210 
31-2 
42-5 
53-0 
63-5 
690 
74-0 


1-5471 
•0833 
■3817 




























13-35 


5-70 


42-2 


2-0121 


1-02586 


1-02540 


1-02597 


21 


2.0 


40 20 S. 
Gough Is 


9 5CJ W. 
land. 




Surface 


56-5 


55-2 
12-9 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


9.50 

28/4/04 


57-2 
14-0 C. 

57-5 


13-1 
13-4 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5'60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


10-0 
15-0 
210 
32-0 
42-8 
53-5 
64-0 
69-5 
74-0 


1-5471 
■0827 
■3835 




























la'* \j. - — — 

| 13-25 


5-70 


42-4 


2-0133 


1-02585 


1-02537 


1-02592 







































154 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density & d 


B 

c 

a 

55 

*S 

u 
o 
.0 


"E. 

E 
3 

IB 

o 
u 
a 

.a 

e 

a 










at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 

Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Deo 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Water ate; 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 
att'. 


~~— 


T. 


t. 




of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 












~ 


Sz; 


fc 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


«»* 


fi 






1904. 






o , 


o , 




o p 


•P. 




o p_ 


°C. 










462 


485 


Apr. 


24 


12.0 


39 58 S. 


8 36 W. 


1807 


Surface 


51-4 


55-2 
12-9 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.10 

28/4/04 


57-4 
14-1 C. 


131 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 


8-5 
13-7 
19-5 
30-0 
41-0 
52-5 
63-0 
68-8 


1-5471 
■0830 
































58-2 


13-5 


6-00 


74-0 


■3727 






























14-6 C. 








































13-3 


5-70 


41-2 


2-0028 


1-02591 




463 


486 


Apr. 


25 


12.0 


40 22 S. 


5 45 W. 




Surface 


52-0 


53-0 
11-7 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.30 

28/4/04 


58-2 
14-6 C. 

58-5 
14-7 C. 


131 
13-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


11-0 

17-0 
22-0 
33-0 
44-0 
55-0 
65-5 
70-5 
75-5 


1-5471 
■0830 
■3953 
































13-3 


5-70 


43-7 


2-0254 


1-02578 




464 


487 


Apr. 


26 


12.0 


41 15 S. 


2 38 W. 




Surface 


51-1 


5L9 
11-1 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.55 

28/4/04 


58-0 
14-4 C. 

57-5 
14-2 C. 


13-2 
13-5 


5-40 
545 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
600 


12-5 

17-8 
24-0 
34-0 
44-8 
56-0 
66-0 
71-5 
76-5 


1-5471 
■0833 
■4053 


*■ 






























13-35 


5-70 


44-8 


2-0357 


102573 




466 


48S 


Apr. 


27 


12.0 


40 33 S. 


7E. 




Surface 


50-2 


51-4 

10-8 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.15 

28/4/04 


57-5 
14-2 C. 

58-0 
14-4 C. 


13-2 
13-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


14-5 
19-8 
25-5 
36-5 
47-0 
58-0 
69-0 
74-0 
79-0 


1-5471 
■0833 
•4252 
































13-35 


5-70 


47-0 


2-0556 


102562 




467 


489 


Apr. 


28 


12.0 


40 8S. 


150E. 


2045 


Surface 


54-8 


52-4 
11-3 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


12.10 


57-6 
14-2 C. 

57-9 
14-4 C. 


12-4 
12-9 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


120 
17-0 
22-5 
34-0 
45-0 
56-0 
66-5 
71-5 
77-0 


1-5471 
■0789 
■4035 
































12-65 


5-70 


44-6 


2-0295 


102576 




468 


490 


Apr. 


29 


12.0 


39 48 S. 


2 33 E. 




Surface 


530 


53-8 
121 C. 


Light cobalt 


15.10 
30/4/04 


58-2 
14-6 C. 


14-4 


5-50 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5'60 
5-70 


27-5 
6-0 
11-8 
17-0 
38-0 
49-0 






































5-80 


60-5 


1-5471 


































5-85 


66-0 


•0908 






























58-5 


14-7 


5-90 


71-0 


■3481 \ 


















































1455 


5-60 


38-5 


1-9860 


H 



\ 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL 


SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




155 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 




) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 


Time 
and 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
motor 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 










D. 


d. 




of 


from 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 


Reduced 


Reduced 




T. 




.-. Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Sea 


which 
the 


t. 


Remarks. 


Dale. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 
(cub. 


served 


to 


to 


at 


















at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 








Posi- 
tion 


Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 




cenums.) 






























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


-R. 


V. 


*s,. 


4Sl5«-56. 


4S t . 


o / 


o / 






°F. 


°F. 






■F. 


°C. 












30 12.0 


39 27 S. 


5 50E. 


2900 


Surface 


54-2 


55-5 
13-1 C. 


Light cobalt 


15.30 


58-5 
14-7 C. 


13-8 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


12-5 
17-5 
23-2 
33-8 
45-0 


































5-80 


55-5 


































5-90 


66-0 


1-5471 
































5-95 


71-0 


■0867 




























58-2 


140 


6-00 


76-0 


•4026 




























14-6 C. 




































13-9 


5-70 


44-5 


2-0364 


1-02572 


1-02537 


1-02588 


1 


12.0 


39 25 S. 


10 25 E. 


2625 


Surface 


58-0 


55-5 
13-1 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue (dark) 


15.0 

4/5/04 


68-7 
20-3 C. 

69-0 
20-6 C. 


19-8 
20-0 


5-50 
5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


47-0 
16-0 
210 
26-0 
37-0 
58-0 
69-5 
75-0 
80-0 


1-5471 
•1242 
•4315 




























19-9 


5-50 


47-7 


2-1028 


1-02425 


1-02529 


1-02580 




12.0 


38 6S. 


14 32 E. 




Surface 


58-0 


64-9 
18-3 C. 


Antwerp blue 


15.20 
4/5/04 


69-0 

20-6 C. 

69-5 

20-8 C. 


20-1 
20-3 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5'50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


1-0 
6-5 
11-5 
22-0 
33-5 
44-5 
55-0 
60-0 
65-5 


1-5471 
■1260 
■3012 




























20-2 


5-50 


33-3 


1-9743 


1-02497 


102610 


1-02546 




12.0 


35 37 S. 


15 3 E. 




Surface 


62-4 


64-7 
18-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue and Ant- 
werp. 


15.45 
4/5/04 


69-3 
20-7 C. 

69-3 
20-7 C. 


200 
20-3 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


11-3 

16-8 
22-5 
33-0 
44-0 
55-0 
65-5 
70-5 
76-0 


1-5471 
•1257 
■3962 




























20-15 


5-60 


43-8 


2-0690 


1-02499 


1-02611 


1-02549 


4 


12.0 


34 58 S. 


17 0E. 




Surface 


64-1 


64-7 
18-2 C. 


Light turquoise 


16.0 


68-8 
20-4 C. 

68-4 
20-2 C. 


20-0 
20-2 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


10-5 
16-0 
21-8 
32-0 
43-0 
54-2 
65-0 
70-0 
75-0 


1-5471 
•1254 
■3899 
















- 












20-1 


5-60 


43-1 


20624 


1-02503 


1-02614 


102552 




12.0 


Off Cape 


Peninsula. 




Surface 


60-1 


61-3 
26-3 C. 


Dull dark green 


16.0 


62-3 

16-8 C. 

62-4 
16-9 C. 


17-1 
17-2 


5-30 
5'35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5'90 


2-8 
8-0 
13-5 
24-6 
35-3 
46-5 
56-8 
62-0 
67-7 


1-5471 
•1070 
•3184 










-I 


















17-15 


5-60 


35-2 


1-9725 


1-02553 


1-02590 


1-02572 



156 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of t 








Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 






Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 


Read- 
ing 
of 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 
of 


Dens 

(Dons 












D. 


rl. 


Waii 


.- 
3D 

O 

— 

B 

a 

55 


T. 

3 
15 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 




Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


T'. 


t'. 


Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


Hydro- 
meter. 


Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Ob- 
served 
att'. 




T. 


t. 




of 
the 

Air. 


of 

the 

Water. 


of 
the 
Air. 


of 

the 

Sample. 




w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4 S 1FH 






1904. 






. / 






° p 


o p 






o F 


° C. 












480 


487 


Mav 


18 


13.0 


03 Dasse n Island. 




Surface 


60-4 


59-5 


Sage green 


9.0 


73-0 


22-3 


5-20 


17-8 




























15-3 C. 




30/5/04 


22-8 C. 

72-6 
22-6 C. 


22-45 


5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


23-1 
28-2 
39-0 
50-0 
61-2 
71-0 
76-3 
81-5 


1-5471 
■1396 
■4505 
































22-375 


5-50 


49-8 


21372 


1-02406 




484 


498 


May 


22 


12.0 


31 38 S. 


15 15 E. 




Surface 


62-7 


62-4 
16-9 C. 


Pale turquoise 


9.25 
30/5/04 


72-4 
22-4 C. 

73-2 
22-9 C. 


22-4 
22-5 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


12-5 
17-6 
22-0 
32-9 
44-0 
55-0 
660 
71-0 
76-5 


1-5471 
■1401 
■3998 
































22-45 


5-50 


44-2 


2-0870 


1-02434 




485 


499 


May 


23 


12.0 


30 5S. 


12 35 E. 




Surface 


63-0 


64-4 
18-0 C. 


Light cobalt 


9.45 
30/5/04 


73-8 
23-2 C. 

73-5 


22-4 
22-6 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


12-0 
17-0 
22-0 
32-3 
43-3 
54-0 
64-5 
70-0 
75-5 


1-5471 
■1404 
■3926 
































23-7 C. 






































22-5 


5-50 


43-4 


2-0801 


102438 




487 


500 


May 


24 


12.0 


28 19 S. 


9 56E. 




Surface 


64-0 


65-0 
18-3 C. 


Light Reeve's 
French blue 


10.5 

30/5/04 


73-9 
23-3 C. 

73-2 

22-9 C. 


22-45 
22-6 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


10-0 
15-0 
20-0 
31-0 
42-0 
53-0 
63-5 
69-0 
74-5 


1-5471 
■1406 
■3799 
































22-525 


5-50 


42-0 


2-0676 


102440 




489 


501 


May 


25 


12.0 


20 12 S. 


7 5 E. 




Surface 


64-4 


65-3 
18-5 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.25 
30/5/04 


73-7 
23-2 C. 

74-0 
23-3 C. 


22-4 
22-0 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


9-8 
150 
20-0 
31-2 
42-5 
53-5 
640 
69-2 
75-0 


1-5471 
■1404 
■3817 
































22-5 


5-50 


42-2 


20692 


102444 




492 


502 


May 


26 


12.0 


24 14 S. 


4 32 E. 




Surface 


65-0 


66'3 
191 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.45 
30/5/04 


73-9 
23-3 C. 

73-8 
23-2 C. 


22-45 
22-65 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5'60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


8-0 
13-5 
19-0 
30-0 
41-0 
52-0 
630 
6S-0 
73-5 


1-5471 
■1407 
■3700 






22-55 


6-50 


40-9 


2-0578 


1-Q24S6 



\ 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH . 


iND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC 


OCEAN 




157 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of the Sample. 






Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 






Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 




T. 


t. 




lOUTi 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 

the 






of 
tie 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


col- 
lected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


\v. 


R. 


V. 


<Sf. 


4 S 15--56. 


4 s t 






o / 


o / 






op 


•F. 






° F. 


°C. 
















12.0 


22 23 S. 


142 E. 




Surface 


67-1 


68-0 
20-0 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.5 

30/5/04 


74-1 ' 
23-4 C. 

73-4 
23-0 C. 


22-5 
22-7 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


6-0 
11-0 
16-0 
27-0 
38-0 
48-8 
59-7 
65-0 
70-0 


1-5471 
■1410 
■3428 












• 
















22-6 


5-50 


37-9 


20309 


1-02466 


1-02648 


1-02538 




12.0 


19 45S. 


35 W. 




Surface 


68-0 


69-0 
20-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.25 
30/5/04 


73-3 
22-9 C. 

73-4 

22-0 C. 


22-5 
22-7 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-75 
5-80 


1-5 
7-0 
12-0 
23-0 
34-0 
45-0 
56-0 
61-5 
67-0 


1-5471 
•1410 
■3085 




























22-6 


5-50 


34-1 


1-9966 


1-02485 


1-02667 


1-02542 


29 


12.0 


17 25 S. 


2 34W. 




Surface 


72-0 


70-7 
21-5 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.45 
30/5/04 


73-5 
23-1 C. 

73-9 

23-3 C. 


22-45 
22-65 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


100 
15-0 
20-0 
31-0 
42-0 
53-0 
63-5 
69-0 
74-0 


1-5471 
■1407 
•3790 




























22-55 


5-60 


41-9 


2-0668 


1-02500 


1-02680 


1-02530 




2.0 


15 54 S. 


4 59 W. 




Su rf ace 


71-3 


72-2 


Reeve's French 


13.25 


78-9 


25-6 


5-20 


110 






















22-3 C. 


blue 


6/6/04 


26-1 C. 




5-25 


17-0 


































5-30 


22-0 


































5-40 


32-5 


































5-50 


43-0 


































5-60 


54-0 


































5-70 


65-0 


1-5471 
































5-75 


70-2 


■1601 




























79-5 


25-7 


5-80 


75-2 


■3917 




























26-4 C. 




































25-65 


5-50 


43-3 


2-0989 


1-02427 


1-02697 


1-02525 




p.o 


14 31 S. 


7 5 W. 




Surface 


72-2 


74-2 


Reeve's French 


13.45 


79-8 


25-7 


5-10 


0-5 




















23-4 C. 


blue 


6/6/04 


26-6 C. 




5-15 


5-7 
































5-20 


11-0 
































5-30 


22-0 


































5-40 


33-0 


































5-50 


45-0 


































5-60 


55-0 


































5-65 


60-8 


1-5471 
































5-70 


65-5 


■1613 




























80-0 


26-0 


5-75 


71-0 


■3347 




























26-7 C. 




































25-85 


5-435 


37-0 


20431 


1-02422 


1-02698 


1-02494 




































■ 



158 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, 



PJ 


0^ 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the i 


Dato(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 






Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density 
(Density 
















Water a 


o 
a 
M 

O 


5. 
B 

09 

cn 
o 


Month. 


1 
i 

Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Dale. 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 
of 

Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 




T. 


t. 




o 

E 

3 


u 

= 
3 
!5 


at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 


of 
the 
Air. 


of 
the 

Water. 






of 
the 

Air. 


of 

the 

Sample. 






;entims.) 


15 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 S t '. 


,s 




1904. 






o / 


o / 






o p 


°F. 






o p 


°C. 










51 12 


508 


.lime 


4 


12.0 


12 40 S. 


9 6W. 




Surface 


73-6 


73-3 
22-9 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


14.0 

6/6/04 


80-2 

26-8 C. 


26-0 


5-10 
5-15 
5-20 


10 

7-0 
12-0 






































5-30 


23-0 




































5-40 


34-5 




































5-50 


45-0 




































5-60 


56-0 


1-5471 


































5-65 


62-0 


■1629 






























80-2 


26-2 


5-70 


67-0 


■3094 
































26-8 C. 








































26-1 


5-40 


34-2 


2-0194 


102417 


M 


503 


509 


June 


5 


12.0 


10 46 S. 


11 12 W. 




Surface 


75-0 


77-1 
25-1 C. 


Light cobalt 


14.30 

6/6/04 


80-0 
26-7 C. 


26-1 


510 
5-15 
5-20 
5-30 


7-5 
12-5 
18-0 
29-0 






































5-40 


40-0 




































5-50 


50-0 




I 
































5-60 


62-0 


1-5471 


































5-65 


67-5 


■1629 






























80-2 


26-1 


5-70 


73-0 


■3609 


i 

l 




























26-8 C. 






































26-1 


5-40 


39-9 


2-0709 


1-02388 /•« 


505 


510 


June 


6 


12.0 


8 51S. 


13 2 W. 




Surface 


77-5 


77-9 


Cobalt 


14.45 


80-4 


26-1 


5-10 


10-5 


























25-5 C. 






26-9 C. 




5-15 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 


15-8 
20-5 
310 
41-5 
53-0 






































5-60 


63-8 


1-5471 


































5-65 


69-0 


■1635 
































80-2 


26-3 


5-70 


74-8 


■3817 
































26-8 C. 








































26-2 


5-40 


42-2 


20923 


1-02376 


U 


508 


511 


June 


10 


12.0 


7 36S. 


14 33 W. 




Surface 


77-9 


78-2 
25-7 C. 


Light Reeve's 
French blue 


6.40 

12/6/04 


76-8 
24-9 C. 

77-3 
25-2 C. 


25-3 
25-3 


5-10 
5-15 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


8-0 
13-0 
19-0 
29-8 
40-6 
52-0 
63-0 
68-0 
73-0 


1-5471 
■1579 
■3682 
































25-3 


5-40 


40-7 


2-0732 


1023S7 


W 


609 


512 


June 


11 


12.0 


4 47S. 


15 47 W. 




Surface 


78-4 


78-1 
25-6 C. 


Dull cobalt 


6.50 

12/6/04 


77-4 
25-2 C. 

77-5 
25-3 C. 


25-3 
25-4 


5-10 
5-00 
5-05 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


20-0 
9-5 
14-0 
30-0 
40-5 
51-2 
62-8 
68-0 
73-0 


1-5471 
■1582 
■3709 
































25-35 


5-30 


41-0 


2-0762 


1-02330 


M 


510 


513 


June 


12 


12.0 


2 46S. 


17 24 W. 




Surface 


77-5 


76-5 
24-7 C. 


Turquoise and 
cobalt 


12.5 


79-0 
26-1 C. 


25-25 


510 
5-15 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-65 


130 
190 
24-0 
35-5 
46-5 
57-0 
67-8 
73-0 


1-5471 
■1582 
































79-0 


25-45 


5-70 


78-0 


■4161 






























26-1 C. 




































25-35 


5-40 


460 


2-1214 


1-02360 


W 





AND SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH 


AND 


SOUTH ATLANTIC 


OCEAN. 


159 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Detei 


initiation 


of the Density of the Sample. 


) 


ate(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density of Sample. 










at time of 
Collection of 






during 

Experiment. 


Weights 
added 


Read- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 


















Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 
(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 






of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 

of 
the 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 


Reduced 

to 
15°-56C. 


Reduced 
to 
t. 




T. 


t. 




of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


























L. 


Air. 


Water. 


1 




Air. 
° F. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


•jSf. 


4S 15 °. 56# 


4 St. 


K 






o , 








°F. 


c F. 




°C. 












i 


13 


12.0 


15 S. 


18 32 W. 




Surface 


76-9 


76-0 
24-4 C. 


Pale turquoise 


6.45 

14/6/04 


78-1 
23-6 C. 

78-6 
°5-9 C 


25-5 
25-6 


5-10 
5-15 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


9-0 
150 
20-0 
31-0 
41-5 
53-0 
64-0 
69-0 
74-0 


1-5471 
■1594 
•3781 


























. 






25-55 


5-40 


41-8 


2-0846 


1-02380 


1-02648 


1-02414 


ii 


14 


CO 


156N. 


19 21 W. 




Surface 


77-3 


80-1 
26-7 C. 


Antwerp blue 


7.0 


78-6 
25-9 C. 

78-5 
25- 8 C 


26-25 
26-25 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


15-2 

20-8 
20-0 
36-8 
47-0 
58-0 
68-8 
74-0 
79-0 


1-5471 
■1638 
■4279 
































26-25 


5-30 


47-3 


2-1388 


1-02295 


1-02581 


1-02281 


1! 


14 


7.55 


156 N. 
Thermom 


19 21 W. 

eter did n 


Cir. 
2700 

ot ree 


1500 

ord. 


77-8 




Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,729 


15.30 


79-2 
26-2 C. 

79-6 
26-4 C. 


26-2 

26-25 


5-00 
5-05 
5-25 
. 5-45 
5-50 


17-5 
22-5 
44-0 
64-9 
70-0 


1-5471 
■1636 
•3962 






























26-225 


5-25 


43-8 


2-1069 


1-02286 


1-02571 




II 


14 


7,45 


156N. 


19 21 W. 


Cir. 

2700 


1000 


77-8 


399 
4-4 G. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan- Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,506 


15.25 


79-3 
26-3 C. 

79-3 
26-3 C. 


26-4 
26-4 


500 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


15-1 
20-5 
26-0 
36-8 
48-2 
59-0 
69-0 
74-0 
78-0 


1-5471 
■1647 
■4288 






























26-4 


5-30 


47-4 


2-1406 


1-02294 


1-02586 


1-02770 


II 


14 


9.10 


1 56 N. 


19 21 W. 


Cir. 

2700 


500 


78-2 


40-6 
4-8 C. 

Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


15.0 


79-3 
26-3 C. 

79-3 
26-3 C. 


26-4 
26-4 


5-00 
505 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


20-8 
26-5 
32-5 
430 
53-0 
64-0 
74-5 
79-5 
84-0 


1-5471 
■1647 
■4803 








. 






















26-4 


5-30 


53-2 


2-1921 


1-02265 


1-02556 


1-02736 


II 


14 


8.30 


15GN. 


19 21 W. 


Cir. 
2700 


400 


77-8 


• 


Buchanan-Rich- 


14.30 


79-2 


26-6 


5-10 


32-0 


























ard water- 




26-2 C. 




5-20 


43-0 




























bottle 








5-30 


53-9 


1-5471 


























Thermometer No. 








5-40 


64-0 


■1660 


























102,506 




79-2 
26-2 C. 


26-6 


5-50 


74-2 


■4840 






























26-6 


5-30 


53-5 1 


21971 


102262 


1-02559 


It 


ROY 


SOC 


EDIN., 


VOL. L 


I, PA 


.RT I 


NO. 


4)- 


















23 





160 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES, 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of t he Sampl- 


Date(F.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of i m- 


Density of Sio 










at time of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 


Read- 


(Density of II. 


c 
o 

a 

02 

"o 


"S. 
E 

GO 

O 


.Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


1. il 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks, 


Time 
and 
Date. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Portion 
of 

Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 


Wad 


of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


1'. 


Ob- 
served 




T. 


t. 




u 
o 

B 


u 

e 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 




; 


centims.) ' 


15°-56C. 










y. 


a 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. « 8^ 








1904. 






O / 


O / 


1 


°F. 


° F. 




°. F. 


°C. 












513 


519a 


June 


14 


9.6 


1 56 N. 


19 21 W. 


Cir. 

2700 


400 


78-2 


41-5 
5-3 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 


14.45 79-2 

26-2 C. 


26-4 


5-00 
5-05 


19-5 
25-0 




























Read on 


bottle 








5T0 


30-5 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,506 




79-2 
26- ° C 


26-4 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


41-0 
52-0 
63-0 
73-8 
78-5 
83-9 


1-5471 
■1647 
•4695 


































26-4 


5-30 


51-9 


2-1813 


1-02271 




513 


520 


June 


14 


9.30 


1 56 N. 


19 21 W. 


Cir. 
2700 


300 


78-2 


44-5 
6-9 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 
102,505 


14.15 


79-0 
26-1 C. 

79-5 
26-4 C. 


27-0 
26-9 


5-00 
5-05 
5T0 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5'50 
5-55 
5-60 


23-8 
29-2 
34-0 
45-0 
55-5 
65-5 
76-4 
81-5 
85-8 


1-5471 
■1682 
■4993 
































26-95 


5-30 


55-2 


2-2146 


1-02252 




513 


521 


June 


14 


9.26 


156N. 


19 21 W. 


Cir. 

2700 


200 


78-2 


48-8 
9-3 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,506 


14.0 


79-2 
26-2 C. 

79-2 
26-2 C. 


26-1 
20-1 


5-00 
5-05 
510 
5-20 
5'30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


15-5 
21-0 

26-5 
37-0 
47-0 
58-2 
68-5 
73-5 
78-0 


1-5471 
■1629 
■4279 
































26-1 


5-30 


47-3 


2-1379 


1-02206 


Ml 


513 


522 


June 


14 


10.0 


156N. 


19 21 W. 


Cir. 
2700 


100 


78-2 


55-0 
12-8 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


13.40 


79-9 
26-6 C. 

79-2 
26-2 C. 


26-1 
26-2 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


11-2 

16-8 
22-0 
33'0 
44-0 
54-9 
65-7 
70-8 
76-0 


1-5471 
■1632 
■3962 




'' 




























26-15 


5-30 


43-8 


2-1065 


1-02313 


im , 


513 


523 


June 


14 


9.41 


1 50 N. 


19 21 W. 


Cir. 
2700 


50 


78-2 


57-5 
14-2 C 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard Mater- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 

102,5O(i 


10.45 


79-6 
20-4 C. 

79-4 
26-3 C. 


23-4 
24-0 


5-10 
5-15 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


5-5 
10-9 
16-3 
27-0 
38-0 
49-5 
60-5 
05-8 
710 


1-5471 
■1479 
■3465 
































23-7 


5-40 


38-3 


2-0415 


1-02406 


t-euti i 




523 


June 


14 


9.4] 


1 56 V 


19 21 W. 


Cir. 
2700 


50 


78-2 


57-5 
14-2 0, 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 

Thermometer No. 

102,506 


Tested 

again, 
13.5 


79-0 
26-1 C. 

79-2 
26-2 C. 


25-8 
25-9 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


6-5 
11-5 
17-0 
27-5 
38-6 
49-2 
60-5 
00-0 
71-0 


1-5471 
■1613 
■3492 




i 




























25-85 


5-30 


38-6 


2-0576 


1-023JI 


im ' 





\.ND SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELI/ SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH J.ND 


SOUTH 


. ATLANTIC 


OCEAN. 


161 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


of the Density of the Sample. 


:i 


,e(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 

in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 
Collection of 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 


Read- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 


























D. 


(i. 


Sample. 


Colour of Water, 
Current, and 


Time 

and 




to 
Hydro- 
meter 


ing 

of 

Hydro- 


Portion 

of 
Hydro- 






of 


from 


r. 


t'. 


Ob- 


Reduced 


Reduced 




T. 




u 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Sea 


which 
the 


t. 


Remarks. 


Date. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 


served 


to 


to 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


















l \V u • . 


15°-56C. 


t. 












Sample 
Mas 
col- 
lected. 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






ccntims.) 
































L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 

1 


4 St'. 


4Sl5°-56. 


JO. 
4 t. 


i 






o / 


o / 






° F. 


° F. 






•F. 


°C. 












e 


14 


9.55 


156 N. 


19 21 W. 


dr. 

2700 


20 


78-2 


80-5 
26-9 C. 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,506 


10.25 


78-9 
26-1 C. 

79-3 
26-3 C. 


26-8 
20-75 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-15 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 


16-2 
21-8 
26-5 
32-0 
42-5 
47-4 
53-2 
58-2 
63-8 


1-5471 
■1671 
•3636 






























26-775 


5-2277 


40-2 


2-0778 


1-02290 


1-02593 


1-02286 





11 


12.0 


2 9 N. 


19 26 W. 




Surface 


79-0 


80-8 
27-1 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


13.20 


79-2 
26-2 C. 

79-2 
26-2 C. 


26-7 
26-65 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


17-5 
22-6 

27-7 
38-4 
49-0 
60-0 
71-0 
76-0 
81-0 


1-5471 
■1665 
■4451 






























26-675 


5-30 


49-2 


2-1587 


1-02285 


1-02585 


1-02272 


1! 


14 


18.0 


2 32N. 


19 32 W. 




Surface 


78-9 


80-9 
27-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


6.30 

15/6/04 


80-0 
26-7 C. 

80-0 
26-7 C. 


26-8 
26-8 . 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


18-8 
24-0 
29-8 
39-9 
50-0 
60-6 
71-0 
76-0 
81-0 


1-5471 
■1672 
■4532 






























26-8 


5-30 


50-1 


2-1675 


1-02279 


1-02583 


1-02267 




14 


24.0 


3 48 N. 


19 36 W. 




Surface 


79-0 


80-9 
27-2 C. 


Too dark 


6.50 
15/6/04 


80-0 
26-7 C. 

80-0 
26-7 C. 


20-7 
26-8 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


18-0 
230 
28-5 
39-2 
50-0 
60-5 
71-0 
76-0 
81-0 


1-5471 
■1669 
■4497 




- 


























26-75 


5-30 


49-7 


2-1637 


1-02281 


1-02583 


1-02268 




15 


6.0 


3 30 If. 


19 51 W. 


2526 


Surface 


78-8 


80-2 
26-8 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


7.20 


80-0 
26-7 C. 

80-0 
26-7 C. 


26-6 
26-6 


5-00 
5-05 
510 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


16-3 
21-8 
26-8 
37-5 
48-8 
59-0 
69-8 
75-0 
79-9 


1-5471 
■1660 
■4369 






























26-6 


5-30 


48-3 


2-1500 


1-02289 


1-02587 


1-02283 




5 


6.40 


3 30N. 


19 51 W. 


2526 


500 


78-8 


40-0 
4-4 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,727 


14.50 


78-8 
26-0 C. 

78-8 
26-0 C. 


25-7 
25-8 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


18-0 
23-0 
29-0 
39-8 
510 
610 
72-0 
77-0 
81-8 


1-5471 
■1607 
■4550 




























25-75 \ 


5-30 


50-3 


2-1628 


1-02282 


1-02553 


1-02736 









































162 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES. 









Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination 


sf the Density of the 


Date(E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centl ms.) 


Density of Sam; 


a 
o 

'•3 
cs 

o 
u 

a 
Si 
E 

3 


"5. 
E 

CO 
"o 

(4 
0) 

S 

3 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Dii 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


.1. 


Watei 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 


T'. 

of 

the 


I'. 

of 
the 


Ob- 
served 
at t'. 




T. 


t. 




of 
the 


of 
the 














fc 


« 












L. 


Iected. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 s,. 






1904. 




o , 


o / 






o p. 


o p_ 






° F. ! ° C. 












517 


530 


June 


15 


7.30 


3 30N. 


19 51 W. 


252C 


400 


77-0 


40 92 
5-0 C. 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 


14.35 


79-7 [ 25-2 
26-5 C. 


5-00 
5'05 


16-0 

21-8 




























Read on 


bottle 








5-10 


26-5 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
18,727 




79-0 


25-4 


5-20 
530 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


37-3 
48-0 
58-2 
69-8 
75-0 
80-0 


1-5471 
■1579 
■4351 






























26-1 C. 






































25-3 


5-30 


48-1 


2-1401 


1-02294 




517 


531 


Juno 15 


8.5 


3 30N. 


19 51 W. 


2526 


300 


77-0 


430 


Nansen-Petters- 


14.15 


79-1 


25-1 


5-00 


14-0 




























6-1 C. 


son water- 




26-2 C. 




5-05 


19-5 




























Read on 


bottle 


. 






5-10 


25-5 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
18,727 








5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 


36-5 
47-0 

57-7 
68-5 


1-5471 




































5-55 


73-7 


■1572 






























79 2 


25-3 


5-60 


79-0 


■4234 




i 




























26-2 C. 








































25-2 


5-30 


46-8 


2-1217 


1-0-2301 




517 


532 


June 


15 


7.25 


3 30 N. 


19 51 W. 


2526 


200 


77-0 


50-2 
10-1 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


14.55 


78-8 
26-0 C. 

78-9 
26-1 C. 


25-6 
25-8 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


13-2 
18-5 
23'5 
33-5 
44-0 
54-5 
G5-0 
71-0 
74-7 


1-5471 
■1604 
■3998 
































25-7 


5-30 


44-2 


2-1073 


1-02313 




517 


533 


June 


15 


8.0 


3 30N. 


19 51 W. 


2526 


100 


77-0 


56-9 
13-8 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,506 


13.40 


78-7 
25-9 C. 

79-0 
26-1 C. 


25-8 
25-9 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


8-0 
13-2 
18-5 
28-8 
39-5 
50-0 
61-5 
66-5 
71-5 


1-5471 
■1613 
■3591 
































25-85 


5-30 


39-7 


2-0675 


1-02335 




517 


534 


June, 


15 


7.55 


3 30N. 


19 51 \V. 


2526 


50 


77-0 


74-6 

23-7 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard Mater- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


11.50 


78-0 
25-6 C. 

77-^ 
25-5 C. 


26-1 
261 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5'25 
5-45 


0-5 
5-5 
10-8 
21-5 
32-0 
42-5 
53-6 
27-0 
48-3 


15471 

■1629 
■2433 


1-02372 


| 


26-1 


5-25 


26-9 


1-9533 


5] 8 


635 


June 


15 


12.0 


3 50 N. 


19 58 W. 




Surface 


76-8 


80' 1 
26-7 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


12.10 


77-9 
25-5 C. 

78-0 


26-6 
26'5 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5'50 
5-55 
5-60 


23-8 
29-5 
34'0 
44-5 
550 
65-0 
75-2 
80-0 
84-8 


1-5471 
■1657 
■4939 


























| 26-55 


5-30 


54-6 


2-2067 


1-02257. 


xm 



.] 


w 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELI 


SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN 




163 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Belating to the Determination 


af the Density of the Sample. 


r 


;(E.) Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 


Density of Sample. 






at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water 
Current, and 


Time 
and 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 


(Density of Distilled 
Water at 4°C. = 1.) 












D. 


d. 




of 


from 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 


Reduced 


Reduced 


T. 




he 




Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Sea 


which 
the 


t. 


Remarks. 


Date. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 
(cub. 


served 


to 


to 


>.iy. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 




















15°-56C. 


t. 












Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






centims.) 




























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St-. 


4 S l5°-56. 


4 St. 


i. 




1 . , |.o , 






°F. 


°F. 






° F. 


°C. 















15 


8.30 3 30 N. 19 51 W. 


2526 


GO 


77-0 


59-9 


Buchanan-Rich- 


13.20 


78-2 


25-8 


5-00 


5-0 


























75-5 C. 


ard water- 




25-7 C. 




5-05 


11-0 


























Read on 


bottle 








5-10 


16-5 


























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,506 




78-8 
26-0 C. 


25-9 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


27-0 
37-6 
48-0 
59-5 
64-8 
70-0 


1-5471 
■1613 
•3410 






























25-85 


5-30 


37-7 


2-0494 


1-02345 


1-02620 


1-02621 


e 


15 


8.25 


3 30N. 


19 51 W. 


2526 


20 


77-0 


80-6 

27-0 C. 
Bead on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Bich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


11.35 


78-0 
25-6 C. 

78-2 
25-7 C. 


26-2 
26-2 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


11-5 
17-0 
22-0 
32-5 
43-2 
53-8 
64-8 
70-0 
75-0 


1-5471 
•1635 
■3917 






























26-2 


5-30 


43-3 


2-1023 


1-02316 


1-02601 


1-02291 


e 


15 


16.0 


4 14N. 


20 11 W. 




Surface 


78-1 


80-6 
27-0 C. 


Beeve's French 
blue 


7.0 
16/6/04 


79-8 
26-6 C. 

80-0 
26-7 C. 


26-4 
26-5 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5'20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


24-5 
30-0 
35-5 
46-0 
56-8 
67-8 
77-8 
82-0 
87-2 


1-5471 
■1650 
•5102 






























26-45 


5-30 


56-4 


2-2223 


1-02248 


1-02540 


1-02231 


e 


15 


20.0 


4 23N. 


20 10 W. 




Surface 


78-0 


80-6 
27-0 C. 


Too dark 


7.15 

16/6/04 


80-0 
26-7 C. 

80-0 
26-7 C. 


26-3 
26-4 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


26-5 
32-0 
370 
48-0 
59-0 
69-0 
78-5 
83-0 
88-3 


1-5471 
■1644 
■5238 


■ 




























26-35 


5-30 


57-9 


2-2353 


1-02241 


1-02530 


1-02221 




15 


24.0 


4 45 N. 


20 15 W. 




Surface 


77-6 


80-1 
26-7 C. 


Too dark 


7.35 


80-0 
26-7 C. 

80-1 
26-7 C. 


26-3 
26-4 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


29-2 
35-0 
40-5 
51-0 
62-0 
72-0 
81-5 
86-5 
91-7 


1-5471 
■1644 
■5518 






























26-35 


5-30 


610 


2-2633 


1-02225 


1-02513 


1-02214 


e 


6 


6.0 


5 47 N. 


20 28 W. 




Surface 


77-2 


80-3 
26-8 C. 


Antwerp blue 


7.50 


800 
26-7 C. 

80-0 
26-7 C. 


26-6 
26-7 


5-00 
5-05 
540 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


24-5 
29-5 
35-0 
45-0 
55-2 
66-0 
77-2 
82-5 
87-8 


1-5471 
•1663 
■5057 






















26-65 


5-30 


55-9 


2-2191 


1-02250 


1-02549 


1-02246 


























• 















164 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITII 











Data Relating to the Collection of 


the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample 


Date(E 


•) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 


Dcnsii 


c 
o 

K 

o 

. 

— 
E 
a 


o 

"S. 
E 
- 

o' 

Cj 

- 

3 












at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Din 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Watei 


of 

.Sea 
at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 




T. 


(. 


i, 


of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


v . . . at I . 
centims.) 














fc 


fc 












L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


It. 


V. 


4-V 








1904. 






o / 


o / 






° F. 


° F. 






° F. 


°C. 












521 


542 


June 


10 


8.50 


5 u N. 


20 28 W. 


Cir. 
1800 


20 


78-3 


73-6 
23-1 C. 

Read on 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 


J 0.15 


81-4 27-2 
27-5 C. 


5-00 
5-05 
5-10 


15-0 
20-0 
25-0 




























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,505 








5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 


35-8 
47-0 
57-5 
68-2 
74-0 


1-5471 
■1700 
































82-0 
27-8 C. 


27-3 


5-60 


78-0 


■4224 
































27-25 


5-30 


46-7 


2-1395 


1-02295 




521 


513 


June 


10 


8.53 


5 47 N. 


20 28 W. 


Cir. 


50 


78-3 


05-4 


Buchanan- Rich- 


13.30 


80-2 


2G-6 


5-00 


11-0 






















1800 






18-6 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,506 




26-8 C. 

80-5 
26-9 C. 


26-7 


5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


16-0 
21-5 
32-0 
430 
54-0 
65-0 
70-0 
75-5 


1-5471 
■1663 
■3898 
































26-65 


5-30 


431 


2-1032 


1-02315 




521 


.Ml 


June 


10 


9.0 
*Ther 


5 17 N. 
mometer 


20 28 W. 
did not re 


Cir. 
1800 

cord. 


80 


78-3 


* 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,727 


11.20 


82-2 
27-9 C. 

82-0 
27-8 C. 


26-9 
27-0 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


47-5 
53-0 
58-3 
63-5 
69-3 


1-5471 
■1682 
■5274 
































26-95 


5-40 


58-3 


2-2427 


1-02292 




521 


545 


June 


10 


8.20 


5 47 N. 


20 28 W. 


Cir. 
1800 


100 


78-3 


56-1 

13-4 C. 

Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


11.30 


82-0 
27-8 C. 

82-0 
27-8 C. 


20-1 
26-3 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


330 
38-2 
43-5 
49-0 
54-3 


1-5471 
■1635 
■3944 
































26-2 


5-30 


43-6 


2-1050 


1-02314 


I 


521 


546 


Juno 


10 


7.45 


5 47 N. 


20 28 W. 


Cir. 
1800 


200 


78-3 


49-8 
9-9 C. 
Read on 

bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,500 


11.45 


81-8 
27-7 C. 

81-9 

27-7 C. 


20-5 
26-6 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


39-5 
44-5 
49-5 
54-8 
59-9 


1-5471 
■1657 
■4487 
































26-55 


5-30 


49-6 


2-1615 


1-02282 


u 


521 


547 


June 


10 


7.0 


5 17 N. 


20 28 W. 


Cir. 
1800 


290 


78-3 


40-5 
8-1 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Buchanan-Rich- 
ard water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
102,505 


11.55 


81-9 
27-7 C. 

81-2 
27-3 C. 


2G-8 
26-9 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


42-5 

47-5 
52-7 
58-5 
G3-5 


1-5471 
■1675 
■4785 
































26-85 


5-30 


52-9 


2-1931 


1-02265 




521 


548 


June 


10 


7.20 


5 47 N. 


20 28 W. 


Cir. 
1800 


300 


78-3 


45 5 
7-5 C. 
Read on 
bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
son water- 
bottle 
Therm nnoter No. 
18,727 


13.15 


HOT 
26-7 C. 

80-2 
26-8 C. 


25-9 
2G-0 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


48-8 
540 
59-0 
64-5 
69-8 


1-5471 
■1619 
■5355 
































25-95 


5-40 


69-2 


2-2445 


1-02291 


■ 



iSTD SALINITIES OF THE WEDDELL SEA AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 



165 









































Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination 


■A the Density of the Sample. 


D iS ( 


E.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 






during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 


Read- 
ing 
of 

Hydro- 


of im- 


(Density of Distilled 










D. 


d. 


mersed 
Portion 










of 


from 




Colour of Water. 
Current, and 


Time 
and 


T'. 


t'. 


Hydro- 
meter 


Hydro- 


Ob- 


Reduced 


Reduced 




T. 


t. 




-. Iluur. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Sea 


which 

the 
Sample 
was 
col- 
lected. 


Remarks. 


Date. 






(grams). 


meter. 


meter 

(cub. 

centims.) 


served 


to 


to 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 

the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°'56C. 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Wal er. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 St'. 


4° 15° 56. 


4S t . 


14. 




o , 


o / 






•F. 


°F. 






°F. 


°C. 














ie 16 


8.30 


5 47 N. 


20 28 W. 


Cir. 


400 


78-3 


43-4 


Buchanan-Rich- 


7.0 


79-5 


26-4 


5-00 


20-6 


















1800 






6-3 C. 


ard water- 


17/6/04 


26-4 C. 




5'05 


26-0 






















Read on 


bottle 








5-10 


31-0 
























bridge 


Thermometer No. 
102,506 




79-5 
26-4 C. 


26-4 


5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


41-2 
52-0 
62-0 
74-0 
79-0 
83-5 


1-5471 
■1647 
■4713 




























26-4 


5- 30 


52-1 


2-1831 


1-02270 


1-02561 


1-02724 


le 6 


8.35 


5 47 N. 


20 28 W. 


Cir. 
1800 


490 


78-3 


41-2 
5-1 C. 

Read on 
bridge 


Nansen-Petters- 
son • water- 
bottle 
Thermometer No. 
18,727 


7.15 

17/6/04 


79-3 
26-3 C. 

79-7 
26-5 C. 


26-4 
26-4 


500 
5-05 
5-10 
5-20 
5-30 
5-40 
5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


21-6 
27-0 
32-8 
43-2 
54-0 
65-0 
75-5 
80-5 
85-0 


1-5471 
■1647 
■4867 




























26-4 


5-30 


53-8 


2-1985 


1-02262 


1-02553 


1-02730 


ne 


12.0 


6 2 N. 


20 33 W. 




Surface 


800 


80-8 
27-1 C. 


Antwerp blue 


13.45 


80-6 
27-0 C. 

80-7 
27-1 C. 


27-0 
27-0 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


44-0 
49-0 
54-5 
60O 
65-0 


1-5471 
■1685 
■4930 




























27-0 


5-30 


54-5 


2-2086 


1-02256 


1-02565 


1-02253 




, 24.0 


7 5N. 


21 2 W. 




Surface 


77-2 


80-4 
26-9 C. 


Ton dark 


7.30 

17/6/04 


79-7 
26-5 C. 

79-8 
26-6 C. 


26-4 
26-5 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


440 
49-2 
54-9 
60-1 
65-2 


1-5471 
■1650 
■4948 




























26-45 


5-30 


54-7 


2-2069 


1-02257 


1-02549 


1-02244 




12.0 


7 25 N. 


21 39 W. 

D.R. 




Surface 


73-6 


80-0 
26-7 C. 


Dark turquoise 


9.0 

28/6/01 


75-6 
24-2 C. 

75-8 
24-3 C. 


23-9 
24-1 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


41-5 

47-0 
52-0 
57-5 
62-5 


1-5471 
■1498 
■4713 




























24-0 


5-30 


52-1 


2-1682 


1-02279 


1-02497 


1-02198 




J 12.0 


16 N. 


21 31 W. 




Surface 


70-7 


80-1 
26-7 C. 


Bright Reeve's 
French blue 


9.15 

28/6/04 


75-8 
24-3 C. 

75-8 
24-3 C. 


24-0 
241 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 
540 


17-5 
22-8 
28-0 
33-5 
385 


1-5471 
■1501 
■2542 




























2405 


5-30 


28-1 


1-9514 


1-02400 


1-02622 


1-02320 




I 12.0 


1 1 32 N. 


20 30 W. 




Surfao 


76-9 


78-2 
23-7 C. 


Pale Antwerp 
blue 


9.30 

28/6/04 


76-0 

24-4 C. 


24 '0 


5-20 
5'25 


13-3 

18-8 






























76-0 
24-4 C. 


24-2 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 


24-8 
31-0 
36-0 


1-5471 
■1504 
■2243 




























24-1 


5-30 


24-8 


1-9218 


1-02417 


1-02641 


1-02370 







































166 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 







Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of 
























~ — -— — 


c 
o 

«— i 

o 
u 
o 

= 


c 
E 

02 

o 

u 
<a 

S 


Date(F- 


) 


■n ■,. , T v Depth 
Position (L.) in Fat F homs . 


Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 


(Den 


Month. 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


rl. 


Wal 


of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 


from 
which 

the 

Sample 

was 


T'. 

of 
the 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 




T. 


t. 




of 
the 


of 
the 


of 
the 


centims.) 














« 


£ 












L. 


lee ted. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4&V. 








1904. 






, 


I 

/ 


°F. 


o f 






° F. 


°C. 












528 


556 


June 20 


12.0 


13 7 N. 


21 47 W. 




Surface 


75-4 


74-3 
23-5 C. 


Antwerp blue 


9.45 
28/6/04 


76-1 
24-5 C. 


24-1 


5-20 
5-25 
5-30 
5-35 


16-0 
21-0 
26-0 
31-0 


1-5471 
■1507 
































76-2 


24-2 


5-40 


36-2 


■2352 
































24-6 C. 








































24-15 


5-30 


26-0 


1-9330 


1-02411 




529 


557 


June 


21 


12.0 


14 27 N. 


23 30 W. 




Surface 


73-9 


74-6 


Reeve's French 


10.0 


76-2 


24-1 


5-30 


21-5 




























23-7 C. 


blue 


28/6/04 


24-6 C. 




5-35 


26-8 




































5-40 


32-5 


1-5471 




































5-45 


38-0 


•1507 
































76-0 


24-2 


5-50 


44-0 


■2949 
































24-4 C. 








































24-15 


5-40 


32-6 


1-9927 


102432 




530 


558 


June 


22 


12.0 


15 25 N. 


25 20 W. 




Surface 


73-0 


73-8 
23-2 C. 


Pale Reeve's 
French blue 


10.15 

28/6/04 


76-1 
24-5 C. 

76-2 
24-6 C. 


24-1 
24-2 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


42-5 
47-5 
52-5 
58-0 
63-0 


1-5471 
■1507 
■4767 
































24-15 


5-60 


,52-7 


2-1745 


1-02440 




531 


559 


June 


23 


12.0 


16 55 N. 


26 22 W. 




Surface 


71-8 


72-8 
22-7 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.30 

28/6/04 


76-3 
24-6 C. 

76-3 
24-6 C. 


24-1 
24-2 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


20-0 
25-0 
30-0 
35-0 
40-0 


1-5471 
■1507 
■2714 
































24-15 


5-40 


30-0 


1-9692 


1-02445 




532 


560 


June 


24 


12.0 


18 43 N. 


27 46 W. 




Surface 


72-3 


72-8 
22-7 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.40 

28/6/04 


76-3 
24-6 C. 

76-3 
24-6 C. 


241 
24-3 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-45 
5-50 


18-7 
24-0 
29-5 
34-8 
400 


1-5471 
•1510 
■2660 
































24-2 


5-40 


29-4 


1-9641 


1-0241* 




533 


561 


June 


25 


12.0 


20 19 N. 


29 10 W. 




Surface 


73-6 


73-5 
23-1 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


10.55 

28/6/04 


76-3 
24-6 C. 

76-3 
24-C, C. 


24-1 
24-2 


5-30 
5-35 
5'40 
5-45 
5-50 


13-5 
18-8 
24-5 
30-0 
35-2 


1-5471 
■1507 
■2207 
































24-15 


5-40 


24-4 


1-9185 






534 


562 


June 


26 


12.0 


22 44 N. 


30 35 W. 




Surface 


73-8 


74-4 
23-6 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.10 

28/6/04 


76-4 
24-7 C. 

76-6 
24-8 C. 


24'2 
24-4 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 
5-65 
5-70 


30-0 
35-3 
41-0 
47-0 
52-5 


1-5471 
•1516 

■3727 
































24-3 


5-60 


41-2 


2-0714 










June 


27 


12.0 


25 2 N. 


31 51 W. 




Surface 


73-5 


75-0 


Cobalt 


16.0 


75-8 


24'5 


530 


6-0 


























23-9 C. 






24-3 C. 




5-35 
5-40 


11-5 
17-0 






































5-50 


27-5 






































5-60 


38-5 






































5-70 


49-5 






































5-80 


60-5 


1-5471 




































5-85 


65-5 


■IS 29 
































75-8 
24-3 C. 


24-5 


5-90 


70-5 


■3483 


























24-5 


5-60 


38-5 


2-0483 


1-02511 


i 



AND SALINITIES OF THE WEDDELL SEA AND OF THE NORTH AND SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN. 



167 





Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 




Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sample. 


1 


te(E.) , Position (L.) 


Depth 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
[ Portion 
of 
Hydro- 
' meter 
(cub. 
centims.' 


Density of Sample. 




1 




at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and " 
Date. 


during 
Experiment. 


Weights 

added 

to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 


: 




Long. 


D. 


rl. 


Water at 4° C 


= 1.) 




of 

Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


T'. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reducec 
to 


Reduced 
to 


ont 


Day. 


Hour. 


Lat. 


T. 


t. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 

the 






of 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 




the 






















L. 


Air. 


Water. 




! Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


4 Sf. 


i^lS°S6. 


*s fc 


1904 i 






'«' 


o t 




It. 


o p 






i o F . 


°C. 












Juru 


28 


12.0 


27«23 N. 


33 6W. 




Surface 73-2 


74-8 
23-8 C. 


Cobalt 


12.10 


176-7 
'24-8 C 


24-1 


5-50 
5-55 
5-60 


26-5 
32-0 
37-5 


1-5471 






























5-65 


430 


■1507 




























i76-3 
24-6 C 


24-2 


5-70 


48-5 


■3393 




























24-15 


5-60 


37-5 


2-0371 


1-02517 


1-02744 


1-02528 


June 


29 


12.0 


29 54 N. 


34 10 W. 




Surface 72-1 


73-8 
23-2 C. 


Cobalt 


11.30 
30/6/04 


75-2 
240 C 


23-6 


5-30 
5-35 


8-0 
13-7 
































75-7 
24-3 C. 


23-7 


5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


19-3 
30-5 
420 
52-7 
62-8 
68-2 
73-5 


1-5471 
■1476 
■3727 






























23-65 


5-60 


41-2 


20674 


1-02500 


1-02712 


1-02513 


fune 


30 


12.0 


32 11 N. 


34 10 W. 




Surface 


72-1 


74-0 
23-3 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


12.5 


75-5 
24-2 C. 

75-5 
24-2 C. 


23-8 
23-9 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


10-0 
15-8 
21-0 
32-2 
43-0 
53-9 
64-8 
70-0 
75-5 


1-5471 
■1488 
■3881 






























23-85 


560 


42-9 


2-0840 


1-02491 


1-02708 


1-02507 


fuly 


1 


12.0 


33 53 N. 


32 27 W. 




Surface 


71-6 


73-8 
23-2 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


11.25 

2/7/04 


70-9 
21-6 C. 

71-1 
21-7 C. 


22-0 
22-0 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


2-0 
7-0 
12-0 
22-5 
33-0 
44-0 
54-8 
60-3 
66-0 


1-5471 
■1373 
■3030 






























22-0 


5-60 


33-5 


1-9874 


1-02545 


1-02710 


1-02511 


fuly 


2 


12.0 


36 5 N. 


30 50 W. 




Surface 


69-8 


69-8 
21-0 C. 


Reeve's French 
blue 


12.0 


71-0 
21-7 C. 

71-0 
21-7 C. 


21-4 

21-5 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


16-5 
21-7 
27-0 
38-0 
49-8 
61-0 
71-5 
77-0 
82-0 1 


1-5471 
■1338 
■4469 






























21-45 


5-70 


49-4 


2-1278 


1-02521 


1-02671 


1-02533 


fuly 


3 


12.0 


37 41 N. 


29 25 W. 




Surface 


64-0 


66-7 
19-3 C. 


Turquoise 


8.40 

4/7/04 


65-8 
18-8 C. 

86-5 
19-2 C. 


18-8 
18-9 


5-40 
5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-90 
5-95 
6-00 


8-5 
13-5 
19-5 
300 
41-5 
52-0 
62-8 
68-0 
73-5 


1-5471 
■1176 
■3709 












i 








1 










18-85 


5-70 ' 


41-0 


20356 


1-02573 


1-02651 


102561 



NS. I)Y. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 4). 



24 



168 DR W. S. BRUCE, MR A. KING, AND MR D. W. WILTON ON THE TEMPERATURES, SPECIFIC GRAVITIES 



Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 



Date(E.) 



Month. 



Day 



Hour. 



Position (L.) 



Lat. 



Long. 



Depth 

in Fathoms. 


D. 

of 
Sea 

at 
Posi- 
tion 

L. 


d. 

from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 



Temperature 

at time of 

Collection of 

Sample. 



of 
the 
Air. 



t. 



of 

the 

Water. 



Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 



Data Relating to the Determination of the Density of the Sam 



Time 
and 
Date. 



Temperature 

during 
Experiment. 



T'. 



of 
the 
Air. 



of 
the 

Sample. 



Weights 
added 

to 
Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 





Volume 




of im- 


Read- 


mersed 


ing 


Portion 


of 


of 


Hydro- 


Hydro- 


meter. 


meter 




(cub. 




centims.) 


R. 


V. 



1904. 
542 570 July 



544 



571 



545 572 



547 



548 



549 



573 



July 



July 



July 



574 



July 



575 July 



10 



11 



10.0 



37 56 N. 
Princesse 



12.0 



39 15 N. 



12.0 



40 19 N. 



12.0 



41 18 N. 



12.0 



42 44 N. 



12.0 



44 11 N. 



29 11 W 
Alice Ban 



26 55 W. 



24 47 W. 



22 25 W. 



19 30 W. 



16 5 W. 



469 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



Surface 



° F. 

65-1 



64-2 



63-4 



63-0 



60-2 



60-0 



° ■p 
67-0' 
19-4 C. 



65-0 
18-3 C. 



66-0 
18-9 C, 



65-8 
18-8 C. 



62-8 
17-1 C. 



62-8 
17-1 C. 



Cobalt 



15.20 



Very pale 
cobalt 



12.15 



Turquoise 



11.20 

9/7/04 



Cobalt 



12.6 



Turquoise 



11.30 

11/7/04 



Turquoise 



11.20 

12/7/04 



°F. 


°C. 








69-2 


19-8 


5-30 


1-8 




20-7 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


7-0 

12-5 
23-0 
33-5 
44-8 








5-80 


55-8 


1-5471 






5-85 


61-3 


■1242 


70-0 


20-0 


5-90 


66-5 


■3076 


21-1 C. 










19-9 


5-60 


34-0 


1-9789 


69-8 


19-3 


5-30 


2-8 




21-0 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


8-0 
13-0 
24-0 
35-0 
45-5 








5-80 


56-5 


1-5471 






5-85 


61-8 


•1217 


70-0 


19-7 


5-90 


67-2 


■3157 


21-1 C. 










19-5 


5-60 


34-9 


1-9845 


66-1 


19-2 


5-40 


12-0 




18-9 C. 




5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


17-5 
23-0 
33-8 
45-0 
55-8 








5-90 


66-5 


1-5471 






5 95 


71-8 


■1201 


66-2 


19-3 


6-00 


76-9 


■4044 


19-0 C. 










19-25 


5-70 


44-7 


2-0716 


66-2 


190 


5-40 


11-0 




19-0 C. 




5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


16-2 
21-8 
32-3 
42-8 
54-0 








5-90 


65-0 


1-5471 






5-95 


70-0 


■1192 


66-3 


19-2 


6-00 


75-5 


■3908 


19-1 C. 










19-1 


5-70 


43-2 


2-0571 


62-2 


17-0 


5-40 


6-0 




16-8 C. 




5-45 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 


11-0 
17-0 
27-0 
37-0 
47-5 








5-90 


58-0 


1-5471 






5-95 


63-8 


■1061 


62-0 


17-0 


6-00 


68-9 


■3383 


16-7 C. 










17-0 


5-70 


37-4 


1-9915 


66-8 


18-8 


5-30 


0-8 




19-3 C. 




5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 


5-8 
11-0 
22-0 
32-5 
43-0 








5-80 


54-0 


1-5471 






5-85 


59-0 


■1176 


66-7 


18-9 


5-90 


64-8 


■2940 


19-3 C. 










18-85 


5-60 


32-5 


1-9587 



\ 


NE 


SALINITIES OF THE 


WEDDELL SEA 


AND OF THE NORTH . 


A.ND SOUTH 


ATLANTIC OCEAN. 


169 




Data Relating to the Collection of the Sample. 


Data Relating to the Determination < 


)f the Density of the Sample. 


It 


B(B.) 


Position (L.) 


Depth 
in Fathoms. 


Temperature 






Temperature 






Volume 
of im- 
mersed 
Portion 

of 
Hydro- 
meter 
(cub. 
centims.) 


Density of Sample. 








at time of 






during 


Weights 


Read- 
ing 
of 
Hydro- 
meter. 


(Density of Distilled 






Hour. 


Lat. 


Long. 


D. 


d. 


Collection of 
Sample. 


Colour of Water, 

Current, and 

Remarks. 


Time 
and 
Date. 


Experiment. 


added 
to 

Hydro- 
meter 

(grams). 


Water at 4° C.=l.) 




of 
Sea 


from 
which 

the 
Sample 

was 

col- 
lected. 


r. 


t'. 


Ob- 
served 


Reduced 
to 


Reduced 
to 


nth[ 


T. 


t. 


)ay. 


at 
Posi- 
tion 


of 
the 


of 
the 






of 
the 


of 
the 






at t'. 


15°-56C. 


t. 
























L. 


Air. 


Water. 






Air. 


Sample. 


w. 


R. 


V. 


*Bv. 


4S]5»-56. 


4 S t . 


)04. 






o / 


o / 






o p_ 


°F. 






° F. 


°C. 














uly 


12 


12.0 


45 ot) N. 


12 53 W. 




Surface 


63-7 


62-2 
16-8 C. 


Turquoise 


12.10 


66-2 
19-0 C. 

66-9 
19-4 C. 


18-5 

18-7 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


10 
6-3 
11-5 
22-0 
33-0 
43-5 
54-5 
60-0 
65-0 


1-5471 
■1161 
■2985 






























18-6 


5-60 


33-0 


1-9617 


1-02560 


1-02632 


1-02604 


uly 


13 


12.0 


48 23 N. 


10 22 W. 




Surface 


61-0 


60-2 
25-7 C. 


Turquoise 

• 


17.20 

14/7/04 


64-0 
17-8 C. 

64-2 
17-9 C. 


18-6 
18-6 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


4-0 
9-0 
14-5 
25-0 
36-0 
47'0 
57-5 
63-0 
68-0 


1-5471 
■1161 
•3257 






























18-6 


5-60 


36-0 


1-9889 


1-02544 


1-02616 


1-02613 


jly 


14 


12.0 


51 13 N. 


7 20 W. 




Surface 


60-0 


59-6 
15-3 C. 


Dull Antwerp 
blue 


17.30 


64-2 
17-9 C. 

64-2 
17-9 C. 


17-8 
17-9 


5-30 
5-35 
5-40 
5-50 
5-60 
5-70 
5-80 
5-85 
5-90 


9-0 
14-0 
19-0 
30-0 
40-5 
51-0 
62-0 
67-2 
72-2 


1-5471 
•1114 
■3664 






























17-85 


5-60 


40-5 


2-0249 


1-02524 


1-02577 


1-02582 









































( 171 ) 



V. — A Contribution to the Craniology of the People of Scotland. Part II. 
Prehistoric, Descriptive and Ethnographical. By Principal Sir Wm. Turner, 
K.C.B., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.Soc. Ant. Scot., Emeritus Professor of Anatomy. 

(Read July 5, 1<J15. MS. received July 21, 1915. Issued separately November 30, 1915.) 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Introduction . 171 

Neolithic Period 173 

Archaeology 175 

Chambered Cairns 175 

Craniology 175, 181 

Bronze- Age Period 182 

Archaeology 182 

Short Cists 182 

Cremation 183 

Craniology 192 

Caves and Rock Shelters .... 209 

Oban 211 

Craniology 214 

Mas-d'Azil 216 

Iron Age 217, 247 

Celts 217 

Norsemen 220 

Craniology 221,24 9 



Prehistoric Mausoleum, Seacliff 
Craniology 

Long Cists 

Arclueology 
Craniology 



Ethnography 



'Palaeolithic Race and Ice Age . 
Neolithic Settlement . 
Brachycephalic Invasion . 
Dolichocephalic and Brachycephalic 
Urns in Interments . 
Brachycephali, Migration Centres 
Celts and Celtic Question . 
Norse Invasion . 
Anglo-Saxon Invasion 

Summary 

Explanation of Figures 



PAGE 

222 
223 



. 226 

226, 251 

. 231 



. 232 

172, 233 

. 233 

. 236 

. 236 

. 243 

. 246 

. 247 

. 249 

. 250 

. 253 

. 255 



Introduction. 

Id Part I of a Memoir " On the Craniology of the People of Scotland," published in 
the Transactions of the Society twelve years ago (vol. xl), I described the anatomical 
characters of 176 skulls, the majority of which had been obtained in the counties 
south of the Clyde and the Tay. The dimensions, form and proportions of the cranial 
box and of the face were examined, the cranial and facial indices were computed, 
several of the skulls were figured from the vertex, lateral aspect and face, and mesial 
sagittal sections of the skulls with radial and other measurements were reproduced. 
The Memoir gave the fullest account of the characters of the skulls of the modern 
Scottish people which had been produced up to that time. In the concluding 
paragraph I stated that I had formed a collection of skulls of the prehistoric in- 
habitants of Scotland, which I proposed to describe to the Society in Part II 
of the Memoir, and to discuss the general ethnographical relations of the Scottish 
people. From various causes the presentation to the Society of this Part has been 
(too long delayed. 

The prehistoric branch of the subject is associated with the concluding phases 
TRANS. ROY, SOC. EDIN., VOL. LT, PART I (NO. 5). 25 



172 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

of the geological changes in Britain, and is intimately blended with the study of the 
earlier archaeology of our island. It is generally accepted that no satisfactory 
evidence exists of the presence in Scotland of palaeolithic man ; even had his re- 
mains ever been present, the ice covering, of great thickness in the glacial period, 
by grinding the surface of the ground in its movements, must have destroyed all 
objects lying upon it in producing the boulder clay, or till, as its ground moraine. 
Professor James Geikie* associated the advent of man in Scotland with the closing 
stages of the Pleistocene period, subsequent, apparently, to the disappearance of the 
exotic mammals present in its earlier stages. Ample evidence exists to show that 
the relative level of land and water on the coasts of Scotland had changed during 
this period from time to time, which led to the formation of raised beaches or 
terraces. It is doubtful if man inhabited the northern division of the island when 
the highest or 100-feet beach was formed, which probably corresponded with the 
Upper Forestian and Upper Turbarian epochs of the Pleistocene ; f but it can he 
said with certainty that Scotland was inhabited when the two lower raised beaches 
had assumed their characteristic position. 

With the disappearance of the ice sheets and the arrival of neolithic man in 
Scotland, implements, weapons, and pottery were manufactured, ornaments were 
worn, decorative features were devised, graves or other means of disposal of the dead 
were constructed, in some of which the skulls and skeletons had been preserved, 
though frequently the bones were so soft and fragile that their characters had been 
impaired or destroyed. No traces of built dwellings which can be ascribed to the 
people of the stone or bronze ages have been preserved, so that they probably lived 
in caves, in rock shelters, in underground excavations, or in habitations constructed 
of loose stones, turf, or sun-dried clay which have disappeared. Notwithstanding 
the lapse of centuries, examples of manufactured objects and ornaments have been 
collected and preserved in museums. They constitute the material from which 
archaeologists have formed their opinions on the habits and mode of life of the early 
inhabitants of our island. 

For many years the attention of Scottish archaeologists was almost exclusively 
given to the handiwork executed by prehistoric man rather than to the osseous 
remains of the man himself, although in the National Museum of Antiquities a small 
collection of skulls had been formed. Sir Daniel Wilson in his well-known book t 
had indeed described a number of crania from ancient burials, and he came to the 
important conclusion that the successive races of prehistoric men who had occupied 
Scotland differed in the proportions of the heads and skulls. Some years later 
Dr Joseph Anderson in his Ehind Lectures § placed on a permanent scientific basis 

* Geikie, the Munro Lectures On the Antiquity of Man, Edinburgh, 1914. 
t Ut supra. 

\ Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1851. 

§ Scotland in Early Christian Times, 1st and 2nd series, 1881 ; in Pagan Times, Iron Aye, 1883 ; in Bronze, and 
Utonc Ayes, Edinburgh, 1886. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OP SCOTLAND. 173 

our knowledge of the objects which characterised the successive periods of human 
occupation, but he did not personally study the head form. Sir Arthur Mitchell 
in his Rhind Lectures* On the Past in the Present and in the Proceedings of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland had illuminated various questions in archaeology. 
In a lecture "On Early Man in Scotland " t I summarised facts up to that time 
recorded regarding the people of the stone and bronze ages. Since then, Dr Robert 
Munro in his Prehistoric Scotland X has traced the progress of civilisation during 
successive epochs and has discussed the craniology of the people. Professor Thomas 
H. Bryce and Dr Alexr. Low of Aberdeen have recorded § the cranial characters and 
affinities of early races, whilst the Hon. John Abercromby has published a com- 
prehensive treatise On the Bronze Age Pottery of Great Britain and Ireland.]] 



Neolithic or Polished Stone Period. 

Traces of the presence of man in Scotland date from the formation of the 
40—50 foot beach. Mounds of refuse, the so-called kitchen middings, which contained 
quantities of the shells of edible sea molluscs, also bones of mammals which had 
been split either for the extraction of the marrow or to form implements, had been 
found along the margins of this beach. In the valley of the Forth the land had 
been submerged and an arm of the sea had stretched more or less across the island 
and separated it completely into a part north and one south of the Firth. 

Large whales had frequented the Firth and become stranded. The subsequent 
elevation of the land converted the ancient bed of the estuary into the 25—30 foot 
beach, which now forms the fertile Carse of Stirling. Subjacent to the cultivated 
soil is a deposit of mud, blue silt and clay in which skeletons of large whalebone 
whales belonging to the genera Balsenoptera and Megaptera have from time to time 
been founds Alongside of four of these skeletons implements made of the beam 
of the horn of the red deer were obtained, three of which, chisel-shaped at one end, 
truncated at the other, were perforated by a hole for the reception of a handle. Of 
these specimens two, observed in 1819 and 1824, have been lost, but the third,** 
found in 1877, 11 inches long and 6£ in greatest girth, the hole in which contained 
a fragment of the original handle (fig. 1), is preserved in the University Museum of 

* Past in the Present, Edinburgh, 1880. 

t Proc. Royal Institution of Great Britain, March 1897 ; Nature, vol. lvii, 1898 ; Ann. Scot. Nat. Hist, 1898. 

I Edinburgh, 1899. More recently in his Munro Lectures On Paleolithic Man, Edinburgh, 1912. 

§ Proc. Scot. Soc. Antiq., vol. xxxix, 1905. 

|| Oxford, 1912. Preliminary papers were published in P.S.Ant.S., vol. xxxviii and xli. 

IT Accounts of their discovery were given by Mr D. Milne Home in his Estuary of the Forth, and more fully 
by Mr David B. Morris in the Raised Beaches of the Forth Valley, 1892 and 1901. The discovery in 1897 of the 
Causewayhead whale was described by Mr Morris, for whom I wrote an account of the implements : the specimens 
are preserved in the Public Museum in Stirling. See also my Marine Mammals in the Anatomical Museum of the 
University of Edinburgh, 1912. 

** I described this specimen in Reports, Newcastle Meeting British Association, p. 790, 1889. Dr R, Munro 
figured it in his Preh istorie Scotland, 1899, and I in Marine Mammals in the Anatomical Museum of the University, 1912. 



174 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

Anatomy. Associated with the skeleton of a whale found in 1897 at Causewayhead, 
Stirling, was a part of the beam with a tine fashioned into a pick, and a portion of 
a whale's rib which seemed as if it had been used as a rude bone implement. The 
specimen is to be seen in the Public Museum, Stirling. 

The association of these implements with the skeletons of whales justifies the 
inference that the Neolithic Caledonians of the hills bounding the estuary at that 
period had descended from their heights and spoiled the carcases of their flesh and 
blubber. In the basin of the Clyde and in the Carse Clay of the estuary of the 
Tay, dug-out canoes have been found imbedded in the silt and clay. No human 
skull or skeleton has, however, been seen along with these evidences of the handi- 
work of man. 

When the oscillations in the relative level of land and water had ceased and 
the 25—30 foot beach had become established, evidence of neolithic man in North 
Britain was greatly multiplied. Implements and weapons of smoothed and polished 
stone, of finely worked flint, bone and horn, with pottery and ornaments, cairns 




Fig. 1. — Implement. Beam of antler of red deer found in 1877. 

and cists made of rude stone, have been exposed, also mounds containing shells of 
edible molluscs and the split bones of larger mammals. 

In 1851 Sir Daniel Wilson described skulls preserved in the National Museum 
of Antiquities and in the Phrenological Museum, Edinburgh, which had been 
obtained from cists and tumuli in Scotland. In some the cranium was elongated, 
in others shorter and more rounded. He regarded the longer skulls as the oldest 
in time of the races which had successively occupied Scotland, and he named them 
kumbecephalic or primitive dolichocephalic. Arehreologists had not at that date 
sufficiently differentiated the modes of burial and the characters of the contents of 
the graves to enable them to state definitely their relative age. Of the nine skulls 
in Wilson's kumbecephalic group, possessing the elongated form of the cranium, 
the narrow backward prolongation of the occiput, the narrow interparietal diameter 
usually less than the vertical, the features which he regarded as characteristic, 
several had undoubtedly been obtained from interments which wc should now 
assign to the later period of the bronze age. It would indeed seem as if only 
one, or at the most two, of these interments could now be regarded as neolithic, 
though the dolichocephalic proportions of some of the other skulls might justify 
the inference that they were those of people of neolithic descent interred in 



THE CKANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 175 

graves of the bronze age. The skull founci in 1782* near Newbattle Abbey, Mid 
Lothian, was obtained from a large encircled, conical tumulus, thirty feet high and 
ninety feet in circumference, in which was exposed a cist nearly seven feet long- 
containing the skeleton of an aged man. The cranium, 197 mm. long, was in the 
norma verticalis ovoid and elongated, vertex somewhat flattened, slope to parietal 
eminence moderate, sides almost vertical, parieto-occipital slope gradual, occipital 
squama bulging behind a strong inion. The base was broken and the height 
could not be taken. The cephalic index 72-1 was dolichocephalic, which harmonised 
with the form of the cranium. The glabella and supraciliaries were prominent, the 
facial frontal receded, nasion not depressed, bridge of nose narrow feebly projecting, 
nasal index 38*2, narrow, leptorhine ; orbits rounded, index 95*1, megaseme. Lower 
jaw absent. The cavity of the cranium could, though the base was broken, hold 1500 
c.c. of water, but when entire a larger quantity. (Table I, figs. 2, 3, p. 176.) 

A skull was obtained in 1835 at Nether Urquhart, Fife, from a cist under a 
large cairn which contained two chambers, one of which was six feet long. It was 
edentulous, with the alveoli absorbed and the sutures much obliterated. The sex was 
doubtful, but probably male. The cranium was elongated, ovoid, vertex moderately 
arched, steep slope from sagittal line to parietal eminences, parieto-occipital slope 
gradual, occipital squama bulged behind feeble inion, height less than breadth ; 
cephalic index 73 '8, vertical index 68-4, form and proportion dolichocephalic. The 
facial frontal much receded, glabella and supraciliaries well marked, nasion 
depressed, bridge of nose feeble, nasal bones short narrow, nasal index 53 '3 platy- 
rhine, transverse diameter of orbit in excess of vertical, index 737, low microseme. 
Cranial capacity 1380 c.c. Lower jaw absent. (Figs. 4, 5, 6.) 

Archaeology. 

An important advance was made nearly half a century ago when Dr Joseph 
Anderson described f his exploration in Caithness of a remarkable group of cairns 
containing chambers, access to which had been provided by a long passage. Some 
of the cairns had a pair of horn -like prolongations at each end, and these cairns 
were divided into a long and a short group. The floor of the chambers consisted 
of blackish clay, charcoal and ashes, imbedded in which were fragments of burnt 
bones, human and animal, with, in some cases, chips of partly worked flint, arrow- 
heads and one example of a polished granite hammer. Broken pottery was some- 
times found consisting of portions of round-bottomed vessels. 

On the surface of the floor of the chambers were unburnt human skeletons 
much broken. From the character of the contents of the chambers these cairns 

* Wilson, Prehistoric. Annals, pp. 56, 168. This skull, and that from Nether Urquhart, Fife, at one time in 
the Phrenological Museum, are part of the collection of the Henderson Trust now lodged in the Anatomical Museum 
of the University. 

t I'ror. Soe. Antiq. Scot., vol. vi, 1868; vol. vii, 1870; Memoirs Anthrop. Soc. London, vol. iii, pp. 216, 266, 
18(0 ; Scotland in Pagan Times, Rhind Lectures, 1886, 



iir> 



PRINCIPAL RTP WILLIAM TURNETt ON 




Fir.. 2.— New-battle. 



Fig. 6.— Nether Urquhavt. 




Fig, 4, — Nether Urquhart. 






X'-wliattlc 



Fig, 5.— Nether Urquhart. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 177 

had been constructed during the stone age period ; some of the dead had been 
cremated, whilst others had been deposited on the floor of the chambers. The 
skulls had been destroyed or so much injured that they were not preserved, 
except one from the Cairn of Get, Caithness. This was examined by Dr Carter 
Blake,* who regarded it as that of a man about fifty, with capacious forehead, 
large parietal eminences, projecting supraoccipital squama, supraciliary ridges not 
prominent, lower jaw massive, chin prominent, greatest length of cranium 183 mm., 
greatest breadth 140 mm., cephalic index 76, facial angle 80°. The skull was 
without doubt in its main features dolichocephalic in form, though somewhat 
exceeding in its length-breadth index the upper numerical limit of that group. 

Chambered cairns, though not with horn-like prolongations, from Argyllshire 
and the Orkneys, have also been described by Dr Anderson ; some were circular, 
others oblong in form, and they corresponded in the character of their contents. 
The skull from a chambered cairn with three compartments at Papa Westray, 
Orkney, opened by Mr George Petrie,| has been preserved in the National 
Museum, E.T. 21. It is that of a man advanced in life; cranium 196 mm. long, 
144 mm. broad, cephalic index 73*5, dolichocephalic. Vertex inclined to be flattened, 
height 139 mm., vertical index 70*9, height therefore lower than breadth, parieto- 
occipital slope gradual ; forehead somewhat retreating, glabella and supraciliaries 
well marked ; nasion a little depressed, nasal bones projecting with a good bridge ; 
anterior nares narrow, leptorhine, 45*1 ; orbital border thick rounded, index low, 
78'6, microseme, upper jaw orthognathous, 927.+ 

In 1898 the late General Traill Burroughs, C.B., of Trumland House, 
Eousay, Orkney, in excavating a mound of loose stones and earth, circular at the 
base arid about 30 feet in diameter, exposed a chambered cairn. From notes 
and specimens which he sent me I drew up an account § of the cairn and the 
objects exposed. 

The chamber consisted of a central compartment, off which four smaller chambers 
opened. A human skeleton was seen in each of two of the chambers, and many 
fragments of pottery were found in them which represented several vessels. There 
was no sign of cremation in the chambers. The passage from the central com- 
partment to the surface of the mound was 15 feet long (fig. 7) ; in its inner half 
were seen human bones which represented three skeletons, as well as other fragments 
of bones which had been cremated. The passage also contained bits of coarse 
paste pottery, the largest of which seemed to be part of the foot of a cinerary urn, 
as well as a hammer head of smooth grey granite and a flake of flint. 

* Mem. Anthrop. Soc. London, vol. iii, p. 243, 1870. 

+ Proc. Sol: Antiq. Scot., vol. ii, pp. 33, 62, plate iii, 1859. 

t Mr Cosmo Inxe.s described and figured iu P.S.A.S., vol. iii, 1862, as associated with stone circles, cairns at 
Clara in Nairnshire which enclosed a large chamber with a long passage. One of the cairns was described by Sir 
T. Dick Lauder (Moray Floods), also by Dr R. Munro in Prehistoric Scotland. 

i P.S.A.S., vol. xxxvii, p. 73, 1903. 



178 



PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 



Table I. 
Neolithic Period. 





- - 


-a " « Orkney. 






Akran. 










M. Lothia 

Newbattl 


S3 So 

•• w CO 4) 














C. 






Fif< 

Net] 

Urqnl 

Caithi 
Cairn o 


Papa 
Westray 


Kewing 
Hill, 
Firth. : 


Tor 


lin. 


( 
A. 


Jlachaig. 
B. 




Collection number, . 


H.T.23 


H.T.38 ... 


E.T.21 




A. 


B. 






Age, 


Aged 


Aged 




Aged 


Adv. 


Adv. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 








Sex, 


M. 


M. 1 M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


F. 








Cubic capacity, . 


I500ap 


. 1380 








1480 




1560 










Glabello-occipital length, . 


196 


187 


183 


196 


188 


186 


201 


197 


186 


198 






Basi-bregmatic height, 




128 




139 




136 


132 


132-5 


132 








Vertical Index, . 




68-4 




70-9 




73-1 


65-7 


67-2 


71- 








Minimum frontal diameter, 


100 


92 




99 




96 




102 


103 








Stephanie diameter, . 


116 


100 




112 




120 


114 


118 


121 








Asterionic diameter, . 


120 


116 




125 




111 


116 


111 


116 








Greatest parieto-squamous 




• 






















breadth, 


142 


138 140 


144 


142 


140 


134 


139 


139 


140 ap. 






Cephalic Index, . 


72-4 


73-8 76- 


13-5 


75-5 


75-2 


66-6 


70-6 


747 


70-7 






Horizontal circumference, . 


544 


520 


545 


... 


517 


528 


542 


525 








Frontal longitudinal arc, . 


134 


129 


137 


128 


132 


125 


136 


128 








Parietal „ ,, 


127 


117 




123 


134 


125 


125 


136 


137 








Occipital ,, ,, 




116 




131 




123 


140 


123 




... 






Total „ „ . 




362 




391 




380 


390 


395 


376 








Vertical transverse arc, 


313 


298 




313 




307 


309 


298 


300 








Basal transverse diameter, . 


127 


117 






















Vertical transverse circum- 


























ference, .... 


440 


415 






















Length of foramen magnum, 




35 




34 




34 




40 










Basi-nasal length, 




100 




109 




99 




98 


'97 








Basi-alveolar length, . 








101 




94 




92 


8*9 








Gnathic Index, 








92-7 




95 




93-8 


91-8 








Total longitudinal circum- 


























ference, .... 




497 




534 




513 




533 










Interzygomatic breadth, 


131 


127 








132 


134 


139 


135 








Intermalar ,, 


117 


111 




124 




117 




121 


120 








Nasio-mental length, . 














125 


126 










Nasio-mental complete facial 


























Index, .... 






• *• 








94- 


90-6 










Nasio-alveolar length, 








69 




67 


70 


72 


62 








Maxillo-facial Index, . 












507 


52-2 


51-8 


45-9 








Nasal height, 


55 


45 




51 




53 


55 


55 


49 








Nasal width, 


21 


24 




23 




24 


24 


24 


25 








Nasal Index, 


38-2 


53'3 




45-1 




45-3 


43-6 


43-6 


51- 








Orbital width, . 


41 


38 




42 




41 




43-5 


43 








Orbital height, . 


39 


28 




33 




33 




32 


31 








Orbital Index, 


95-1 


73-7 


■■• 


78-6 




80 -5 




74- 


72- 








Palatomaxillary length, 






... 


53 






54 


55-5 


47-5 








Palato-maxillary breadth, . 








60 






62 


65-5 


60 


i 






Potato- maxillary Index, 








113-2 






114-8 


117- 


126- 








Mandible, symphysialheight 




... 










36 


31-5 











Note. — In the series of Tables the capital letters in line with "collection number" signify: H.T., 
Henderson Trust; E.U.A.M., Edinburgh University Anatomical Museum; E.T., National Museum of 
Antiquities. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 



179 



The roof was formed of massive flags, superjacent to which three so-called cists 
1£ to 2 feet in breadth and length were found, constructed of undressed flat stones. 
Each contained numerous pieces of broken pottery, which had doubtless been ciner- 
ary urns, and quantities of calcined bones recognised as human, some of which 
were imbedded in hard vitrified slag. The cists therefore were cremation cists, 




Fig. 7. — Plan of chambered cairn with passage, Rousay. 

secondary in time to the cremation remains found in the passage leading to the 
central compartment. 

The bones in the chamber, in the passage and in the cremation cists were too 
fragmentary to allow of reconstruction, and the form of the skull was not ascer- 
tained. The cairn without doubt was of the neolithic period. 

The excavations conducted by Professor T. H. Bryce on megalithic inter- 
ments in the island of Arran have enabled him to describe their structure, their 
grave goods, and the remains of the skeletons which they contained.* They formed 
a class of sepulchral cairns constructed of great slabs of stone divided by partitions 
into three or four separate compartments, none of which opened into a passage 

* "Cairns of Arran," Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., part i, 1902, part ii, 1903, part iii, 1909, vols, xxxvi, xxxvii, xliii ; 
The Book of Arran, Sepulchral Remains, 1910. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 5). 26 



180 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

directed to the surface. Flint and smooth stone implements, rude urn-like pottery, 
rounded at the bottom, with simple ornamentation, were obtained, but no trace 
of bronze. Four skulls were procured at Torlin and Clachaig, which have been 
described by Professor Bryce, also a fragment of a fifth (Table I). They ranged 
in length from 186 to 201 mm. ; in breadth from 134 to 140 mm. ; in height from 
132 to 136 mm. The cephalic index was from 66 - 6 to 75% the mean being 71*3; 
the vertical index from 65*6 to 73*1, the mean being 68'1 metriocephalic ; the 
breadth in each case was more than the height. In general form the crania were 
long in relation to the width, dolichocephalic, parietooccipital slope moderate ; occi- 
pital squama somewhat bulging ; glabella and supraciliaries moderate ; face high, 
narrow ; jaw orthognathous ; nose narrow : orbits low in relation to their breadth. 
The cubic capacity in two skulls was 1480 and 1560 respectively. Cairns enclosing 
segmented megalithic interments were also examined by Bryce in Kintyre, Islay, 
and by Greenwell and Mapleton, near Crinan, Argyllshire, but no skeletons were 
obtained for description. 

Professor Bryce, from researches, in the island of Bute,* exposed chambered 
cairns like those in Arran, which contained burnt and unburnt burials : the bones 
of the latter were too fragmentary to be measured ; also broken pottery. One 
chambered cairn had been built on the site of an older kitchen midding, whilst 
in one a beaker urn of the bronze age was found. 

Another example of a chambered cairn at Kewing Hill in the parish of Firth + in 
the Orkneys has been described by Mr M. Charleson. It had a central compartment 
with five smaller cell-like chambers opening off it, as well as an entrance passage. 
The walls were dry-built on the beehive principle. On the floor of the central 
chamber was a deposit of an unctuous appearance, the skulls of dogs, jaws and teeth 
of an ox, tibia of horse, bones of birds. Five human skulls with limb bones were 
found in the compartment, also two skulls in the cells. In the entrance passage were 
portions of human long bones which showed evidence of cremation. No industrial 
relics were found in the chamber. 

The human remains sent to me consisted of portions of five skulls and three 
thigh bones. They were from the condition of the sutures advanced in life, at least 
three being males. I attempted reconstruction of the crania, but they were so much 
broken that in only one could I obtain a numerical cephalic index. The calvaria 
was 188 mm. long, breadth 142 mm., which gave 75'5 as the cephalic index; the 
vertex was neither ridged nor highly arched, the post-parietal region was obliquely 
flattened, the occipital squama was plano-convex, the forehead retreated a little, 
the glabella and supraciliary ridges projected. The skull, though with a cephalic 
index fractionally higher than the numerical limit, was essentially dolichocephalic. 
Another calvaria without the occiput was elongated and narrow ; in a third the 
parieto-occipital region was steep and the squama was faintly convex. 

* Pror. Soc, Anliij. Scot., vol. xxxviii, 1903, t Idem, vol. xxxvi, 1902 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OP SCOTLAND. 181 

Mr Alexr. 0. Curle has recently described* a cairn near Sunningdale, Suther- 
landshire, which showed indications of four horns. It enclosed a chamber 8 feet 
9 inches long and 7 feet broad, formed of seven large upright slabs arranged to form 
a domed roof. A passage ran from one eud of the chamber for about 12 feet towards 
the surface of the cairn. The chamber contained decayed human bones, a flint 
scraper and a fragment of pottery neolithic in character. 

Craniology. Table I. 

Well-preserved specimens of the skulls from neolithic interments are unfortu- 
nately few in number, but from those specified in Table I the following general 
characters may be stated. 

The crania varied in maximum length : five ranged from 196 to 201 mm., five 
from 183 to 187 mm. ; the mean length of the series was 191 '8, which is a high 
average when compared with modern male Scottish skulls, f The breadth ranged 
from 134 to 144 mm. and the mean was 139"8, much below the mean of the 
modern specimens. The height ranged from 128 to 139 mm. and the mean was 
133 '2, almost the same as in the modern skulls. The horizontal circumference ranged 
from 517 to 545 mm. and the mean was 528'7, almost equal to the modern male 
skulls. The cubic capacity taken in four male crania gave a mean 1480 c.c. 

The cephalic (length-breadth) index was obtained in ten skulls, the mean was 
72*8: seven were less than 75, numerically dolichocephalic; three were from 75*2 
to 76, or approximately meso-dolichocephalic ; not one was brachy cephalic or meso- 
brachycephalic. The vertical (length-height) index computed in six skulls ranged 
from 6 5 "7 to 73*1, with the mean 69*3 ; in each it was less than the cephalic, and 
no cranium was high, hypsicephalic. 

In general configuration the cranium was an elongated ovoid, moderately arched 
but not ridged on the vertex, the side walls flattened, the parieto-occipital slope not 
steep, the occipital point behind the inion ; the forehead somewhat retreating, the 
glabella and supraciliary ridges well marked, the nasion a little depressed, the 
characters therefore are, like the proportions, dolichocephalic. 

For the facial measurements the proportion of the complete length to the 
breadth could be taken in only two specimens ; the nasio-mental index had a 
mean 92 '3, high-faced or leptoprosopic ; in four specimens the maxillo-facial index 
worked out at from 45'9 to 52*2, the mean being 50*1, also leptoprosopic. The 
gnathic index computed by Flower's method was in each specimen orthognathous. 
The nasal index was not platyrhine, but either leptorhine or mesorhine. The orbital 
index, as is customary, varied, ranging from 72 to 95'1 ; only one was rounded, mega- 

* Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xliv, 1910. The Reports of the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments in the 
Counties have recently added examples of chambered cairns in Sutherland and Caithness, also long cairns in 
Galloway, and notably one in Berwickshire at Byrecleugh, Longformacus. 

t The references in the text to modern Scottish skulls apply to those described in Part I, vol. xl, of this Memoir. 



182 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

seme, 95*1 ; the others were wide in relation to the height, microseme, and the mean 
was 78 "9. The palato-maxillary index was either mesuranic or brachyuranic, the 
mean of four specimens was 1 17*7. 

The characters of the neolithic skulls may be summarised as follows : crania 
elongated, the occiput not flattened but protruding, the vertex not high ; the face 
long ; the upper jaw almost vertical, orthognathous ; the nose relatively narrow, 
nostrils not wide ; the orbits with the breadth wide in relation to the height ; the 
palate short and relatively wide ; the capacity of the cranium approximated to that 
of modern Europeans. 

The interments above described as neolithic were limited to particular localities 
in Scotland, as the chambered long cairns in Argyll, Arran, Bute, Galloway and 
Nairn, the horned and chambered cairns in Caithness, Sutherland and the Orkneys, 
and the tumulus at Newbattle. There can be no doubt that a dolichocephalic race 
lived in neolithic times. The preservation of their remains throughout the centuries 
was due to the substantial modes of interment, which justify the inference that the 
builders practised well-designed constructional methods during at least the later 
stage of the neolithic period. The labour obviously required for their construction 
points to the tombs being those of the chiefs of the tribes with their families. It 
should not be inferred that this race, like these cairns, was limited to small areas in 
Scotland, and it is probable that the burials of the people generally were frailer in 
construction and had consequently disappeared. Instruments and weapons made 
of polished stone and worked flints characteristic of the neolithic period have been 
found in numerous localities but not associated with interments, though some of 
these doubtless had been in use in the succeeding bronze age. 

Bronze Age — Short Cists ; Cremation Urns. 

In Scotland two modes of burial were practised in the bronze period, Inhumation 
and Cremation. Inhumed dead bodies were interred in characteristic stone graves, 
known as short cists, which were concealed in cairns or tumuli, or were placed only 
a few feet below the surface of the ground. These graves were less massive in 
construction than the chambered cairns of the neolithic age. 

Archaeology. 

In general character a short cist was built of a single, or at times of two flat 
slabs of undressed stone on each side and of a smaller slab at each end ; the stones 
rested on their lower edge, and supported on the upper edge a more massive slab as 
a cover for' the cist, with occasionally a second smaller slab superimposed. The floor 
of the cist might be the natural rock, or clay, or gravel, seldom a layer of flat stones. 
In internal dimensions the cist averaged 3 to about 4 feet in length, about 2 feet in 
breadth and the same in height. The covering slab was longer and overlapped the 



THE CEANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND.. 183 

ends and sides of the cist. Owing to its short length the body of an adult could 
not be laid in the extended position but had to be placed on one of its sides, with 
the hip and knee joints bent, as well as the elbows, so that the hands were brought 
close to the face. Although objects made of bronze have not been found in the 
majority of the short cists which have been opened, their similarity in size and 
construction, the bent position of the skeletons and the presence of definite types 
of urn pottery have led them to be regarded as of the same period, whether bronze 
was present or not. Frequently only a single cist had been exposed in a particular 
locality, sometimes two or three ; very seldom were more than five placed in close 
proximity to each other. 

Almost every county in Scotland has given to archaeologists examples of this type 
of burial, and it is evident that the people or race which practised it was not limited 
to a particular area, but were distributed throughout northern Britain. 

In many localities the practice of Cremation was associated with Inhumation ; 
though in others cremated bodies were found without being contained in or near 
short cists. In the great majority of cases the ashes were deposited in a special 
type of urn, known as a Cinerary urn. These urns have been found either singly, or 
in small groups of three or four, or in such numbers as to indicate a cemetery of 
some size. They have been exposed as independent burials in sand or gravel, or 
have been enclosed in a cairn or tumulus. A hole had apparently been made in 
the ground and the urn lodged in it, either upright, resting on its base, or in- 
verted, with the mouth downwards, on a flat stone. Sometimes the urn had been 
in contact with the surrounding sand or gravel, but at others loose stones had been 
arranged around it as a protection. 

I have now analysed the notices of burials of the bronze-age period recorded in 
Scotland in no less than 197 localities, which comprised 475 distinct interments.* 
Two hundred and thirty-two were inhumed in short cists ; in 240, cremation had been 
practised and the ashes placed in a cinerary urn ; in 3 cases the record was not 
precise. Sometimes both kinds of interment were found in the same tumulus, 
cairn, or cemetery, though at others they were in distinct localities. In a few 
cases, Cavers, Pentlands, Pomona, incinerated bones, not enclosed in an urn, were 
lying along with a skeleton in a short cist. It is obvious, therefore, that two 
modes of interment were practised in the same district and frequently at the 
same period of time. It has, however, been observed that cremated interments in 
cinerary urns prevailed when bodies had been buried in stone circles. On the other 
hand, in the Orkneys, inhumation in short cists was the rule in prehistoric graves. 

In 318 cases, urns of rough unglazed clay pottery were said to be associated with 

the interments ; 206 of these were cinerary urns. In a few examples a heap of bone 

ashes and charcoal, obviously indicating an interment, was found not included in 

an urn or cist. In 112 cases urns either of the bowl-shaped food type or of the 

* Ir my lecture "On Early Man in Scotland" (pp. tit.), I analysed the characters of about 400 interments. 



181 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

taller beaker form were found. In a number the presence of urns is not recorded. 
It has been noted that the beaker urn especially prevailed in the cists exposed in 
the north-east of Scotland, though not exclusively in Aberdeen and Banff. 

Occasional examples of a small urn, known as an " incense cup," have been found 
in Scotland in cinerary urns. They are from 2 to 3 inches high and about 3 inches 
wide. Archaeologists have associated them with the burning of incense, which 
assumes that the bronze-age people possessed fragrant gums and resins. One 
discovered in 1857 at North Queensferry, about the size of a teacup, contained 
calcined human bones ; another obtained by Dr James Macdonald of Ayr was 
occupied by the bone ashes of a child of five or six years. Presumably they were 
cinerary urns for the reception of the ashes of infants and young children. 

Objects of bronze, usually thin blades or pins, were obtained in connection 
with 37 of these intermeuts, some in short cists, others mingled with ashes in 
cinerary urns. Flint, in the form of arrow-heads and flakes and implements of 
stone, horn and bone, were found in 45 burials, mostly in short cists. Ornaments, 
usually of jet, with occasionally beads of amber or vitreous paste, were obtained in 
16 burials. Eleven objects of gold, as armlets and rings, were collected from 
cinerary urns and short cists. 

An interesting description of a Cemetery of cinerary urns, eight in number, 
was given in 1866 by Mr Andrew Jervise ; they were exposed at West- 
wood, Newport, Fife, arranged in a circle around a central urn.* They were 
inverted and contained incinerated bones, whilst each of two of the larger urns 
had a smaller urn inserted in it. On the adjoining property of Tay field a group 
of three urns was exposed in 1882. 

One of the largest bronze-age cemeteries was discovered at Law Park, near 
St Andrews, in 1859. f About twenty cinerary urns were obtained, and two bronze 
blades were found amongst the burnt bones. At Alloa twenty-two cinerary 
urns were also found, and among the group was a short cist which contained an 
unburnt skeleton with two penannular gold armlets. 

In the low ground on the banks of the Esk between Inveresk and Musselburgh 
numerous bronze-age interments have been exposed. The Eev. George Lowe, B.D.' 
described + a sandpit in the Kirk Park, below Inveresk Church, as yielding nineteen 
cinerary urns, one of which, in addition to calcined bones, contained a piece of flint 
resembling an arrow-head : in two the bones were stained green as if from contact 
with bronze. The urns were described and figured by Dr J. Anderson. Subsequently 
Professor Arthur ThOxMSOn exposed in the same pit an urn which had been protected 
by stones placed around it, but not forming a built cist. The urn was 10 inches 

* Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, vol. vi, p. 388, 1868 ; idem, vol. xvii, p. 272, 1883. 

t Joseph Anderson, Scotland in Pagan Time*, p. 36, " Alloa," p. 62, 1886 ; Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. x. D. Hay 
FLEMING, LL.D., has described, P. S. Antiq. S., vol. xli, 1907, the cinerary urns of 1859, also two additional short 
cists in Law Park, St Andrews, which contained fragments of two beaker urns and a jet necklace. 

1 Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xxviii, 189-1. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 185 

high, 9 inches broad at the mouth, and 4f at the foot. It was ornamented by two 
groups of incised horizontal lines separated by a zigzag pattern, the lower group 
being on a raised collar (fig. 8), and it bore some resemblance to fig. 3 of those found 
by Mr Lowe. The urn contained calcined bones and bits of charcoal. Mr Lowe 
referred to stone coffins having also been found in the Kirk Park. I have been 
told that they were short cists formed of slabs of sandstone, each with a large 
cover, about 4 feet in length. They contained human skeletons. 

At Belfield, on the opposite bank of the Esk, five 3hort cists imbedded in 
sand were exposed in 1896, during building operations. I measured them along 
with my assistant Mr James Simpson. One was 4 feet 4 inches long internally, 
2 feet 1 inch broad at one end, 1| foot at the other; its covering slab was 5 feet 
8 inches long, 2 feet 6 inches broad, and 7 inches thick. The smallest cist was 
2 feet 5 inches long, 1 foot 6 inches broad ; its covering slab was 2 feet 1 1 inches long, 
2 feet broad, and 5 inches thick. One cover was waterworn and marked by circular 
depressions like those on the cover of the cist found in Leith (p. 187). The largest 
cist contained a skeleton in the bent position, the head of which was in the narrow 
end of the cist, whilst a bowl-shaped food urn, 4£ inches high, 5f inches across 
the mouth ,* occupied the broader end (fig. 10). The smallest cist contained the 
broken skeleton of a child. In a third, the workmen exposed calcined bones, 
specimens of which I saw ; the fourth had a human skull with fragments of 
other bones ; in the fifth, in addition to parts of a skeleton, were a hammer of 
smooth stone ; two pieces of flint, one, arrow-pointed, smooth on one side, chipped 
on the other, was T7 inch long and '8 of an inch at the widest part a little in front 
of the convex hinder border (fig. 16) ; the other flint was smaller -and without 
definite shape. At the Kirk Park patches of black earth containing charcoal 
were found situated external to the cinerary urns, which indicated cremated 
burials not contained in urns. There can be no question that the Kirk Park 
and Belfield interments in cinerary urns and short cists were a cemetery formed 
by people by whom both modes of burial were practised, and that, apparently, 
cotemporaneously. Without doubt they were a community of fishermen who pur- 
sued their avocation, as at the present day, in the waters of the adjacent Firth. 

Recently Mr M'Lellan Mann has called attention f to a cremation cemetery cairn 
of sixteen urns at Stevenston, Ayrshire. They contained calcined bones, and in one 
traces of thin gold-leaf and bead-like objects of vitreous paste were found.! 

I do not propose to consider in detail the archaeological features of the bronze- 
age burials recorded in the important works specified on p. 173 and in the forty- 
eight volumes of the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
But as my notebook contains an account of several interments not previously 

* Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, vol. xxxii, 1898. t Idem, vol. xl, 1906. Also, vol. xxxix, 1905, at Langside, Glasgow. 
! The Report on Historical Monuments, Berwick, notifies a group of six cinerary urns at Coldingham and twelve 
short cists at Ayton. 



186 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

published, I may state briefly their characters ; the description of those found at 
Belfield and Kirk Park in Mid Lothian has already been given on p. 185. 

Leith. — In February 1884, when excavating ground in Merrilees Close, the town 
authorities exposed a short cist about 6 feet below the surface, lying in sand and 
gravel not far from the sea beach. The cist, with its contents, was presented to 
the University, and has been re-erected by me in the vestibule of the Anatomical 
Museum (fig. 11). The cover of the cist was a massive stone slab, 4 feet 6 inches in 
length, 2 feet 9 inches broad at one end, and 2 feet 5 inches at the other ; it varied 
in thickness from 6 to 11 inches ; its under surface, from its appearance, had been 
detached from the parent rock, but the upper surface was generally smooth, though 
hollowed in places, as if from trituration with sand and gravel. The stone which 
formed the right side of the cist was 4 feet 3 inches long by 2 feet 3 inches at its 
greatest breadth, though it narrowed at the ends ; it was 3| inches thick ; one 
surface showed the natural cleavage of rock, but the other and two of the edges 
were smooth and waterworn. The stone of the left side was 4 feet 1 inch long, 
1 foot 8 inches broad, and had a maximum thickness of 9 inches. One end stone had 
a vertical diameter of 1 foot 1 1 inches, a transverse of 1 foot 4 inches, and was 5 inches 
thick : that at the opposite end measured 2 feet 2 inches by 1 foot 9 inches, and 
was 5 inches thick. A gap, owing to one end stone being defective, was filled by a 
smooth oblong boulder 13f- inches long by 9| broad. The flattened waterworn 
walls of the cist had apparently been the surface of the rock exposed on the sea 
beach, and had been detached by the builders in the plane of cleavage (fig. 11). 

When the massive cover was removed and the sand taken away two human 
skeletons were exposed, the limb bones of which were so friable that, as a rule, 
they were not preserved. The skulls, though defective, are described on p. 201. 
One, larger than the other, was at the north-west end of the cist, but the 
position of the smaller skull was not noted. The interior of the cist was a little 
over 3 feet long and about 2 feet high, and bodies could not have been buried 
in the extended position. 

A bowl-shaped urn was found near the larger skull. It was 6 inches high, 
6 £ inches wide at the mouth externally, and 4f inches inside measurement, whilst 
the diameter at the foot was 2>\ iuches. The outer surface was decorated with 
twelve rows of obliquely impressed zig-zags or chevrons arranged around the urn. 
Two grooves encircled the urn immediately below and parallel to the rim. At the 
lower of these grooves four knob-like projections (lugs) had been modelled, one of 
which was imperfect. The rim of the urn was bevelled on its inner aspect and was 
marked by the chevron pattern (fig. 12). 

Cousland, Mid Lothian. — Short cists were exposed in 1886 on the farm of Cous- 
land, Cranston, on Lord Stair's estate. Mr Andrew Gow, the factor, kindly gave 
me the following particulars : — They were 2 to 3 feet below the surface of the 
ground, and were between 3 and 4 feet long, 2 feet broad and 20 inches deep. 



THE CEANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OP SCOTLAND. 



187 






m^'J 






\ ■ ' 






1J 






Fig. 9. — Cinerary 


urn, Chesters. 




^m j*" 






*-**mpmx***s&*' 






W 






i t> \ 






i ik 




''^Kr^fo'iz' 


■■jg£-"'jf *' ^R 


,ai 




[ jLv, . 'M 


.#*S>^ 











Fig. 11. — Short cist, Leith. 




Fig. 12. — Bowl-shaped urn, Leith. 
TRANS. BOY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PAET I (NO. 5) 




Fig. 8. — Cinerary urn, Kirk Park. 




Fig. 10. — -Bowl-shaped urn, Beltield. 




Fig. 13. — Bowl-shaped urn, Biidgeness. 

27 



188 



PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 



The walls, which rested on their edges on a "bed of limestone, had the customary 
single rough slab on each side and at each end. The cover also was a single flat 
massive stone. The peculiarity of this interment was the presence in more than 
one of the cists of a slab in the middle, extending from end to end, which divided 





Side and end. 



Interior. 



Figs. 14, 15. — Cousland short cist. 



the cavity into two parallel compartments (fig. 15) each of which contained a 
skeleton ; * in the undivided cists only a single skeleton was present. The sand 
and earth in the cist were riddled without fragments of an urn or any implements 
being discovered. 

Pentland Hills. — I am indebted to the late Mr John Henderson for an account 
of a short cist from a cairn on the East Cairn Hill. The cairn formed a roundish 





Fig. 16.— Flint, Belfield. 



Fig. 17. — Flint, Pentland cairn. 



mound, in the centre of which the cist was exposed resting on the sandstone rock. 
The sides and ends were each formed by a single sandstone slab, and the cover was a 
massive unwrought slab. In its internal measurement the cist was 3 feet 8 inches 
long, 2 feet broad and 1 foot 3 inches deep. It contained earth with which 
numerous fragments of calcined human bones were mingled. Three barbed flint 
arrow-heads were also found, one of which Mr Henderson presented to the 

* In Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot,, vol. xxxii, 1898, is an account by Mr Alex. Hutcheson of a bronze-age cist found 
on a hill at West Mains, Auchterhouse, Forfar. It contained a bronze dagger, and two collections of calcined bones, 
and had a separate interment in a smaller compartment. Mr Hutcheson also referred to a short cist in the 
Barnhill burial mound (Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xi) which was longitudinally divided into two parallel 
compartments, resembling therefore the Cousland grave. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND 189 

Anatomical Museum. It was 32 mm. long and 18 mm. in greatest breadth; the 
edges were saw-like, point sharp, surfaces finely chipped (fig. 17). No trace of 
an urn was seen. 

Birsley Quarry, Tranent, E. Lothian. — In 1884 the workmen employed by 
Mr John Wilson exposed a short cist in the earth covering the sandstone rock. 
The cist had been built in a layer of sand and weathered sandstone. It consisted 
of the customary four slabs for the sides and ends, and of a larger cover slab, all 
formed of sandstone. In internal measurements it was 3 feet 6 inches long, 2 feet 
broad and 2 feet 3 inches high. The floor consisted of the solid rock. The cist 
contained a skeleton with the hips and knees bent, and with the face looking 
towards the east ; the bones of some of the fingers were situated at the back of 
the head, as if the elbows had been bent and the hands raised to the sides of the 
head. Neither urns nor other grave goods were present. Previously to the discovery 
of this cist a cinerary urn had been obtained in the earth covering the same quarry, 
and had been recorded by the Rev. John Strutheks,* who stated that a short cist 
had been exposed within three or four yards of the urn. 

Morrison's Haven, Preston Grange. — A short cist was exposed in May 1887 in 
the sand near the mouth of the harbour. Mr Luke, manager of the adjoining 
colliery, told me that it was built of rough stone 'slabs, was covered with rough flat 
stones, and was also said to be paved. The internal dimensions were length about 
3 J feet, breadth 2 feet, depth 20 inches. It contained a human skeleton in the bent 
position, but the skull, detached from the spine, was found between the legs (p. 204). 
No urn nor implement was obtained from the cist. 

Bridgeness, W. Lothian. — In 1896 Mr H. M. Cadell of Grange informed me 
that a "heavy stone coffin" had been exposed a few yards from the probable 
end of the Wall of Antoninus at Bridgeness-on-Forth. Owing to absence from 
home at the time he could not give its dimensions, but he. had ascertained that the 
skeleton which it contained had been bent around an urn which was preserved. 
The " coffin" was undoubtedly a short cist. The urn was a good example of the 
bowl-shaped form (fig. 13). It was 5 '3 inches high, 6*9 inches wide at the outer 
lip of the mouth and 4 "9 inches at the inner lip, 2 '5 inches in diameter at the foot. 
The rim was bevelled on the inner surface and marked by short oblique impressions. 
A broad groove encircled the urn below the outer lip, and the outer surface was 
marked with closely arranged horizontal rows of pits about the size of small shot, 
separated by lines, some of which were plain, others minutely pitted. The skull 
is described on p. 206. Mr Cadell subsequently obtained a similar urn from 
a short cist exposed in 1905 at Cowdenhill near Bo'ness, in a sandbed of the 
25-foot beach, about 10 feet above high-water mark, f 

* Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xiv, 1880. In vol. iv of the same Proceedings, a note is made of a large cinerary 
urn having been got in trenching a field at Tranent, 
t Idem, vol. xl, 1906. 



190 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

Binns, W. Lothian. — In 1875 Sir Robert Dalzell wrote me a note on the 
disclosure close to the House of Binns of a short cist, 2 feet 11 inches long, the 
ends and one side of which were formed each of a single slab of stone, whilst the 
other side consisted of the rock itself. The floor of the cist was without any slab. 

Torphichen. — In a sandhill near this town Professor Duns uncovered five cists, 
one of which from its dimensions was a short cist and contained a human skeleton.* 

Threipland Farm, Elgin. — In 1869 Mr G. Allan, in opening a hillock on his 
farm, exposed a short cist. The cover stone was about 6 feet long, 4 feet broad 
and 1 foot thick ; both it and the side and end stones were rough slabs of sandstone. 
The internal dimensions of the cist were 4 feet 2 inches long, 2 feet 1 inch broad 
and 2 feet 1 inch deep, and the floor was a sandy clay. The cist was said to lie 
west of south by east of north, and the head was at the south-west. In addition 
to the human skeleton the cist contained an oval piece of flint, shaped like a spear- 
head, flat and thin at the edges, 2| inches long, If inch broad, which was seen about 
the middle of the right of the skeleton. The flint was presented to the Elgin 
Museum, f 

Duns, Bemvickshire. — In excavating gravel near the railway station in 1863 
a short cist was exposed, 4 feet long, 1J feet broad and 20 inches deep, which 
contained an urn of the drinking-cup type and the skeleton of an adult, the brachy- 
cephalic skull of which I described at the time,! and now on p. 193. 

In 1897 a cist which was said to be about 3 feet long, wider in the middle 
than at the ends, and 2 feet deep, was discovered on the farm of Chapel, Duns. The 
cover consisted of two massive slabs of sandstone, and the sides had smaller stones, 
as well as the customary large slabs : the floor was the hard subsoil. No urn or 
implement was found in the cist. A skull, much injured, and portions of other 
bones were sent to me, but their imperfect condition did not permit a satisfactory 
description. 

Roxburghshire. — At Kelso, in 1864, a short cist was exposed in the Knowes, 
adjoining the Abbey .§ It contained an urn of baked clay which corresponded in 
size and form to the largest urn, a beaker from Lesmurdie. No bones were procured 
from the cist. 

Cavers. — In the same county a short cist was discovered in 1896 in a tumulus in 
Belvedere Wood, on the estate of Mrs Palmer Douglas. It was carefully described 
and figured by Dr David Christison. || The space for the cist had been excavated 
in the solid rock, and one side and end were each formed of a single slab, whilst 
their opposites consisted of smaller slabs : the bottom was composed of small stones 
imbedded in clay. The cover consisted of two whinstone slabs, the larger of which 
was 7 feet 2 inches long and 18 inches thick. The cist contained an unburnt 

* P.S.A.S., vol. xii, p. 405, 1878. t See idem, vol. xxii, p. 341. 

I Idem, vol. v. § See my description in Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. vi, p. 18. 

|| Idem, vol. xxxi, 1897. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 191 

skeleton in the bent position and a heap of fragments of incinerated human bones, 
a flint scraper and arrow-head, a bone pin and perforated disc, but no urn. I had 
the opportunity of examining the skull (p. 206). 

In the following year a small cemetery of three cinerary urns, exposed by a land 
slip, was found on the bank of a stream at Chesters, near Jedburgh.* They were 
inverted, and contained calcined bones, and in one was also a piece of flint. I repro- 
duce a drawing, kindly made by Mr M. G. Craig, of one of the urns (fig. 9, p. 187) 
which was decorated, but the other two, larger in size, had no ornamentation, except 
that one was marked on the lip. In 1902 a short cist was exposed on a farm near 
Denholm in the same county. It measured 40 inches by 25 inches, and contained a 
much decayed skeleton, but no other relic. 

Ross-shire — Fyrish, Evanton. — In June 1865 a note on a short cist on the 
farm of Fyrish was communicated to the Society of Antiquaries, f The cist con- 
tained a beaker urn, a perforated greenish-coloured stone, and a skeleton. The skull 
is described on p. 193. 

Strathpeffer. — Dr Fortescue Fox gave me an account of three short cists, found 
in 1896 in a mound of sand and gravel at Croch Fionne. They were formed of slabs 
of a clay slate, and each had a large cover stone. Two were about 3| feet long ; 
the third was somewhat smaller. Each contained a human skeleton, but neither 
urn nor implement was detected. In one the bones, judging from the dentition, 
had belonged to a young person, but they and the other skeletons were fragmentary. 
Near the centre of the mound a cinerary urn was exposed outside the cists. It 
was in a black mass containing charcoal, and a similar substance filled the urn, but 
bones were not seen either in the urn or around it. It was 6 inches high, 7\ inches 
across the mouth, and b\ inches at the foot, and it was marked immediately below 
the lip with oblique intersecting lines. 

Dr Fox also called my attention to a description by the Rev. W. Watson + 
of two short cists, each of which contained a skeleton in the bent position, 
at Aonach, Drummond, Kiltearn, in the same county. In one cist a bowl- 
shaped urn full of a dark substance was found in front of the face, also a 
piece of bronze the size of a darning needle. Dr Fox gave me the opportunity of 
examining the human remains, unfortunately very imperfect. One skull was that 
of a man advanced in life ; the glabella and supraciliaries were moderate, the bridge 
of the nose was well formed and projecting, but the cranium was too imperfect to 
admit of being measured. 

Rosemarkie, Ross-shire. — Early in this century a short cist was exposed in the 
manse grounds. It was formed of rough whinstone slabs with a massive cover, and 
its long diameter was north and south. It contained a skeleton, the head of which 
was at the north. At the opposite end was an urn, 6 inches high, 6f inches in 

* Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xxxi, p. 199. t Idem, vol. vi, p. 233, 1868 and p. 266. 

+ Idem, vol. xxiii, p. 138, 1889. 



192 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON . 

circumference at the lip, and 3 inches at the foot. It was of dark brown pottery, 
marked with rings of herring-bone ornament. No other grave goods were observed. 

Salen, Loch Sunart, Argyllshire. — In 1897 Mr J. Fraser of the Ordnance Survey 
wrote and told me that he had exposed in a cairn of loose stones a cavity, about 3£ 
feet long, 2 feet broad, and about 2| feet deep, the walls of which were formed like 
those of the short cists which I had described in my lecture " On Early Man in 
Scotland." He noted that the cover consisted of a large flat stone, on the top of 
which a much smaller slab had been laid. Imperfect remains of a bent skeleton 
were seen in the cist, but no weapons or other relics. 

Craniology. Tables II, III, IV, V. 

It is to Sir Daniel Wilson that we owe the definite recognition of the presence 
in Scotland of a prehistoric race having the brachycephalic type of skull, which he 
regarded as belonging to a race later in time than the primitive dolichocephalic or 
kumbecephalic people. One example which he gave as characteristic was obtained, 
along with urns, in a cist exposed during the demolition, in 1833, of the Old Town 
Steeple of Montrose. He figured the skull and described it * as square and compact 
in form, broad and short, well balanced, and with a good frontal development. The 
leagth was 180 mm., the parietal breadth 157 mm., and the cephalic index was 87*2. 
Another characteristic example was a skull found in a cist under a tumulus at 
Raiho ; alongside it stood a small rude clay urn, which contained several bronze 
rings, so that its association with the bronze age was established. This skull was 
177 mm. long, 153 mm. broad, and the cephalic index was 86*4. Wilson also 
referred to three skulls discovered near Cockenzie, East Lothian, in a group of rude 
cists of " primitive circumscribed dimensions." Two are preserved in the National 
Museum of Antiquities, and he figured another as a characteristic example. Of these 
three skulls, two are undoubtedly dolichocephalic, whilst the cephalic index of the 
third, 78, placed it high in the mesaticephalic group. As the cists in which they 
were got were doubtless short cists, I have included two, which I have measured, in 
my list (Table V) from short cists, and not along with the neolithic (kumbecephalic) 
skulls (Table I), with which Wilson, owing to the dolichocephalic form and propor- 
tions of two specimens, had associated them. He considered that the kumbecephalic 
and brachycephalic skulls belonged to the early native races of Scotland, which pre- 
ceded the intrusion of the Celts into Britain. Although he noted several skulls from 
Argyllshire and the Hebrides as affording a fair average criterion of the Celtic type, 
he does not definitely specify their characters, except that the parietal and vertical 
diameters of the cranium were nearly equal, whilst in the brachycephalic the parietal 
is greater than the vertical and in the kumbecephalic the opposite is the case. 

Drs Davis and Thurnam described and figured in their Crania Britannica four 

* Archeology and Pirltistoric Annals of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1851, p. 170. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 



193 



skulls from short cists in Scotland. In one of four short cists at Lesmurdie, Banff, 
in 1851, a bent skeleton, a drinking-cup (beaker) urn, and some flints were found. 
The skull, that of an adult male, was broad, with the parieto-occipital region flattened, 
and a cephalic index of 86, The vertex was flattened, glabella and supraciliary ridges 
distinct, nose long and narrow, orbit rounded, lower jaw massive. A second male 
was obtained in the same year at Juniper Green, Edinburgh, in a similar interment ; 
the skull had the cephalic index 83 "6. In one of three short cists exposed near 
Kinaldie, Aberdeenshire, in 1855, a bent skeleton and an urn of the beaker or drinking- 
cup type was seen ; the cranium was steep behind and the vertex flattened, but owing 
to one side being injured the breadth and cephalic index could not be taken. A 
short cist in a barrow at Newbigging, in Pomona, Orkney, contained two skeletons 
and a heap of burnt bones. One of the skulls, 7*1 inches (180 mm.) long and 5*7 
inches (145 mm.) broad, gave a cephalic index 80'6. Three of these skulls from 
bronze-age interments were markedly brachycephalic. 

Duns. — In 1863 I examined* a cranium, from the short cist near Duns (p. 190), 
6*5 inches (165 mm.) long and 5 - 4 inches (137 mm.) broad, cephalic index 83, in 




Fig. 18.— Duns. 



which the vertex was flattened, the parieto-occipital region truncated, and the fore- 
head well developed. I pointed out that, like the skulls described by Sir Daniel 
Wilson and Barnard Davis, it was distinctly brachycephalic (fig. 18). 

Fyrish, Ross-shire.— I described, in 1865, a brachycephalic skull from Fyrish,f 
obtained in a short cist (p. 191). It was from a male in the decline of life. The 
cranial vault was moderately ar'ched, the post-parietal region was flattened ; but as 
the occipital squama was somewhat bulging, the back of the skull was not truncated. 
The glabella and supraciliaries projected ; the nasion was depressed, the nasal bridge 
projected, the bones were narrow, the nasal index was leptorhine, 44 % the upper 
orbital border was thick, and the index was mesoseme, 87"2 ; the upper jaw was 
orthognathous. The cephalic index was 82*3, the vertical index 71. The crania] 
breadth was much greater than the height. The cranial capacity was 1555 c.c. 

* Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. v, p. 279, 1865. t Idem, vol. vi, pp. 233, 266, 1868. 



194 



PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 



Table II. 

Short Cists. 



Collection number, . 
Age,. . . . 
Sex, .... 
Cubic capacity, . 
Glabello-occipital length, 
Basi-bregmatic height, 
Vertical Index, . 
Stephanie diameter, . 
Greatest parieto-squamous 

breadth, 
Cephalic Index, . 
Horizontal circumference, 
Frontal longitudinal arc, 
Parietal „ M 

Occipital „ 

Total „ 
Vertical transverse arc, 
Length of foramen magnum 
Basi-nasal length, 
Basi-alveolar length, . 
Gnathic Index, . 
Interzygomatic breadth, 
Intermalar „ 

Nasio-mental length, . 
Nasio-mental facial Index, 
Nasio-alveolar length, 
Maxillo-facial Index 
Nasal height, 
Nasal width, 
Nasal Index, 
Orbital width, 
Orbital height, 
Orbital Index, 
Palato-maxillary length, 
Palato-maxillary breadth, 
Palato-maxillary Index, 
Mandible, symphysial heigl 



Mull : Ardachy. 



E.U.A.M. 



136 

78-6 

491 

114 

113 

113 

340 

282 

38 

98 

96 

98- 

119 

107 

98 

82-3 

59 

49-6 

42 

22 

52-4 

39 

33 

846 

51 

59 

115-6 

28 



H g 



A. B. C. Metopic. 

Juv. i Juv. Juv. Ad. 

M.? ■ F.I F. M. 

1250 I 1390: 1350! ... 

173 171 ! 174 i 180 

125 1311 125 128 

72-3 76-6 \ 71 -8 \ 71-1 

110 104 10G 



S « 3 P 



140 
81-9 
492 

126 

128 

107 

361 

305 

35 

92 

88 

95-7 

121 

106 

103 

83-4 

58 

48- 

43 

21 

48-8 

36 

31 

86-1 

48 

56 

116-6 

28 



132 

75-9 

495 

127 

127 

115 

369 

300 

32 

89 

82 

92-1 

113 

101 

99 

80-5 

53 

47- 

41 

20 

48-8 

37 

30 

81-1 

44 

56 

127-2 

29 



124 
126 
116 
360 

34 
100 



115 
123 



51 
24 

47-1 
40 
35 

87-5 
60 



32 



60 <& 
&a o 



Ad. 
F. 






Ad. 
M. 



164 180 

123 141 

75- 78-3 

131 



a * 



E.T. 

Ad. 

M. 

176 

134 

76-1 



Aberdeen : 
Broomend, 
Inverurie. 



135 

82-3 

11G 
118 
101 
335 

33 | 
95 



108 
63 



157 
87-2 
534 



: so 



M 



!* 



E.T. 
Ad. 
M. 
1500 
190 
140 
7J7 



E.T. 

Adol. 

M. 

183 
132 
72-1 



150 

6rac/4?/. 7S-P 

...' : 546 

118 j ... 

130 127 

106 117 
354 

38 ! ... 

104 ! ... 



E.T. 

Advd. 
M. 
1448 
182 
134 
736 
114 



E.T. 

Advd. 

M. 

1555 
186 
132 
71- 
111 



Ber- 

wick : 
Duns. 



E.T. 

Aged. 
F. 

166 



110 





139 


153 


136 t 




76-4 


1 82-3 


81-9 


513 


517 


538 


492 




128 


131 


119 


127 


|]l23 


132 


118 


105 


125 


106 




361 


388 


343 




303 


324 






38 


32 


37 




104 


100 


96 




95 


90 






91-3 


90 






121 


117 






119 


107 






"70 


65 






52 


52 






26 


23 






50- 


44-2 






41 


39 






33 


34 




... 


80-5 


87-2 






51 


50 






61 


58 






119-6 


116- 






30 


30 





Rox- 
burgh : 
Cavers. 



Adol. 
M. 

181 
131 
72-3 
119 

14f» 
SO- 
524 

••■ 
125 1 

116 

_ 

312 
36 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 195 

Broomend, Inverurie. — In 1867 Mr Hay Chalmers and Mr r.. B. Davidson 
described * three short cists found at Broomend, Aberdeenshire, in one ol v Mch two 
bent skeletons, urns, and flint flakes were found, while in another a remarkable lamp 
made of tanned hide was hanging from one side of a beaker urn. I measured the 
skulls at the time : oue, A, was an adult male, the face of which was broken, but the 
length, breadth, and height of the cranium gave a cephalic index 78 "9 and a vertical 
index 73 '7. The skull was meso-brachycephalic. B was from a younger male, as the 
basi-cranial joint was not closed ; the vertex was flattened, and the occipital region 
sloped backwards ; the left parietal was so much injured that the breadth, and in con- 
sequence the cephalic index, could not be definitely stated, though it had not the same 
brachy cephalic character as A. The vertical index was 72"1. The glabella and supra- 
ciliaries were strong. The upper jaw was orthognathous, the nasion was depressed, 
the orbit was microseme, the chin was protuberant (Table II). 

Tealing, Forfarshire. — In 1870 Mr James Neish read an account of a short cist 
containing a male bent skeleton, the skull of which is in the National Museum. I 
examined it along with Dr J. A. Smith, f The cranium was elongated oval, side walls 
somewhat flattened, occipital squama almost vertical, sutures obliterated ; length 
182 mm., parietal breadth 139 mm., height 134 mm. ; glabella and supraciliaries 
fairly marked ; forehead somewhat retreating ; nasion a little depressed, nasals 
narrow, bridge projecting a little ; lower jaw well formed, angle almost rectangular, 
chin strongly everted. The cephalic index was 76*4, the vertical 73 '6. The cranium 
was approximately dolichocephalic, and its capacity was 1448 c.c. The nasal index, 
50, was mesorhine, the orbital index, 80'5, was microseme, the upper jaw was ortho- 
gnathic. Two cinerary urns, one of which was inverted, containing calcined bones, 
were between the cover stone of the cist and the surface of the ground (Table II). 

At Ninewells, Invergowrie, in the same county, a short cist was opened, which 
contained a skeleton and bowl-shaped urn.} The skull was probably that of a 
woman ; the forehead was smooth and vertical, the vertex was flattened, and the 
parieto-occipital slope was moderate. The cranium was 175 mm. long, but otherwise 
so imperfect that the breadth and height could not be measured. 

Dunrobin, Sutherland. — In March 1880 a short cist was exposed in a bed of 
gravel in Dunrobin Park. The Rev. Dr Joass described it § as containing a female 
skeleton with the knees bent. An urn of the drinking-cup type was beside the 
head and a necklace of shale beads was at the feet. The skull was 178 mm. long 
and 146 mm. in parieto-squamous breadth, which gave a cephalic index 82. The 
basi-bregmatic height was 132 mm. and the vertical index was 747. The nasal 
index, 51'1, was mesorhine, and the orbital index, 90, was megaseme. 

* Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. vii, pp. 110, 115, 116, 1870. 
t Idem, vol. viii, p. 383, 1871. 
| Idem, vol. v, p. 81, 1865. 

§ Reliquary, 1903. Also described and figured by Professor Bryce in Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., xxxix, p. 428, 1905. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 5). 28 



196 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

Windy Mains, Humbie, E. Lothian. — Mr Robert Forman described* in 1857 
two short cists in a mound of sand. Each contained a drinking-cup (beaker) 
urn, and in one was a male skeleton advanced in years. The skull was imperfect, 
but the parieto-occipital slope was abrupt, the nasion was depressed, and the 
nasal bones projected. I measured the length of the cranium, which was 173 mm., 
the basi-bregmatic height was 138 mm., and the vertical index 79'8. The breadth 
could not be taken. The orbital index was 80*5. The total longitudinal arc was 
349 mm., and the basi-nasal length 106 mm. 

Silver Moor, Carstairs. — A short cist was exposed in 1847 which contained an 
adult male skeleton, the imperfect skull of which is in the National Museum of 
Antiquities (E.T. 13). Dr Rankine, who presented it, noted special flattening and 
backward elongation of the occipital condyls. j The face was wanting and the 
right parieto-squamous region was imperfect. The cranium was 176 mm. long and 
134 mm. in basi-bregmatic height, the vertical index was 76*1, the parieto-squamous 
breadth could not be taken, but as the minimum frontal was 106 mm. broad and 
the asterionic 118 mm., it is not unlikely that the proportion of greatest breadth 
to length would have placed it in the brachycephalic group. The supraciliaries 
were moderate. 

Arran. — In this island short cists have been found in several localities. In 1861 
Dr James Bryce explored \ a group of short cists within a stone circle at Tormore, 
Mauchrie, in which bowl-shaped urns and flint arrow-heads were found, along with 
a bronze pin. From one cist a skull was obtained which was measured by Professor 
Allen Thomson. Though imperfect, its length was given as 7 inches (175 mm.) and its 
parietal breadth as 5*7 inches (143 mm.), which would give a cephalic index 81 "4, i.e. 
brachycephalic. At Knochan Kelly a short cist was opened by Dr J. Jamieson,§ which 
contained a bowl-shaped urn and the skeleton of a youth aged about ten. Though the 
skull was injured, Professor Cleland regarded it as brachycephalous, like those of the 
short barrows ; he gave the greatest length as 6'6 inches (168 mm.) and the parieto- 
squamous breadth as 6*25 inches (159 mm.), which would give 94*6 as the cephalic 
index: the vertical height was 5 inches (127 mm.) and the corresponding index 75'6. 

Professor T. H. Bryce has investigated a number of short cists in Arran which 
were lodged under cairns. He described the characters of the cists, of urns of the 
bowl or food-vessel type, the presence in some cists of flakes of flint, and in one 
of a bronze dagger and a fillet of gold. The human remains unfortunately were so 
much injured that they could not be precisely described. He referred, however 
to the Tormore skull quoted above, figuring the norma verticalis, and to the skull 
obtained at Knochan Kelly, both of whicli were brachycephalic. 

* Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. iii, p. 50, 1862. Skull in National Museum of Antiquities. 

t Idem, vol. xi, p. 464, 1876. The skull which 1 measured is preserved in the National Museum of Antiquities. 
| Idem, vol. iv, p. 499, 1863. 

S Idem, vol. xx, p. 170, 1886. See also Professor T. H. Bryce, " Cairns of Arran," Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xxxvi, 
p. 74, 1902. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 



197 



Table III. 

SJiort Cists. 







Davis and Thurnam. 


Bryce. 


Ayr- 










. 






a 














8 

03 g 

pq m 


«.2 


S § 

2, £ 
■~ o 
OPh 


Mid Lothia 
Juniper 
Green. 


s ° 
2 S 


Arran : 

Knochan 

Kelly. 


•3 3 

"^ 


T. 9 
v a 


shire : 
Largs. 

B.U.A.M. 




Collection number, . 


E.T. 


ET. 




E.T. 


ET. 














Age, 


Aged. 


Ad. 




Aged. 


Ad. 


Juv. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 








Sex, ..... 


M. * 


F. 




M. 


M. 




M. 


F. 


M. 








Cubic capacity, . . . '• 














1425 


1540 










Glabello-occipital length, . j 


186 


178 


180 


178 


175 


168 


176 


178 


175 








Basi-bregmatic height, 


131 


121 




130 




127 


138 


132 


138 








Vertical Index, . 


70-4 


68- 




73-6 




75-6 


78-2 


74-7 


788 








Stephanie diameter, . 


























Greatest parieto-squamous 


























breadth, 


160 




145 


148 


143 


159 


151 


146 


148 








Cephalic Index, . 


86- 


hrach //. 


80-6 


82- 


81-7 


94-6 


' 85-8 


82- 


84-6 








Horizontal circumference, . 


546 












512 


518 










Frontal longitudinal arc, . 


130 






128 






128 


132 










Parietal ,, ,, 


124 


127 




124 






120 


118 










Occipital ,, ,, 


116 






116 






113 


120 


... 








Total „ „ . 


370 






368 






361 


370 










Vertical transverse arc, 








309 






314 


325 










Length of foramen magnum, 


39 




... 


33 






35 


38 










Basi-nasal length, 


101 


96 




95 






101 


99 










Basi-alveolar length, . 


96 


100 




89 






91 


95 










Gnathic Index, . 


95- 


104-2 




93-7 






! 90- 


96-9 










Inter zygomatic breadth, . 














146 




... 
... 








j Intermalar ,, 




114 










131 


111 










Nasio-mental length, . 






... 


\ '■'■'■ 






112 


105 










Nasio-mental complete Index, 






... 








767 












Nasio-alveolar length, 


65 


65 




"71 






70 


63 










Maxillo-facial Index, 
















47-9- 












Nasal height, 




50 


49 




56 






49 


45 










Nasal width, 




23 


23 




20 






25 


24 










Xasal Index, 




46- 


469 




35- 






j 52- 


52- 










Orbital width, . 




43 


42 




40 






37 


39 










Orbital height, . 




33 


29 




32 






32 


35 










Orbital Index, 


. 


76-7 


69- 




75- 






86 -5 


91: 










Palato-maxillary length, 


52 


47 




55 






50 












Palato-maxillary breadth, . 


57 


60 


... 


58 






57 












Palato-maxilliarij Index, 


109-6 


127-7 


1 


,11 5-5 






| 114- 












Mandible, symphysial height, 


29 


30 




33 






34 


"27 











In the island of Bute * Professor Bryce found short cists, either within cairns or 
tumuli, or near the surface of the ground, without external mark. In six of these the 
bodies had been inhumed, in two they had been cremated. The grave goods were 
scanty ; in three were urns, two of which were bowl-shaped ; in two were articles 
of bronze and jet. The human remains were fragmentary, but it was thought 
that a skull from a cist at Auchantirie had probably a cephalic index above 80. 

* Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., 14th Dec. 1904, vol. xxxviii, pp. 52 et seq. 



198 



PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 











Table IV. 






















Short Cists. 


















Dr Alexr. Low, Aberdeenshire, 
















Museum, University, Aberdeen. 










Parkhill. 


eywood. 


m 


a> 


Tyrie. 


o 


'o 

a 
\3 


oj 
a) 

> 


a 
o 

-4-» 

CO 

a> 

+3 








a 

O 


4. 


5 




< 


o 

< 


o 

9. 


£ 

£ 


o 

OS 

3 


J 


Collection number, 
Age, . . . ' . 
Sex, . 


Al. 


B2. 


3. 


5. 


A6. 


B10. 


7. 


8. 


11. 


12. 


13. 


M. 


m! 


m! 


M. 


M. 


M.' 


F. 


si/ 


M. 


F. 


m! 


m! 


M. 


Cubic capacity, . 


1450 




!l420 


1500 




1580 


1460 




1350 




1450 




1460 


Glabello-occipital length, . 


180 


183 


169 


188 


185 


185 


172 


186 


167 


172 


181 


189 


177 


Basi-bregmatic height, 


135 


148 


133 


146 


138 


144 


128 


135 


136 




135 


143 


13G 


Vertical Index, . 


75- 


809 


78-7 


77-7 


74-6 


77-8 


74-4 


72-6 


57-4 




74-5 


75-6 


75-5 


Stephanie diameter, . 


115 




120 


136 


120 


124 


128 


125 


108 


118 


110 




126 


Greatest parieto-squamous 




























breadth, 


153 


160 


156 


160 


156 


150 


150 


154 


142 


135 


156 


158 


154 


Cephalic Index, . 


; 85- 


87-4 


92-3 


55-7 


84 -3 


81-1 


87-2 


82-8 


85- 


78-5 


86-1 


SJ-6 


87- 


Horizontal circumference, . 


524 




510 


540 


528 


548 


503 


532 


494 


500 


512 


524 


522 


Frontal longitudinal arc, . 


135 


132 


128 


132 


143 


126 


127 


130 


123 


128 


130 


130 


130 


Parietal ,, ,, 


125 


118 


120 


148 


140 


140 


110 


130 


120 


122 


132 


130 


132 


Occipital „ ,, 


100 




111 


117 


110 


120 


116 


122 




105 


113 


125 


124 


Total „ 


360 




359 


397 


393 


386 


353 


382 




355 


375. 


385 


386 


Vertical transverse arc, 


327 




300 


336 


336 


310 


304 


330 


306 


300 


324 


330 


332 


Length of foramen magnum, 


36 




37 


38 


37 


38 


38 








36 


41 


29 


Basi-nasal length, 


104 


100 


95 


96 


98 


104 


97 




100 




100 


100 


98 


Basi-alveolar length, . 


98 


92 


87 


87 




94 


94 




97 




101 


95 


96 


Gnathic Index, 


94-2 


92- 


9V6 


90-6 




90-4 


96-9 




97- 




707- 


95- 


97-9 


Interzygomatic breadth, 


142 




126 


140 




137 


130 




136 




134 


130 


132 


Inter malar ,, 


115 




114 


110 




117 


112 




114 




120 


116 


... i 


Nasio-mental length, . 


108 


122 


107 


110 




122 






108 




119 


112 


108 


Nasio-mental facial Index, . 


76- 




84-9 


78-5 




89- 






79-4 




88-7 


86-1 


81 -8 


Nasio-alveolar length, 


64 


80 


64 


67 




72 


68 




67 




72 


70 


64 


Maxilla-facial Index, . 


45- 


53-9 


50-5 


47-8 




52-5 


52-3 




49-2 




53-7 


53-8 


48-4 


Nasal height, 


48 


53 


48 


48 


55 


53 


48 




50 




51 


49 


48 


Nasal width, 


23 


25 


25 


25 


28 


26 


25 




24 




26 


23 


26 


Nasal Index, 


47-9 


47-2 


52-1 


52-7 


50-9 


49-1 


52-7 




48- 




50-9 


46-9 


54-7 


Orbital width, . 


41 




40 


44 




41 


40 




40 




41 


44 


40 


Orbital height, . 


33 




30 


32 




31 


33 




31 




32 


34 


30 


Orbital Index, 


80-5 




75- 


72-7 




75-6 


82-5 




77-5 




78- 


77-3 


75- 


Palato-maxillary length, 


51 


56 


51 


52 




50 


50 




55 




58 


51 


48 


Palatomaxillary breadth, . 


55 


64 


61 


56 




65 


62 




- 66 




63 


57 


64 


Palato-maxillary Index, 


107-7 


7/4-2 


119-6 


107-6 




130: 


724- 




120- 




108-6 


7 70-9 


133-3 


Mandible, symphysial height, 


30 




28 


30 


30 


32 






31 




33 


34 


29 



He also regarded the fragment of a skull obtained in a short cist at Mount 
Stewart as probably brachycephalic, though too imperfect for measurement. It 
had a hole in the frontal which Dr Munro regarded as due to an operation for 
trephining. The cist also contained a piece of bronze, a jet necklace, and a bowl- 
shaped urn. 

In a later memoir on a skeleton from Acharole, Caithness,* obtained in a short 



Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., 8th May 1905, vol. xxxix, p. 418. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 199 

cist which contained a beaker urn, Professor Bryce described and figured a male 
skull. It was hyperbrachycephalic, cephalic index 85*8 ; the parietooccipital region 
was flattened; the vertex was flattened and the vertical index was 78 '2, platy- 
chamcecephalic, wide and low; the face was chamaeprosopic, 76'7, broad and low; 
the upper jaw was orthognathous, 90 ; the nasal index was wide, 52, high in the 
mesorhine group ; the orbital index, 86'5, was mesoseme ; the palato- maxillary 
index, 114, was mesuranic. The capacity of the cranium was 1425 c.c. 

North-East of Scotland. — Important researches into short cists and their contents 
in this part of Scotland have been conducted during several years by Professor 
R. W. Reid and Dr Alexr. Low, of the University of Aberdeen, and interesting 
series of objects from the cists have been arranged in the Anthropological Museum 
in Marischal College of that University. Dr Low has described the cists, the 
beaker urns, and other contents, and has given in the Proceedings* 1902-04, a 
comprehensive table of the measurements of ten skulls, and in subsequent parts, 
1904-08, those of additional specimens from Whitestone, Blackhill, and Leslie. 

In this series of thirteen skulls, eleven males and two females, from short cists, 
twelve had the cephalic index 80 and upwards, and of these eight were hyper- 
brachycephalic. In one only, a female, the index was 78*5. The vertical index 
was less than the cephalic. In the specimens in which the face was measured the 
complete index was low, chamseprosopic in five, mesoprosopic in two ; in nine 
specimens the jaw* was orthognathic, in one mesognathic ; the nasal index in one 
was platyrhine, in three leptorhine, in eight mesorhine ; the orbital indices were 
low, microseme. The cranial capacity in seven males ranged from 1350 to 1580 c.c, 
with the mean 1458 c.c. ; in one female it was 1460 c.c. (Table IV). 

Ardachy, Bunessan, Mull. — Sir Arthur Mitchell recorded f the exposure, in 
1892, of four short cists, three of which contained bent skeletons. A food-bowl 
urn was found in each of two of the cists. At the request of Sir Arthur I examined 
and measured three skulls which had been preserved. They were from young- 
persons from ten to eighteen years, were probably females, and were so well 
preserved that both cranial and facial measurements were given in the table accom- 
panying his original memoir. The skulls were well formed, and varied in the 
proportional length and breadth of the cranium. B was brachycephalic, cephalic 
index 81 '9; A was mesaticephalic, index 78'6, approximating therefore to brachy- 
cephalic; C, again, with index 75'9, approached the dolichocephalic, and its outline 
was a longish oval approaching the pentagonal form. In each skull the height 
was less than the breadth, and the glabella and supraciliary ridges were not 
prominent : the forehead was almost vertical, and the frontal and parietal eminences 
projected. The nasal index was mesorhine ; the orbits in C were low, microseme ; 

* Proc. Anatomical and Anthropological Soc. of University of Aberdeen, 1902-04, 1906-08 ; also Appendix by 
Dr Low to Professor Bryce's Memoir in Proc. Soc. Antia. Scot., 8th May 1905, vol. xxxix ; Illustrated Catalogue, 
Aberdeen, 1912. 

t Proc. Soc. Antia. Scot., vol. xxxi, p. 115, 1897. 



200 



PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 



in A and B they were more rounded, mesoseme. In all the jaw was orthognathous. 
The face was low in proportion to the breadth, chaimeprosopic, from the immaturity 
of the dental arcades. The capacity ranged from 1250 to 1390 c.c. (Table II). 

Largs, Ayrshire. — In 1906 a cist 4£ feet long, 2| feet wide, and 2 feet deep 
was exposed and described by Dr Robert Munro* It contained an aged skeleton, 
the teeth much worn and sutures ossified. The skull was examined by Professor 
D. J. Cunningham, it was brachycephalic with marked parieto-occipital flattening, 




Fig! 19. — Ardaeliy, Mull : profile and face. 

cephalic index 84*6, vertical index 78"8 (Table III) ; some broken pottery which the 
Hon. John Abercromby recognised as a beaker urn was present. 

I shall now transcribe from my notebook several skulls from short cists, the 
characters and dimensions of which have not previously been recorded. 

Leith. — This cist contained a female skull injured, A, and the calvaria of a male 
advanced in years, B. A was broadly ovoid, not ridged in the sagittal region 
and sloping gently to the parietal eminences. As the occipital squama was broken, 
the parieto-occipital slope was imperfect and moderately steep. The forehead 

* Proc. Roy. Hoc. Edin., vol. xxvi, 1907. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 201 

was almost vertical, the frontal was flattened above, the glabella was feeble, the 
nasion was not depressed. The maximum length could be only approximately 
stated at 179 mm., but the breadth, 140 mm., was measured at the squamous 
suture, and the basi-bregmatic height was 130 mm. The cephalic index was meso- 
brachycephalic, approximately 78*2, the vertical index was 72*6, the breadth being 
more than the height. The nasal index 52 was mesorhine, the orbit was rounded, 
its megaseme index 100 ; the upper jaw was orthognathous (figs. 20, 21, p. 202). The 
lower jaw had a good angle, the chin projected a little ; the teeth in both jaws were 
not much worn. The palate-was hyperbrachyuranic (p. 186). 

Skull B consisted only of the calvaria, which was shorter and wider than A 




Fig. 22.— Birsley. 

in the transverse vertical arc; cephalic index 88 '6, hyperbrachycephalic. The 
parieto- occipital slope was flattened ; the forehead was ample and flattened in front 
of the bregma. 

Cousland, Mid Lothian. — Three imperfect skulls were obtained. A, probably 
a male, with a metopic frontal and a right parietal. The glabello-lambdal diameter 
was 180 mm., but the length and breadth could not be measured. The forehead 
was capacious, the glabella and supraciliaries were feeble. The nasion was not 
depressed, the nose w T as narrow, leptorhine ; the orbits were moderately rounded, 
mesoseme ; the palato-maxillary index was brachyuranic. The lower jaw was 
broken at the angle, the symphysis had a well-marked chin. The teeth were 
flattened on the crowns. B was an adult male ; only the frontal and parietals were 
preserved. The glabello-lambdal diameter was 173 mm., the greatest parietal 



202 



PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 





Fig. 20.— Leith. 



Fig. 21. — Leith. 





Fig. 24. — Bridgeness. 



Fig. 23.— Bridgeness. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 

Table V. 

Short Cists. 



203 



The Lothians. 



Iiiveresk. 



Sir D. Wilson. 



Leith. 



Cousland. 



^"5 



«H 



° X 



pq 



Kirk Park. 



>:X 



E. Lothian : 
Cockenzie. 



Anatomical Museum, University, Edinburgh. 



Collection number, . 
Age, .... 
Sex, .... 
iCubic capacity, . 
Glabello-occipital length, 
Basi-bregmatic height, 
Vertical Index, . 
Stephanie diameter, . 
Greatest parieto-squamous 

breadth, 
Cephalic Index, . 
Horizontal circumference, 
Frontal longitudinal arc, 
Parietal ,, ,, 

Occipital ,, ,, 

Total „ 
Vertical transverse arc, 
Length of foramen magnum 
Basi-nasal length, 
Basi-alveolar length, . 
Gnathic Index, . 
Interzygomatic breadth, 
Intermalar „ 

Nasio-mental length, . 
Xasio-mental complete facial 

Index, 
Nasio-alveolar length, 
Maxillo-facial Index, . 
Nasal height, 
Nasal width, 
Nasal Index, 
Orbital width, 
Orbital height, 
Orbital Index, 
Palato-maxillary length, 
Palato-maxillary breadth, 
Palato-maxillary Index, 
Mandible, symphysial height, 



A. 

Ad. 
F. 


B. 

Aged. 
M. 


179 
130 
72-6 
114 


166 

124 


140s. 
78-2 


147 
88-6 


125 




302 
37 
93 
90 

96-8 




112 





A. 
Ad. 
M.I 



B. 

Ad. 
M. 



118' 108 



146 

brachy. 



Ad. 

M. 

182 



118 



148p. 

81 -3 

... ! 524 

126 120 I 130 

140 134 128 



323 



111 



65 

50 
26 
52- 

38 
38 

100' 
49 
63 

128-5 
30 



116 
113 



67 

53 
25 

' 47-2 
39 
33 
84-6 
51 
60 

\117-6 
29 



Ad. 


Ad. 


M. 


M. 


1450 




188 


180 


141 


141 \ 


75- 


78-3 


102 


1 



137 i ... 
72~9 Ibrachy. 
518 ... 
134 140 
140 i 130 



114 


116 


388 


386 


298 




35 


35 


100 


91 


97 




)7- 





125 

112 



69 

55-2 
49 
25 

51- 
39 
32 

82- 
58 



31 



A. 
Ad. 
M. 

178 
130 
73-0 
111 

141 

79-2 

504 

132 

116 

128 

376 

299 

32 

91 

89 

97-8 

125 

110 

112 

89-6 
67 
53- 

48 



40 
34 

85- 
53 
58 

109-4 
29 



B. 

Ad. Ad. 
F. ! M. 



172 

127 
73-8 



brachy. 

125 
130 

102 
357 

30 
95 

87 



185 



115 

139 
75-1 
525 
130 

128 



312 



E.T.6 E.T.7 
Ad. Ad. 
F. I M. 



61 



47 



173 
127 
73 4 
101 

135 

78- 

494 

120 

128 

116 

364 

294 

30 

90 

90 

100- 



180 
126 
70: 

99 

133 
73-9 
504 
119 
108 
123 
350 

40 
99 



133 

I 118 
120 

\90-2 
71 

\53-3 
55 



40 
32 
80- 



47 
22 

46-8 
35 
32 

914 



o 



32 



W. L. : 
Ratho, 






Ad. 
M. 

177 
142 
80- 



153 
86-4 
508 



E.T. 

Aged. 

M. 

173 
138 

79-8 



120 

130 

99 

349 

38 
106 



41 



breadth was 146 mm., the index of which would be 84'4 ; if the occipital bone had 
increased the length of the cranium to 182 mm. the index would still have been 
80"2 : the skull was doubtless brachycephalie. The forehead was capacious, the 
supraciliaries well marked, and the nasion had been depressed. C was too frag- 
mentary to be described. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 5). 29 



204 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

Bivsley Quarry, Tranent. — The skull was a male ; the cranial sutures were 
in process of obliteration, and the teeth were flattened on the crowns but not 
decayed. ' It was broadly ovoid, vertex flattened, sloping gently to the parietal 
eminences, the parietooccipital slope abrupt, occipital squama not- bulging. The 
cranium was 182 mm. long, 148 mm. broad, cephalic index 81-3, brachycephalic. 
The forehead was broad, almost vertical, the glabella and supraciliaries well marked, 
nasion a little depressed, facial bones mostly broken, but lower jaw massive, angle 
distinct, chin marked, teeth complete (fig. 22, p. 201). 

Morrison's Haven, Prestonpans.—Skull male, sutures partially obliterated, teeth 
flattened from use. Cranium elongated, somewhat pentagonal in outline, not 
flattened in sagittal region, sloping markedly to parietal eminences and in parieto- 
occipital region, occipital squama somewhat behind inion. Forehead retreating, 
glabella prominent with mesial suture, supraciliaries prominent. Length 188 mm., 
breadth 137 mm., height 141 mm. Cephalic index 72*9, vertical index 75, breadth 
less than height, skull dolichocephalic. Nasion depressed, nasal bones slender, 
moderately projecting, index 51, mesorhine. Upper jaw orthognathous. Upper 
orbital border thick, index 82, microseme. Small Wormian in lambdoid suture. 
Cranial capacity 1450 c.c. (fig. 25) (Table V). 

Belfield and Kirk Park. — In a male skull from the largest Belfield cist the 
teeth were only slightly worn and the sutures partially ossified. The outline was 
incomplete owing to the right parieto-temporal being imperfect. The slope of the 
vault from the sagittal line to the eminences was moderate, the parieto-occipital 
slope was abrupt, and the occipital squama was not bulging. The cranium was 
180 mm. long and 141 mm. in basi-bregmatic diameter, the vertical index was 78*3, 
but the cephalic could not be computed. The general aspect of the skull was 
brachycephalic (figs. 26, 27). The forehead somewhat retreated, the glabella and 
supraciliaries were well marked (Table V). 

Two skulls from short cists exposed in the Kirk Park adjoining have been pre- 
served. One (A), given to me by Dr James Craigie in 1890, was that of a man in 
middle life. The outline of the cranium was broadly oval, the vertex was flattened, 
the parietal eminences were distinct, the parieto-occipital region was incomplete, also 
the glabella. The cranial length was 178 mm., the breadth was 141 mm., cephalic 
index 79*2, the basi-bregmatic height 130 mm. ; the vertical index was 73. The upper 
jaw was orthognathous. The femora showed indications of platymery and the tibiae 
of platyknemia. The lower jaw had a well-marked angle and a projecting chin. 

Of another specimen (B), a female, the right half is in the National Museum 
of Antiquities (E.T.* 64).. In it the vertex was flattened, the parieto-occipital 
slope was steep, the occipital squama was flattened, the forehead was nearly vertical, 
the glabella and supraciliaries were moderate. The cranial length was 172 mm., 
basi-bregmatic height 127 mm., vertical index 73"8. Though the breadth could 
not be ascertained, the general type of skull was without doubt brachycephalic. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 



205 




Fig. 28.— Cavers. 




Fig. 25. —Morrison's Haven. 



Fig. 26.— Belfleld. 





Fig. 27.— Belfield. 



206 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

Bridgeness, W. Lothian. — The skull was that of a man ; the sutures of the 
vault were almost obliterated, and the teeth, though much worn, were not decayed. 
The cranium was elongated, the vertex, moderately arched from before backwards, 
sloped gently to the parietal eminences, the side walls were vertical, the parieto- 
occipital slope was moderately steep. The glabella, supraciliaries, and ectorbitals 
strongly projected and contributed to the length of the cranium, 185 mm., whilst 
the ophryo-occipital length was only 180 mm. The greatest breadth was approxi- 
mately 139 mm. ; the cephalic index was 75'1, or meso-dolichocephalic. The strong 
supraciliaries, glabella, and ectorbitals made a ledge-like, projection above the orbits, 
and gave character to the fronto-facial region, which must have had during life 
beetling eyebrows (figs. 23, 24). The nasion was somewhat depressed ; the interzygo- 
matic breadth was 133 mm., the nasio-mental length 120 mm., the complete facial 
index was 90 "2, high-faced, leptoprosopic. The orbital width was greater than the 
height, the index was low, microseme (Table V). The lower jaw was massive, angle 
well marked, and the square chin projected forward. 

Cavers, Roxburghshire. — The skull a male, teeth perfect, basi-cranial joint not 
fully ossified. It had been broken during the opening of the cist, but I was able to 
repair it so as to make some measurements and ascertain its form, which was broadly 
ovoid, the breadth being marked both in the frontal and parietal regions, while the 
breadth at the parietal eminences corresponded with that at the squamous sutures, 
145 mm. (fig. 28). The vertex was somewhat flattened, the occipital squama was 
flattened, but the post-parietal slope was not abrupt ; the inion and curved lines 
were distinct. The length of the cranium was 18 mm., the basi-bregmatic height 
131 mm., the cephalic index 80, the vertical index 72*3 ; the skull was character- 
istically brachycephalic. The forehead was almost vertical and the supraciliary 
ridges were well marked. The border of the lower jaw was thick and the chin pro- 
jected forward distinctly (Table II). 

The femora were also examined ; the upper epiphyses were fused with the shaft, 
but the condylar epiphysis was not so. A third trochanter was present, which was 
separated by a vertical groove from a well-defined infratrochanteric ridge. The front 
of the upper third of the shaft was convex and not platymeric. The linea aspera 
was moderate and the popliteal surface somewhat concave. The inner condylar 
articular surface was prolonged upwards on the back of the femur. The tibial shaft 
was imperfect. 

Thriepland Farm, Elgin. — The cist contaiued the bent skeleton of a man in the 
prime of life. The skull had rested on its right side, which was softened and broken. 
In its outline the cranium closely corresponded with the skull A from the Leith cist. 
Its length was 180 mm., the basi-bregmatic height was 128 mm., and the vertical 
index was 71 "1 ; the parieto-squamous breadth and cephalic index could not be taken. 
The frontal was metopic and the minimum frontal diameter was 104 mm. ; glabella 
and supraciliaries were strong, upper orbital border thick ; the frontal was flattened 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 207 

above its external process, and the adjoining temporal ridge was strong ; the orbits 
were moderately high; mesoseme index 87'5. The incisive region of the upper jaw, 
though injured, was sufficient to show that it was not prognathic. The nasal region 
high and narrow, index 47"1, leptorhine. Lower jaw well formed, distinct angle, well- 
formed protruding chin. Hyoids ossified and fused with temporals (Table II). 

Roseisle, Elgin. — In a cairn on the hill short stone cists were exposed in 1860 
in which human bones, an urn, and jet beads with an ornament were found. One 
cist was said to be 2 feet 10 inches long by 18 or 20 inches broad and 18 inches deep ; 
another, 4 feet 2 inches long by 3 feet deep* 

I examined an adult female skull from one of these cists ; the cranium was almost 
complete and the- bones were abraded ; parietal eminences distinct ; sagittal region 
not ridged ; parieto-occipital slope moderate ; occipital squama not flattened ; glabella 
and supraciliaries feeble; face much injured; lower jaw feeble, angle oblique; teeth 
a little worn ; the length, 164 mm., gave with the breadth, 135 mm., a cephalic index 
82 - 3, and with the height, 123 mm., a vertical index 75 (Table II). A child's skull 
was also obtained. It was much deformed, apparently by softening and super- 
incumbent pressure, so that its normal characters were obscured. The right femur 
of the adult had a degree of flattening, platymery, in the upper third of the shaft. 

In Tables II to V measurements are recorded of forty-nine skulls found in 
short cists in Scotland. Many were imperfect, and their dimensions were incom- 
plete. With four exceptions the skulls were those of adults. An attempt has 
been made to distinguish as far as possible the sex : thirty-seven are presumably 
males, twelve females. The majority are contained in the Anatomical Museum 
of the University, and in the National Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh ; but 
to give a wider field for comparison I have incorporated in the tables Dr Alexr. 
Low's measurements of the specimens in the Museum of Marischal College, Aber- 
deen, those examined by Professor Bryce of Glasgow, and the older examples in the 
Crania Britannica and Sir D. Wilson's Archeology of Scotland. 

In general dimensions, proportions and form the skulls from the short cists had 
the following characters: — Forty-seven crania varied in maximum length: one was 
190 mm. ; twenty-two ranged from 180 to 189 ; eighteen from 170 to 179 ; six from 
164 to 169. Eleven of the skulls below 180 mm. were apparently females. In basi- 
bregmatic height nine skulls ranged from 140 to 148 ; twenty-one from 130 to 139 ; 
ten from 121 to 128. In parieto-squamous breadth three were 160; fifteen ranged 
from 150 to 159; thirteen from 140 to 149; ten from 132 to 139. A large pro- 
portion of the skulls in the three principal diameters had good dimensions, and the 
horizontal circumference in twenty-five skulls exceeded 500 mm. In these measure- 
ments the female skulls were, as is the rule, smaller than the male. , 

In only a few specimens was it possible to take the cubic capacity of the cranium. 
In thirteen males it ranged from 1250 to 1580; four of which were 1500 and 

* See descriptions by Cosmo Innes in Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. iii, pp. 46, 374, 490, 1862. 



208 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

upwards, one was 1350, and the rest were between 1420 and 1450 c.c. The 
mean capacity of the males was 1448 c.c. Four skulls were regarded as female, 
and the mean capacity was 1435 c.c. 

The cephalic index was computed in forty measured skulls : twenty-nine were 
80 and upwards, brachycephalic, and of these fourteen were hyperbrachycephalic, 
two being upwards of 90. In five others, too imperfect to be measured, the form 
was brachycephalic. In six skulls the index was between 78 and 80, approaching 
the brachycephalic numerical standard ; three were between 75 and 78, and only 
two were dolichocephalic. The mean cephalic index of the forty skulls was 82*5 ; 
if five of these are not included in the computation, the index in which was below 
77'5, i.e. dolichocephalic or mesodolichocephalic, the mean index is as high as 85 
in thirty-five crania. 

The vertical index was computed in forty measured skulls : it ranged from 68 
to 81 '4. In nineteen skulls the index was 75 and upwards; in eighteen it was below 
75 ; in only one below 70. The mean index of the forty skulls was 75, i.e. metrio- 
cephalic. In the dolichocephalic skull from Morrison's Haven the vertical index 
exceeded the cephalic ; in all the others the breadth was greater than the height 
and the crania were platychamsecephalic, wide low skulls. 

In general configuration the cranial vault was flattened at the vertex ; the 
parieto-occipital slope in many cases was abrupt and the back of the skull approached 
the vertical ; the slope from the sagittal line to the parietal eminences was moderate. 
The frontal bone was smooth in the females, but had moderately projecting glabella 
and supraciliaries in the males. In the skull from Bridgeness, where the cephalic 
index approached the dolichocephalic standard, the cranium was more elongated and 
the glabella and supraciliaries were so prominent as to form a ledge above the nose 
and orbits. In a very large proportion of the short-cist skulls brachycephalic 
characters were pronounced, in the general configuration, in the high cephalic index 
and in the breadth of the cranium being more than the height. 

Owing to the bones of the face having been injured in many of the skulls, the 
proportional measurements of the facial region were imperfect. A nasio-mental 
index which expressed the relative length and breadth of the face was computed in 
twelve, which included the skulls recorded by Dr Alexr. Low : eight were low-faced, 
chamreprosopic, below 85 ; one was high-faced, leptoprosopic, 90"2 ; and three were 
intermediate in proportion, mesoprosopic ; the mean of the series, 83*4, was chamse- 
prosopic.* The maxillo-facial index was computed in thirteen skulls : in five it was 
above 50 ; in eight from 45 to 49 ; the length of the upper face was proportionally 
greater than that of the complete face, and the mean index of the series was 497, 
almost leptoprosopic. 

The gnathic index (Flower) was computed in twenty-four skulls, orthognathous 

* For the signification of these terms I may refer to Part I of this Memoir, vol. xl, p. GOG ; and to Jour, of Anat. 
and. I'lijis., vol. xxxvii, p. 406. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OP THE PEOPLE OP SCOTLAND. 209 

except in three specimens, two of which were mesognathons, one prognathous ; the 
mean of the entire series was 9 4 '5. 

In the series of nasal indices one skull was platyrhine, nine were leptorhine, 
fifteen were mesorhine, and the mean, 48"9, was on the confines of the mesoleptorhine 
groups. The orbital index varied in amount : in three the orbits were open and 
rounded, megaseme above 89 ; in seventeen the transverse diameter was wide in 
relation to the height, microseme, index below 84 ; six were mesoseme ; the mean 
index of the series was microseme, 81 '4. The palato-maxillary index also had a 
wide range : three were dolichuranic, long relatively narrow palates, index below 110; 
fourteen w T ere brachyuranic, relatively broad palates, and of these seven were hyper- 
brachyuranic, index above 120 ; two were mesuranic ; the mean index of the series 
was 1185, brachyuranic. 

From* the number of specimens which have been described or referred to in this 
section, one is justified in summarising the general characters of the skulls or heads 
of the people of the bronze age as follows : — 

The crania were round-headed, brachycephalic ; the vertex was relatively flattened 
and the height of the skull from basion to bregma was definitely less than the 
breadth ; the back of the head was flattened and in several approached the vertical ; 
the length of the face was low in relation to the breadth between the zygomata ; 
the upper jaw was almost vertical, orthognathous, not projecting ; the nose was 
relatively narrow, and not widened transversely at the nostrils ; the orbits were 
variable, though frequently the breadth was great in relation to the height ; the 
palate was frequently short and relatively wide ; the capacity of the cranium was 
' such as to associate it with the general standard of modern Europeans. 

An absolutely sharp line, as regards period of time, cannot be drawn between the 
neolithic people and those of the bronze age, who to some extent overlapped in 
their occupancy of Scotland ; skulls either dolichocephalic or approximating thereto 
have been occasionally found in short cists. It would seem therefore that some 
of the skulls found in short cists, described in Sir Daniel Wilson as kumbe- 
cej)halic, were of the neolithic race. Flakes and arrow-heads of flint, worked stone, 
bone and horn, the characteristic substances from which neolithic man found his 
implements and weapons, have not infrequently been found in these cists. Both 
peoples practised cremation and inhumation. Both manufactured a rude pottery 
and enclosed examples in their graves, though in their characters the urns of the 
neolithic period, rounded at the bottom, differed from those of the bronze age. 

Caves and Rock Shelters. Table VI. 

In referring the brachycephalic skulls to the bronze age, and the dolichocephalic 
skulls to the polished stone age, one has been guided by the character of the 
tombs, the grave goods which they contained, the position of the body and the 



210 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

configuration of the skull. We have next to consider interments where the people 
did not build graves, but availed themselves of the opportunities afforded in their 
respective localities and deposited their dead in the caves or rock shelters provided 
by nature. 

Caves and clefts in rocks have been in use in Scotland both as dwellings and as 
places of interment, and were noted many years ago by Chalmers in Caledonia and 
by Sir D. Wilson in Arcluvologia. Examples bad been explored on the face of 
sandstone rock overhanging inland rivers like the Esk, the Teviot and the Jed, but 
they have been more frequently recognised in sea cliffs, which in prehistoric days 
formed in many places the coastline and were directly washed by the waves. When 
the earlier beaches subsequently became uplifted, the cliffs were removed from the 
sea by an interval which corresponded to the breadth and height of the newer raised 
beach or beaches. 

In 1847 a cave at Lower Warburton, Montrose, about half a mile from the estuary 
of the Esk, 15 feet above high-water mark, was examined by Alexander Bryson.* 
It contained bones of existing mammals, many of which were split, shells of edible 
molluscs, coarse pottery and a few fragments of human bones. The floor of the 
cave consisted of rounded stones, as if from the sea-beach, upon which was placed 
a thick stratum of dark loam and sea-shells, on the surface of which a layer of 
mammalian bones occupied the width of the cave. 

In 1875 Miss C. Maclagan described caves at Wemyss on the Fife Coast, f the 
walls of which were decorated with a remarkable series of sculpturings. Their 
characters had previously been embodied by Sir James Simpson in his Archaic 
Sculpturing s,\ in which he stated that bones of existing mammals, frequently split' 
so as to remove the marrow, sea-shells, perforated stones and implements of deer- 
horn had been found in the rubbish of the floor of some of the caves. 

In 1873 the Rev. R. J. Mapleton described § the contents of a cave found in 1862 
at Duntroon, Argyllshire, about 23 feet above high-water mark and 186 feet distant 
from it. The floor was formed of shingle, with sea-shells of several species, the 
bones of a red deer, ash, charcoal and scrapers of flint. A human skeleton in the 
sitting posture and bones of at least six persons were exposed amidst the loose 
stones which occupied the grave. No description of the characters of the bones 
has, I believe, been recorded. In 1875 and later a cave was explored on the sea- 
coast at Borness, Kirkcudbrightshire, the floor of which was about 27 feet above 
high-water mark. Its contents were most carefully described || and found to consist 
of burnt wood, bones of birds, mammals, sea-shells, numerous bone, stone, bronze 
and iron implements, fragments of two human skeletons ; also a part of a cup of 

* Eilin. New /'hit. Join:. 1850 ; Howden and M'Bain in Proc. Roy. Phys. Soc. Edin., vol. iii, 1867; Proc. Soc. 
Antiq. Scot., vol. x, 1875. 

I Proc Soc. Antiq. Scot, vol. \i, L876. :: Idem, vol. vi, 18G8. § Idem, vol. x, p. 30(3, 1875. 

|| BRUCE CLARKE, A. J. Corrie, R. J. Johnson and A. R, Hunt in Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. x, pp. 470, 499 
1875 ; vols, xi, ]>. 305, and xii, p. 669. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 211 

Samian ware. Mr John Smith excavated* a rock shelter near the Ardrossan 
railway station in which shell-heaps rested on sand and gravel. Remains of land 
animals were found, along with human bones from apparently two individuals. 

The bay of Oban is a part of the coast of Scotland which has furnished several 
examples of caves in which human remains have been found. In the ancient cliff 
which bounds the 25-30 feet raised beach four caves have been explored. In 1869 
Mr John Mackay, whilst quarrying the rock at the north end of the bay, opened 
into a cave filled with earth in which many bones were found. I visited it in the 
following year and obtained from Mr Mackay, whose name I associated with the 
cave, bones of deer, dog, fox, hare, the larger of which had been split for the 
extraction of the marrow. Birds' bones, shell-fish, flint chips and implements were 
also present. But further, portions of two human skeletons were obtained, one that 
of an adult male, the other that of a youth about eight or nine years old. f 

In 1877 I received specimens from a cave in proximity to the Oban Gasworks,! 
which consisted of bones and teeth of pig, goat, ox and red deer, some of which had 
been split ; also sea-shells, a flint chip and fragments of pottery, which Dr Joseph 
Anderson regarded as resembling the cinerary urns of the late neolithic and bronze 
age. Fragments of human bones were also sent, but too much injured to be restored. 

In 1890 a cave was exposed in the cliff behind the Oban Distillery, situated about 
40 feet above the present sea-level. In clearing out the soil and debris cart-loads of 
sea-shells were removed. Flint and bone implements were also present. A small 
number of bones of mammals, birds and fish were also obtained, including as many as 
eight human lower jaws of adults and children, with other bones of the skeleton, 
though too much injured to be restored. 

The most noteworthy discovery was that of the MacArthur Cave, explored and 
carefully described by Dr Joseph Anderson in March 1895. § This cave was about 
30 feet higher in the cliff than the level of the present beach, and 100 yards distant 
from it. A bed of gravel or small water-rolled pebbles, about 6 feet in its greatest 
thickness, extended over the floor of the cave. Intercalated in the upper part of the 
gravel, but thinning out towards the sides and entrance, was a deposit of sea-shells, 
the lower shell-bed, which varied in thickness from 5 to 26 inches. On the top of 
the gravel was an accumulated refuse-heap from 27 to 36 inches thick of the shells 
of edible molluscs, interspersed amongst which were patches of ashes, wood charcoal, 
bones of deer, ox, pig, dog, badger, the larger of which, as well as horns of deer, were 
splintered for the manufacture of implements, many of which were scattered through 
the shell refuse and the gravel ; bones of birds, fish and claws of crabs were also 

* Ayr and Gal. Arch. Assoc, vol. vii, pp. 62 et seq., quoted by Dr Robert Munro. 

t Described in Reports of Edinburgh Meeting of British Association, p. 160, 1871 ; the femora, in my " Challenger " 
Report, part xlvii, p. 97, 1886 ; the bones, more fully in my account of the Caves at Oban, Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., 
vol. xxix, May 1895. 

{ The Gaswork, Distillery and MacArthur Caves are described in my memoir on the Caves at Oban, cited above. 

§ Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xxix, p. 211, 1895 ; also my memoir on the Caves at Oban in the same volume. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 5). 30 



212 



PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 













Table 


VJ. 




















Caves — Mausoleum. 










Oban Caves. 












Anatomical Museum, U. of E. 




Seacliff Mausoleum. 
Anatomical Museum, U. of E. 








MacArthuk. Mackay. 












| 


| 


] 


Vletopic. 1 








VIetopic. 




| 






Collection number, . 


A.215 


B.216 




217 








A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


E. 


Age, 


Ad. 


Ad. 




Child 


Ad. 






Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 




Sex, . 


M. 


M. 




M. 






M. 


M. 


M. 


M. 


F. 


Cubic capacity, . 














1530 










Glabello-occipital length, . 


183 


205 




171 '.'.'. 






188 


189 


175 






Basi-bregmatic height, 


139 










141 


131 


131 






Vertical Index, . 


76- 










75- 


69-3 


74-9 






Minimum frontal diameter, 


99 


102 


96 








104 










Stephanie diameter, . 


111 


121 


115 ; 








118 








... 


Asterionic diameter, . 




115 


103 








120 


100 


105 


103 




Greatest parieto-squamous 






















breadth, 


138 


144 




133 








147s. 






137 




Cephalic Index, . 


75-4 


70-2 


77-8 








78-2 










Horizontal circumference, . 


520 


564 




490 








541 










Frontal longitudinal arc, . 


127 


140 


! Oy* O 








128 


120ap. 






130 


Parietal ,, ,, 


133 


135 


> Z'tZ 






128 


126 








Occipital ,, ,, 


112 












121 


106 








Total ,, ,, 


372 












377 


352ap. 








Vertical transverse arc, 




316 




285 








319 










Length of foramen magnum, 


34 




34 








38 


37 








; Basi-nasal length, 


103 




... 








109 










Basi-alveolar length, . 


97 


... 












105ap. 










Gnathic Index, . 


94-2. 


... 












96-3 










Interzygomatic breadth, 


... 














135 








... 


Inter malar ,, 




123 












124 










Nasio-mental length, . 


114 














125 










Nasio-mental complete facial 


























Index, . . 
















92-6 










Nasio-alveolar length, 


"67 
























Maxillo-facial Index, , 


























Nasal height, 


48 














52 










Nasal width, 




23 














25 










Nasal Index, 




47-9 














48-2 










Orbital width, 




40 


42 












40 










Orbital height, 




33 


31 












33 










Orbital Index, 




82-5 


73-8 












82-5 










Palato-maxillary length, 


53 








53 






55 










Palato-maxillary breadth, . 


60 








59 






67 










Palato-maxillary Index, 


113-2 








111-3 






727- 










Mandible,symphysial height 

1 


30 


35 






29 






34 











recognised. On the surface of this refuse was a layer of black earth which had 
drifted into the cave, containing bones of birds and small mammals. The imple- 
ments were formed of stone, flint, bone and horn, the most interesting of them being 
seven harpoons, or fish spears, made of deer-horn. Two human skulls were found, 
along with other bones of their skeletons, as well as the lower jaw of a third, C, and 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 



213 







Fig. 29.— Skulls A and B, MacArthur Cave, Oban. 



214 . PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

four axis cervical vertebrae, so that at least four persons had been entombed in the 
cave. One skull, A, was found on the surface of the black earth towards the back 
of the cave ; another, B, was embedded in the shell-bed immediately subjacent to 
the black earth. 

The skulls from the MacArthur cave were adults. B was a powerful male, A 
possibly also a male, C possibly a female. In B the general form of the cranium was 
elongated ovoid, pentagonal in both norma verticalis and occipitalis, broadest at the 
parietal eminences, the parieto-squamous region vertical, the parieto-occipital slope 
moderate, cranial sutures in course of closure, cephalic index 70 -2, dolichocephalic; 
forehead somewhat retreating ; glabella and supraciliaries strong ; nasion depressed ; 
nasal bones short, moderately projecting; facial bones injured, vertical diameter of 
orbit low, index microseme, lower jaw massive, angle marked, chin strong. In length, 
breadth and horizontal circumference the dimensions were large, and in the cubic 
capacity, although the basi-occipital was broken, the cranial cavity could contain 
1715 c.c. of water (fig. 29, A and B) (Table VI). 

In A the cranial sutures were unossified and the dimensions were smaller than 
in B. The teeth were erupted and not decayed. The general form of the cranium 
approximated to B, but the slope of the vault from the sagittal line to the parietal 
eminences was not so steep. The right parieto-squamous region was imperfect, and 
the greatest breadth, 138 mm., could only be given approximately, which, with the 
glabello-occipital length, 183 mm., gave a cephalic index 75*4, in form essentially 
dolichocephalic ; the vertical index was 76. The forehead was not so retreating 
as in B and the glabella and supraciliaries were not so strong ; the nasion was not 
so depressed and the nasals not so projecting; the nasal index 47 '9 was narrow 
leptorhine ; the gnathic index 94'2 was orthognathous ; the orbital index 82*5 was 
low, microseme; the palato-maxillary index 113-2 was mesuranic, and the palate 
was symmetrical. The lower jaw had a forward projecting chin, and a distinct 
angle. The lower jaw was the only bone of C to be identified ; it was well formed 
and with a definite chin. 

The skulls from the Mackay cave were those of a man and a child. That of the 
adult was much injured ; evidently the man had been in the prime of life for the 
crowns of the teeth were not much worn ; the lower jaw was well formed, the supra- 
ciliaries, the inion and the curved lines were prominent, the palate was highly arched. * 
The child was probably eight; the face was broken away, the cranium was 171 mm. 
long, 133 mm. broad, the cephalic index was 77*8. The cranium was metopic, small 
Wormians were in the lambdoid and each pterion had an epipteric. 

The bones of the shafts of the lower limb showed interesting characters. In the 
Mackay skeleton the tibiae were platyknemic and an articular surface for the astragalus 
was prolonged in front of the lower end of the tibia. In 1886 I pointed out* that 
the upper third of the anterior surface of the shaft of the femur was transversely 

* " Challenger Reports," Zoology, part xlvii, p. 97, 1886. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 215 

widened and flattened, and an external infra-trochanteric ridge gave a defined outer 
border to the femoral shaft distinct from and in front of the gluteal ridge. I had 
also described a similar conformation in the femora of Maoris, Sandwich Islanders, 
Lapps and Esquimaux. Attention has since been called by Manouvrier to this 
character, which he has named platymery, in femora from neolithic burials in France 
and from the Guanche cave-burials in the Canary Islands. In the Mackay tibiae the 
index of platyknemy was in one 63'6, in the other 65"6 ; that of platymery 56"4 and 
58 "8 respectively. In the MacArthur cave these characters in the shafts of the tibiae 
and femora were not so accentuated. 

It should be pointed out that in each cave^ considerable quantities of soil and 
rock debris were present. In those in which skulls were found the entrances had 
been obstructed ; in the Mackay cave by an embankment of earth 8 to 9 feet 
thick, in which beech trees were growing, and in the MacArthur cave by a talus 
of earth and stones from the fall of superincumbent rock, which blocked and 
concealed the entrance. Evidently, therefore, the human remains found in these 
caves were not from recent occupancy. The presence of bones of at least fifteen 
individuals of different ages and sex, with the remains of food and cooking, points 
to the caves having been at some former period places of residence and ultimately 
of interment. 

It is to be noted that no mention is made of either bronze or iron implements ; 
stone, flint, horn and bone, were the material provided by nature and rudely 
fashioned by the people for their purposes. In one instance only, the Gasworks cave, 
were some fragments of coarse pottery found. The implements were therefore those 
employed by neolithic man, and it was to this period that the caves were ascribed 
by Dr Anderson and myself in our respective memoirs. 

As regards the skulls in the MacArthur cave, it has been argued that they were 
not cotemporaneous with the makers of the implements owing to their superficial 
position on the floor of the cave, one being on the surface of the black earth, another 
embedded in it and almost on the top of the subjacent shell-bed. It should ? however, 
be stated that of the boxes containing human bones which reached me for examina- 
tion, No. 2 was labelled "obtained in the shell-bed below the layer of black earth," 
and No. 3 " bones from the shell-beds and pockets in and under a layer of gravel, 
situated below No. 2." There are grounds for thinking that the human bones which 
were mingled with the food refuse and implements were those of the original 
occupants. The skulls, again, found more superficially were presumably those of the 
last occupants, which remained where they died. It does not, however, follow that 
they were not the descendants of the older dwellers in the cave. The skulls differed 
so greatly in form and proportion from the rounded brachycephalic heads which 
are associated with the characteristic tombs and implements of bronze burials, that 
we cannot associate them with that period. They must therefore belong either to 
an antecedent or a subsequent period. There is nothing in the great length of the 



216 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

skull B, its dolichocephalic proportions, or its large cubic capacity, adverse to its 
being from the neolithic maker of the implements found in the cave ; an argument 
that its size and capacity harmonised rather with those of people of more modern 
times does not necessarily confirm it as being a relatively recent introduction into 
the cave in which it was found, for skulls undoubtedly neolithic have been obtained 
with large capacity. 

Dr Anderson in his memoir emphasised the discovery of harpoons of deer-horn 
in the MacArthur cave as the first examples of the kind seen in. a cave in Scot- 
land, though similar implements had been found in a refuse mound at Caisteal 
nan Gillean in the island of Oronsay. He also referred to a specimen from the 
neolithic stratum of the Victoria cave, Settle,* and others from Kent's cavern 
at Torquay associated with implements of palaeolithic type. Since the publication 
of his memoir a rock shelter at Druimvargie, Oban,t was cleared of its talus, and 
a refuse-heap of shells and broken bones, from which waterworn pebbles, borers 
and chisels of bone, together with portions of two harpoons of deer-horn, were 
obtained. 

In an article commenting on the Oban caves M. Boule called attention \ to 
similar harpoons found in caverns in France by himself and by M. Cartailhac, also 
to their discovery by M. Piette in the cavern of Mas-d'Azil. By these observers 
harpoons of this type were regarded as occurring in a stratum of, or later than, the 
age of the reindeer which had been succeeded by the red deer, i.e. at a time inter- 
mediate to the palaeolithic and neolithic epochs. M. Boule considered therefore that 
the archaeological data of the Oban caves are not to be regarded as neolithic, as was 
stated by Dr Anderson and myself, but, like the discoveries in the Mas-d'Azil, inter- 
mediate between it and the palaeolithic epoch. 

In a memoir § published last year, Mr Henderson Bishop gave a detailed account 
of his excavations on a sandhill, Cnoc Sligeach in Oronsay, in which were beds of 
sea-shells with food refuse and fragments of charcoal. Implements of stone, flint, 
bone and horn, including portions of harpoons, were figured. He regarded the 
harpoons as for the most part of characteristic Azilian type, and as evidence of the 
culture of the time when the sandhill was occupied and the refuse-heap was in 
process of accumulation by the islanders. He concluded that this period was directly 
correlated with that of the occupation of the Oban caves. 

In connection with the assumed relation of the Oban and Oronsay relics with the 
Azilian stage in the French caves in which harpoons of this type have been dis- 
covered, the French naturalists have associated them with a modification in the 
species of the fauna, remains of which have also been found, with the disappearance 
of the reindeer and the advent of the red deer, a difference which expressed an 

* Boyd Dawkins, Gave Hunting. 

t Robert Munro in Prehistoric Scotland, p. 54, 1899. 

I L Anthropologic, vol. vii, p. 319, 1896. 

§ Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xlviii, p. 52, 1914. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 217 

interval of time and change of temperature. In the Oban caves and the Oronsay 
refuse-heap there is no corresponding modification in the fauna, the species of which 
correspond with the neolithic period, and are also characteristic of the present time. 
No painted or coloured stones were found in- either of the Scotch localities such as 
have been described by M. Piette* in the Azilian layer in the cavern of that 
name, which is regarded as immediately preceding the neolithic age. 

Iron Age. Table VII. 

In the course of centuries the bronze-age people ceased to be the dominant race 
in Britain, and were succeeded by successive invasions from the Continent of other 
races, Celts, Norsemen, Anglo-Saxons, Danes, whilst for a period of about four 
centuries the Romans had occupied South Britain and for less than a century the 
more southern part of North Britain. The use of bronze in the manufacture 
of implements, weapons and personal ornaments gradually disappeared and was 
replaced by iron. The Celts, the immediate successors of the bronze-age people, 
occupied doubtless the country along with them, and the use of bronze and iron 
for a time overlapped. It is generally admitted that the extraction of iron from 
its ores and its economic applications were known on the Continent before the 
first invasion of Britain by Celtic tribes took place, and that it was through them 
that this metal was introduced and gradually displaced the use of bronze. 

Celts. — It has been shown that the neolithic and bronze-age inhabitants can be 
recognised by the character of their interments, by the grave goods and the skeletons 
found in their tombs. The question therefore naturally arises if the prehistoric Celts 
in Scotland had a distinctive mode of burial, and if their skeletons could be relied on 
as possessing definite ethnographical features. Dr Joseph Anderson has shown in 
his classical Rhind Lectures that abundant specimens of the artistic work of the Celts 
have been preserved from both Pagan and Christian times. The Celtic art of the 
pagan period in bronze, iron and even in gold displays originality in design and skill 
in execution, whilst evidence of constructional architectural ability is shown in the 
ancient brochs which must undoubtedly be assigned to the Celtic and not to the Norse 
period of occupancy of Scotland. But in regard to a distinctive type of interment 
he is emphatic in stating that he knows of no characteristics as distinguishing the 
burials of the pagan Celts in the iron age in Scotland, so that, through the burning 
of the bodies of the dead, our archaeology is absolutely destitute of recorded data for 
this purpose. 

Since the publication of his lectures discoveries have been made which seem to 
throw some light upon the former obscurity. In 1903 1 a grave was opened at 
Moredun near Edinburgh and was described by Mr F. R. Coles. A cist was 

* V 'Antkropologie, vol. vii, p. 385, 1896. 
t Proc. boc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xxxviii, 1904. 



218 



PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 



Table VII. 
Iron Age. 





Celt. 






Norse. 






a 
-a 

fr4 


Gullane. 




Orkney : 
Pierowall. 


sibort, 
arris. 


a 

a 


a 






o 














Collection number, . 


... 












E.T. 63 


E.T. 62 


E.T.20 E.T. 






Age, 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 






Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. Ad. 






Sex, 




M. 


F. 








M. 


M. 


M.? M. 






Cubic capacity, . 














1260 


1350 


... . 








Glabello-occipital length, . 


192 












175 


185 


189 ] 


L86 






Basi-bregmatic height, 


140 












105 


120 


124 ] 


125 






Vertical Index, . 


72-8 


74-9 


71-7 


64-9 






60- 


64-9 


65-6 67-2 






Stephanie diameter, . 


128 












113 


114 


118 








Greatest parieto-squamous 


























breadth, 


144 












143 


139 


147 ] 


L45 






Cephalic Index, . 


75- 


76-5 


72-3 


67-3 






577 


75-7 


77-8 78- 






Horizontal circumference, . 


530 












504 


525 


542 1 








Frontal longitudinal arc, . 


123 












131 


129 


128 








Parietal „ ,, 


■ 145 












116 


133 


124 








Occipital „ ,, 


115 












111 


109 


112 








Total ,, ,, 


393 












358 


371 


364 








Vertical transverse arc, 


320 












293 


300 


305 








Length of foramen magnum, 


34 












33 


36 


35 I 








Basi-nasal length, 


100 












92 


93 


105 ! 








Basi-alveolar length, . 


93 












97 


94 


107 








Gnathic Index, . 


93- 












105-4 


707-7 


101-9 








Nasio-mental length, . 


115 
























Nasio-alveolar length, 


.71 






... 










"71 








Orbital width, . 














41 


40 


41 








Nasal height, 


















54 








Nasal width, 




... 














22 








Nasal Index, 


















40-7 








Orbital height, . 














31 


"29 


38 








Orbital Index, 














75-6 


72-5 


92-7 








Mandible.symphysial height, 


"28 























exposed which gave evidence of an interment at an early period of the iron age, 
when bronze-age modes of burial were still practised. The sides, ends and cover of 
the cist were formed of sandstone slabs from 3-| to 5 inches thick. It was an almost 
regular oblong and was directed practically east to west. The inside measurement 
was approximately 4 feet in length and 2 feet 3 inches in breadth. The cist con- 
tained two decayed human skeletons, a young adult and an adolescent about twenty- 
one ; an iron fibula, an iron circular brooch, and a long iron pin. The cist in general 
form and construction was not unlike a short cist of the bronze age, and the skeleton 
was bent on itself; but the presence of iron objects and the absence of urns associated 
it with the iron period. It is stated that a portion of cloth with which the body 
had been wrapped was adherent to the pin of the fibula. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 219 

The skull of the adult in the Moredun cist, though much damaged, enabled 
Professor Bryce to estimate its form and proportions (Table VII). The cranium 
was ellipsoidal in the norma verticalis, vertex flattened, no sagittal crest, the 
sides rounded, the parieto-occipital slope gradual, the occipital probole slightly 
marked, the frontal bone full and rounded, the glabella and supraciliaries not pro- 
jecting, the upper orbital rim thin, characters which suggested that the skull was 
that of a woman. The maximum length was 192 mm., the basi-bregmatic height 
140 mm., the maximum breadth 144 mm. The cephalic index was 75, the vertical 
index 72*8. The skull was dolichocephalic and the vertical index, less than the 
cephalic, was metriocephalic. The face was high leptoprosopic and the jaw 
orthoo-nathous. 

In 1908 a cairn and interments were explored at the Black Rocks, Gullane, East 
Lothian, by Dr Edward Ewart and Mr Alexr. 0. Curle.* The cairn consisted 
of whinstone boulders placed on the shore between high-water mark and the line 
of the 20-foot beach. Six human skeletons were found in the cairn, some of which 
were in the contracted position, but in no case was one enclosed in a built cist. 
Near one of the skeletons a small spiral ring of bronze was found, and beneath 
another was a rust-corroded, fragile, disc-shaped iron knife-dagger, 7 inches long 
and f inch broad. A disc or whorl of sandstone 2| inches in diameter, and per- 
forated in the centre, was found at one end of the cairn. In the neighbourhood 
of this cairn were others similar in type, though some were smaller in size and con- 
tained single burials. In -only one of these did a cist appear to have been noticed. 
It was thought that a number of skeletons had been buried in these cairns. So 
many interments in a comparatively limited area point to the locality being an 
ancient cemetery. 

Three skulls were procured, which enabled Dr Waterston to examine and 
obtain some measurements. In one, an adult male, the cephalic index was 76 '5, the 
vertical 74'9 ; in a second, an adult female, with a metopic suture, the cephalic index 
was 72 "3, the vertical 71 '7 ; in a third adult the coronal, sagittal and lambdoid sutures 
were obliterated, the skull had a subscaphocephalic character and was so elongated 
in relation to the breadth that the cephalic index was only 67 '3 and the vertical 
64 9 (Table VII). A femur showed strongly marked platymery ; also an articular 
facet for the tibia above the inner condyl due to great flexion of the knee in the 
squatting posture. Waterston estimated, from the length of the femur and tibia, 
the stature of the individual at 5 feet 3 inches. 

The characters of the crania approximated to dolichocephalic and not to brachy- 
cephalic proportions, and the burial of the bodies in the sand which surrounded the 
boulders, and not in built cists, together with the presence of the iron knife, points, 
notwithstanding the bronze ring, to the interment having been made at or later than 
the transition from the bronze to the iron period. These interments may have been 

* Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, vol. xlii, 1908. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 5). 31 



220 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

somewhat later than that at Moredun, and they are perhaps to be regarded as 
Celtic burials. 

In 1909 Mr James E. Cree described* two caves which he had explored at 
Archerfield, East Lothian, which had been used as habitations. Bones of domestic 
animals, shells of edible sea-molluscs, fireplaces and charcoal were found. Also 
broken pottery, some of which was coarse, others of finer paste and a few frag- 
ments of Samian ware. Objects of stone, bone, horn and glass fitted to be of use 
were found. An iron knife corroded, a spear-head and nails, also a bronze pin 
and small portions of this metal were obtained, but no human remains. Mr Cree 
associated the relics and the use of the caves with the early iron period, though 
the Samian ware makes it probable that they were occupied during Romano- 
British times, f 

Many years ago a group of graves was exposed at Cramond,+ in one of which 
an iron key was found along with a skeleton. Its presence might seem to point to 
the burial as of the iron age, but this grave, like the others in the same group, was 
arranged and built on the type of the long stone cists to be described in a later 
section (pp. 229, 231). A figure of the key, which evidently had been little corroded 
by rust and had a modern aspect, is given in the Archseologica Scotica. I am 
inclined to regard these graves as later than the pagan iron age. In 1864 a skull 
was presented to me by Dr Lumgair which had been obtained at Largo, in the field 
in which the standing stones are situated. It was found in a " coffin built of loose 
slabs," and it showed a fracture in which a piece of iron was lodged. This burial 1 
have also associated with the long stone cists (p. 228). 

Norsemen. — Without taking into consideration the Roman invasion of Scotland, 
which probably did not exercise permanent influence on the physical characters 
of the natives, other invasions followed which have left their mark. The most 
important of these was the establishment by the Norsemen of settlements at various 
parts of the coast, relics of which have been preserved. An admirable account of 
some of these burials and of the objects found was given by Dr Anderson in the 
first and second of his Rhine! Lectures. § Sutherland, Caithness, the Orkneys, the 
Shetlands, May, Mull, Tiree, Barra, Sangay and St Kilda provided examples. Some 
were Viking burials ; they contained implements and weapons of iron, and various 
objects in bronze, also silver ornaments. They were in mounds containing human 
skeletons and sometimes bones of the horse and dog. The skeletons did not seem 
to be contained in stone cists, though in some cases planks of wood with iron rivets 
were present, as if the Viking had been buried in his ship. 

Subsequent to the publication of these Lectures, additional examples have beeu 

* I'roc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xliii, p. 243, 1909. 

+ In the section on Ethnography (p. 247) the recent discovery of iron objects by Mr Alexk. 0. (Jurle in a 
fortification on Traprain Law, East Lothian, has been included in the text. 
\ Archmologia Scotica, vol. iii, p. 40, 1831. 
§ Scotland in Pagan Times — The Iron A<je, 1883. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 221 

recorded. Anderson himself described in 1907 objects found in a low mound near 
the beach on the east of the island of Oronsay : * brooches of bronze with iron pins, 
beads of amber and serpentine, an iron knife and two human skeletons at full length 
directed with the feet to the S.S.E. ; also iron rivets, as if the burial had been in 
a ship. His description included an account of a Viking grave at Kiloran Bay, 
Colonsay, from notes made by the late Mr Wm. Galloway. A mound 15 feet by 
10 feet, with rough schist slabs, contained an iron sword, spear, axehead, umbo of a 
shield, with some bronze articles, Anglo-Saxon coins of the ninth century, also a 
human skeleton in a crouched position, that of a horse, and numerous iron rivets, 
as if this also had been a ship burial. 

In 1896, within a gravel mound at Lamlash, Arran, about 170 feet above high- 
water mark, a Viking burial was exposed, and was subsequently described by Mr J. A. 
Balfour, f It contained a single-edged iron sword and the iron umbo of a shield of 
the type of the eighth or ninth century. More recently, in 1909, a cairn at King's 
Cross Point, Lamlash, was found to contain a heap of calcined human bones, with 
charcoal, iron and bronze objects, a bronze coin of the ninth century, also iron 
rivets, as if the body had been cremated in a boat. 

The skeleton from Kiloran Bay was said to be that of a powerful man, not of great 
stature, with a long narrow dolichocephalic skull ; those from Oronsay were from a 
large man and a woman, both advancing in age. Anderson described in his Rhind 
Lectures on the Vikings, graves and mounds at Westray and at Pierowall in Orkney 
in which iron implements and weapons, human bones and those of the horse and dog 
were found. Those from Pierowall were associated with wooden planks and iron 
rivets, which suggested an interment along with the ship. In the National Museum of 
Antiquities is a male skull (E.T. 63) from Pierowall (Table VII), the vertex of which 
was flattened ; the parieto-occipital slope was relatively steep. The basi-occipital 
had been fractured transversely, and subsequently united obliquely, which might 
have affected the measurements in length and height of the cranium and conse- 
quently the cephalic and vertical indices, which were 817 and 60 respectively. 
Another male skull (E.T. 62), stained brown from peat like E.T. 63, and possibly 
from the same place, was neither flattened nor keeled on the vertex, and the parieto- 
occipital slope was not so steep. It was longer than but not so broad as in 63, and 
the cephalic and vertical indices were 75 "1 and 64 "9 respectively. It is possible that 
one of these skulls may have been that referred to by Mr Wm. Rendall J as from 
the Norse cemetery at Pierowall, Westray, and the other from the group of grave 
mounds at Pierowall examined by Messrs Farrer and Gr. Petrie in 1841 and 1855. 
Opportunities of measuring the skulls of the Norse Vikings have been scanty. 

* Proe. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xxv, p. 432, 1891, and vol. xli, p. 437, 1907. 
t Idem, vol. xliv, p. 221, 1910 ; The Book of Arran. 

% Anderson, Tlie Iron Age in Scotland in Pagan Times ; also Rendall in Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xiv, 
p. 85, 1880. 



222 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

In two of the above specimens one cranium was approximately dolichocephalic, 
another brachycephalic, but the proportions in the latter may have been modified 
from the fracture of the basis cranii. 



Prehistoric Mausoleum. Table VI. 

In November 1865 I accompanied the late Sir J. Y. Simpson to SeaclifF House, 
North Berwick, to inspect a structure, containing human skeletons, which had 
been exposed by the late proprietor Mr J. W. Laidlay, in the course of excavating a 
deep pit for the construction of an ice-house, in the policy adjacent to the mansion- 
house. In notes made at the time I stated that the pit was dug in a mound of 
sand higher than the level of the surrounding ground. In the middle of the mound 
the roof of the structure had been brought to view 6 feet below the surface, and in 




Fig. 30. — Section of Mausoleum, Seaelifl'. • 

the further process of excavation one of the walls, which I may call the front wall, 
had been uncovered. This wall had fallen down before our arrival, and the interior 
of the structure was partially disclosed. 

The sand above and around was somewhat stratified. The walls of the structure 
were built of fiat flagstones superimposed on each other, without any trace of 
intermediate mortar. They enclosed a four-sided, low, rectangular chamber longer 
in one diameter, the transverse, than in the other or antero-posterior direction. 
The roof was vaulted and formed of flat stones, placed almost horizontally, and 
arranged in five rows, which converged across the transverse diameter of the 
chamber. The top of the wall on each side supported the outer row of the flat 
stones of the roof, which in their turn supported the second roAv, and on these again 
the stones of the middle row rested (fig. 30). 

The interior of the chamber exposed by the falling down of the front wall was 
seen to be occupied with sand, which had apparently entered through the inter- 
spaces between the stones. For the most part the sand was loose and easily taken 
out, but near the floor it was more compact, blackish in colour, and so much inter- 
mingled with the skeletons resting on the floor as to interfere with their removal. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 223 

In the course of the investigation the bones of six skeletons — four male adults, 
a young woman and a child — were recognised on the floor of the chamber. In 
attempting to remove the child's skull the frontal bone came away in my hand. 
Three of the skulls, two adults and the child, were close to the back wall of the 
chamber, whilst two other adult skulls lay close to the front wall. The position of 
the sixth skull was not noted. The mingling of the bones with the compacted 
sand, and their softened and fragmentary condition, made it impossible to disengage 
the separate skeletons. As two of the skulls were near the front wall and three 
at the back wall, it seemed as if the bodies had been laid in the transverse dia- 
meter of the chamber side by side in a row, alternately heads and feet. The 




Fig. 31.— Skull A, Seaeliff. 

conditions under which the skeletons were found did not enable me to say 
whether the bodies had been buried in the bent or the extended position. The 
dimensions of the chamber were not taken, but it was sufficient to accommodate 
the adults and the child lying side by side at full length. 

My notes do not refer to urns, implements or other relics as found in the 
chamber. A few days after our visit Mr Laidlay brought to the University a box 
containing five crania ; but the skull of the child, the bones of which had come 
asunder, had not been preserved. Only one of the adult skulls was sufficiently entire 
to permit of a fairly complete examination. The other four adults had no vestige 
of a face, excepting portions of the lower jaw, and the cranium was so much injured 
that accurate measurements of the dimensions could only be partially obtained. 

The entire skull, A, Table VI (fig. 31) belonged to an adult man, apparently in 



224 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

middle life, for the teeth were much flattened from use, but the sutures, iucluding 
the frontal, were distinct. In the norma verticalis this skull was broadly ovoid, 
and in its general character well filled ; it was not ridged in the sagittal region. 
Although the length was 188 mm., the greatest breadth was as much as 147 mm., 
and 120 mm. at the asterion. Its cephalic index was 78*2, mesobrachycephalic. 
It was cryptozygous. The glabella and supraciliary ridges moderately projected, 
the forehead was slightly receding. The vertex was somewhat flattened, the slope 
outwards and downwards to the eminences was moderate and in the parieto-occipital 
region it was not abrupt ; the occipital squama projected behind the inion. The 
basi-bregmatic height was less than the maximum breadth, and the vertical index 
75 was metriocephalic. The nasion was somewhat depressed ; the nasal bones were 
moderate in length, concave in the bridge and projected downwards and forwards ; 
the height of the nose was more than twice the width, and the index was almost 
leptorhine, 48 "2. The transverse diameter of the orbits was greater than the 
vertical, and the index was microseme, 82*5. The alveolar border of the upper jaw 
was damaged in the incisor region, but the gnathic index, approximately 96, was 
obviously orthognathous ; the face was moderately high, the index 92*6, lepto- 
prosopic. The lower jaw was massive, with a strong chin, deep symphysis, well- 
defined angle, and the teeth were much worn. The palate was deeply arched. The 
palato-maxillary index 121 was hyperbrachyuranic. No special modifications of the 
bones were noted, except the metopic suture. The cranial capacity was 1530 c.c. 

The cranium B, apparently that of a man, was 189 mm. long; but as the left 
side, which was probably that on which it had rested in the chamber, had been 
broken away, it was not possible to obtain either the frontal or parieto-squamous 
breadth. The asterionic diameter was only 100 mm. From the general aspect 
of the fragment, it is probable that in its proportion of length to breadth, in its 
gradual slope downwards in the parieto-occipital region, and in the convex occiput, 
the cranium was dolichocephalic ; the basi-bregmatic height was materially below 
that of skull A, and the vertical index 69*3 was chamsecephalic. 

The cranium C, apparently a man, had also lost a large part of its left side. 
Its length was 175 mm., but the frontal and parietal breadths could not be taken. 
The parieto-occipital slope was very like that of B ; but as the asterionic diameter 
was somewhat greater, it is possible that in its proportion of length and breadth 
C may have been intermediate between A and B. Its vertical index 7 4 '9 was 
metriocephalic. 

In 1), only the frontal and parietal bones had been preserved ; the glabello- 
lambdal length was 165 mm., the parietal breadth was 136 mm., and the index 
computed from this length was 82*4. In E, only the right half of the cranium 
had been preserved ; the frontal region had feminine characters, which were also 
met with in one of the broken lower jaws, so that one of the skulls was without 
doubt that of a woman. Skull E inclined to be dolichocephalic. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 225 

Owing to the absence of grave goods it is difficult to fix the time when this 
mausoleum was built and to associate it with a definite period. The small flagstones 
with which it was constructed remove it from the neolithic period, as well as from 
the short cists of the bronze age, each of which was characterised by its massive con- 
struction ; moreover, there was no evidence of cremation. From the constructive 
skill displayed in the superposition, without binding mortar, of the flat stones which 
formed the walls and roof, it had probably been built on the surface of the ground, 
and, after the bodies had been placed in it, covered by a mound of sand for its 
protection. The size and shape of the stones reminded one of the flags employed in 
the construction of the long cists found in many counties north and south of the 
Forth, but they were laid horizontally, so as to form the walls of a chamber much 
higher than that of a long cist and destined to contain not a single but several 
bodies. The roof also, instead of having only a single row of flat stones, approxi- 
mated to the vault shape, such as has been seen in some chambered cairns 
and brochs. 

Whatever the period may have been, the tomb was obviously the mausoleum of 
a family, for it contained the skeletons of four men, a woman and a child, and there 
was no evidence of wooden coffins. The antero-posterior diameter of the chamber 
was apparently sufficient to allow the bodies to be buried as extended. They had 
evidently been inhumed at the same time, as if the family had died through a 
common calamity. 

At Seacliff Mr Laidlay described, in 1870, an ancient building of stone, without 
mortar, found at the beach on the Ghegan Rock, about 22 feet above high- water 
mark, adjoining which was a kitchen mid ding.* A few human bones, those of Bos 
longifrons, small sheep, goats, small horses, red and roe deer, various rodents, birds, 
fishes and sea-shells were contained in the refuse-heap ; also implements of bone 
and combs, but none of metal, fragments of pottery, with one vessel of considerable 
size, a rude quern and numerous round stones which bore evidence of fire. It is 
difficult to assign a date to this building and its original occupants, though the 
remains point to a prehistoric habitation. 

Earlier in date than Mr Laidlay's paper a former proprietor of Seacliff, Mr 
George Sligo, had described a cave discovered in 183 If in a cliff bounding the 
bay in which the Ghegan Rock is situated. The floor of the cave, about 20 feet 
above high-water mark, was paved with flat stones. A large stone, 4£ feet high, 
stood on a mound 3 feet 1 inch in height at the middle of the mouth of the cave ; 
the top of the stone was flat and 6| feet in diameter. Mr Sligo regarded it as 
an altar and the cave as a place of sacrifice, for the floor of the cave was covered 
with wood ashes mixed with bones of horse, dog, pig, sheep partially calcined, and 
limpet shells. The skeletons of two young children were found at the base of the 
so-called altar-stone, which was there probably for defensive purposes. 

Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. viii, p. 372, 1871. t Archxologica Scotica, iv, p. 353. 



* !■>,;, 



22G PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

LoN(i Cists— Built Graves— Stone Coffins. Table VIII. 

Archaeologists have long been conversant with interments in Scotland in stone 
cists made about 2 feet longer than the short cists of the bronze age, so as to allow 
the dead to be buried at full length and not in the bent or contracted posture. The 
sides, ends and cover stones of the long cists did not consist of single massive slabs, 
but were built of several thin, undressed flagstones ; those of the ends and sides 
rested by the lower edge on the ground, whilst their upper edge gave support to 
the horizontal slabs of the cover, which, like those of the sides, were several in 
number. The lateral borders of the flags were not connected by cement or clay, but 
were simply apposed, and the floor might either be paved with thin flags or formed 
by the soil. In many of these interments the cists were directed east to west, and 
it was frequently noticed that the skull was at the west end. These cists differed 
from those described in the previous sections by the absence of urns, implements, 
weapons and ornaments, and they have consequently received little attention from 
archaeologists, though in a few cases objects of iron have been noticed lying near the 
contained skeleton. 

Interments of this kind have been frequently exposed near the surface during 
agricultural operations. 

Kirkliston, W. Lothian. — The occasion on which I first saw long-cist burials 
was in April 1864, when Sir James Simpson invited me to accompany him to the 
cemetery then being excavated by Mr Kobert Hutchison of Carlowrie in the 
Catstane field, Kirkliston. Fifty-one graves were exposed, arranged in nine rows, 
with their long axes directed east to west. In the longest row were thirteen graves, 
in the shortest only one. They were constructed as above described, and the slabs 
were usually of unhewn freestone, though a few were of a black shale-like stone. 
Twenty cists were 6 feet or upwards in length, two being 6 feet 9 inches, twenty- 
seven between 5 and 6 feet, while four were less than 5 feet, the smallest only 2 feet 
4 inches. The average depth below the surface of the field was about 15 inches, 
and about a foot of space existed between the graves in each row. When the covers 
were removed they were seen to be paved with flat stones and to be occupied by 
sand and earth in which human bones, usually much decayed, were present ; the 
skeletons had been lying at full length with the heads at the west end. Four 
imperfect skulls were obtained (Table VIII), and were described by me in an 
appendix to Mr Hutchison's memoir. In one the cephalic index was 73*3, in 
another 75 9, in a third 77 ; the proportions were dolichocephalic or approximating 
thereto. 

Subsequent to the publication of the above discovery Mr Hutchison exposed 
near the house of Carlowrie a coffin almost similar to those in the Catstane field, 
except that the floor was not paved ; it was 6 feet long, 20 inches broad and 
18 inches deep. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE" OF SCOTLAND. 



227 



Table VIII. 
Long Cists. 





West Lothian. 


Fife. M. and E. Lothian. 


OS 














.JS 


*o ^ 


© 
















2 6 




00 O 










o 


a 

o 




i- a> 


S Z 






Kirkliston. 


Hopetoun. 


Lundin. 


c8 


+J 
K 


Dunbar. 


5 t£ 


-S.5 












J E 




d 


ma 


CO 


Collection number, 


E.T. 


B. 


C. 


1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


Edinburgh University Anatomical Museum. 


E.T. 




D. 


A. 


^~ 




... 








A. B. 


C. 




Age, 


Ad. , 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Advd. 


Ad. 


Ad. Aged. 


Aged. 


Aged. 


Ad. 


Ad. 


Sex, 


M. ? 


M. ? 


M. ? 


M. ? 










M. 


M. 


M. 


F. 


M. 


M. 


F. 


M. 




M. 


F. 


M. 


Cubic capacity, . 






















1450 


1305 






... 


1585 




1580 


1235 


1362 


Glabello-occipital length, 


170 180 


178 


168 


188 


178 


178 


170 


191 


189 


186 


177 


190 


188 


176 


186 


185 


189 


173 


183 


Basi-bregmatie height, 








120 


122 






138 


132 


129 


126 


133 


125 


127 


142 


120 


137 


127 


120 


leal Index, . 






... 63 S 


08:5 






7.2-3 


69-8 


69-4 


71-2 


70- 


66 S 


72 '2 


76-3 


64-9 


72-5 


73-4 


65.0 


Stephanie diameter, . '. 


102 104 


117 










111 


114 


115 


106 


112 


108 


105 


109 


126 


113 


102 




'. ireatest parieto - squamous 








































breadth, .... 


129 


132 


137 


... 133 


130 


130 


135 


144 


142 


137 


132 


138 


140 


136 


147 


138 


144 


127 


132 


lit Index, . 


75-9 


73-3 


77' 


... 70-7 


73- 


73- 


70-4 


75-4 


75-1 


73-7 


74-6 


72-6 


74''5 


77 S 


79- 


74-6 


76-2 


73-4 


72-1 


Horizontal circumference, . 


















534 


525 


524 


505 


525 


534 


499 535 


524 


532 


496 


518 


Frontal longitudinal arc, 




















133 


129 


120 


121 


135 


120 


119 129 


124 


139 


115 


120 


Parietal ,, ,, 




















128 


138 


122 


119 


128 


126 


120 122 


130 


129 


120 


127 


Occipital ,, ,, 










... 










112 


118 


126 


120 


123 


119 


113 


124 


116 


120 


112 


117 


Total ,, ,, 




















373 


385 


368 


360 


386 


365 


352 


375 


390 


388 


347 


364 


Vertical transverse arc, 




















307 


300 


288 


286 


298 


290 


285 


307 


298 


309 






Length of foramen magnum, 




















40 


31 


40 


33 


33 ! 39 


33 


38 


32 


32 






Basi-nasal length, 




















104 


95 


100 


95 


102 98 


97 


107 


97 


107 






Basi-alveolar length, . 




















93 


97 


97 


87 


91 97 


96 


102 


89 








'//'.' Index, . 




















so -4 


102-1 


97- 


91-0 


89-2 99- 


99- '95-3 


91-8 








Iuterzygomatic breadth, 




















134 


132 


129 


125 


124 ... 


121 | 134 


121 


133 


117 


127 


Intermalar ,, 




















121 


119 


118 


111 


Ill 115 


114 ; 123 


109 


116 






Xasio-meutal length, . 




















117 


115 


116 


111 


115 125 


108 ! 122 


120 








-mental complete I mice, 




















87 '3 


87 1 


89-9 


88-8 


93-5 ... 


89-2 91- 


99-1 








Xasio-alveolar length, 






















69 


65 


63 


71 78 


65 1 72 


72 








'("-facial Index, . 






















52 -2 


■50-3 


50 -4 


57 -2 ... 


53-7 53-7 


■59-5 








Nasal height, 




















50 


48 


46 


48 


52 54 


48 j 55 


52 


46 






Xasal width, 




















24 


26 


21 


20 


22 i ... 


23 | 25 


24 


24 






i Index, 
















... 


48- 


.54-2 


fS-7 


41-7 


42-3 , ... 


47-9 '45-5 


40- 


52-2 






Orbital width, 
















... 


39 


41 


39 


38 


38 ... 


36 40 ... 


39 


... 




Orbital height, . 

















35 


32 


33 


36 


37 ... 


34 34 37 


33 






it Index, 
















80-7 


78- 


84-6 


947 97-4 ... 


94 -4 85' 




84-6 






Palate-maxillary length, 
















49 


53 


49 


49 47 ... 


55 56 


54 








Palato-maxillary breadth, . 














i ... 


63 


64 


63 


56 


55 i ... 


60 62 1 59 








i i Mary Index, 


















128:5 


120-7 


128:5 


114-2 


117- l ... 


109- 110-7109-2 




... 




Mandible, symphysial height, 




















30 


30 


27 


32 | 34 


28 34 30 









A cist, only 3 feet 8 inches long, was found at the same time, which was a 
good example of a short cist, and its walls were formed of rude slabs of sandstone. 

Arniston and Melville, Mid Lothian. — In the same year I examined on the estates 
of Arniston and Melville long cists similar in construction. Seven of these were 
exposed at ArnistoD, whilst draining a field ; from one cist I obtained a skull 
(Table VIII). No grave goods were found, and the bodies had been buried in the 
extended position. At Melville Grange a single long cist was on view when I visited 
the place, but the factor told me that in previous years others had been observed 
similar in character. No grave goods had been found in any of these cists, and in 
that which I saw the skeleton was too fragile to be removed. 



TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I..(NO. 5). 



32 



228 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

Kelso. — In 1864, whilst digging a drain in Butts Lane, near the Abbey, several 
cists upwards of 5 feet long were exposed, one of which, built of freestone flags, was 
6 feet 4 inches long, with a head piece at the west end, 18 inches wide at the 
shoulders tapering somewhat to the feet, and 12 inches deep. It contained an 
extended skeleton, the skull being at the west. The graves were parallel to each 
other and not more than a yard apart. A coarsely woven mort- cloth was wrapped 
round the skeleton, but unfortunately no bones were preserved.* 

Selkirkshire. — In 1865 the minister of Yarrow, Dr Jas. Russell, described a cist 
about 5 feet 9 inches long, 16 inches broad at the head, and directed east and west. It 
was made of undressed flat stones, the covering stones of which were only about one 
foot from the surface. It was found on the farm of Whitehope near the manse, and 
was about 25 yards from the spot where some years ago eight similar cists had been 
exposed. The skull was obtained and examined by me along with Dr J. A. Smith, f 
It was well formed, dolichocephalic, and with the breadth more than the height (see 
Table VIII). The capacity of the cranium was 1362 c.c. The skeleton was moderate 
in stature, and the marks on the bones indicated well-developed muscles. 

Hopetoun. — In 1876 several long stone cists, lying east and west, close together, 
and from 5 feet 10 inches to 6 feet 1 inch long, were exposed in a sandy mound near 
the shore. Portions of four adult skeletons were obtained and examined by Dr J. 
Alexr. Smith and myself J: Three skulls were dolichocephalic ; one was essentially 
brachycephalic, 79 -4 (Table VIII). 

Lundin Links. — In October 1864 I was present at the exposure of a long cist on 
Lundin Links, Largo, Fife, a few yards above high-water mark. It was about 3 feet 
below the surface and was covered by a layer of waterworn pebbles ; its direction 
was east to west, and it had the characteristic construction of undressed freestone 
slabs. The cist contained the bones of a child which had been buried in the extended 
position. Mrs Dundas had described cists of the same construction discovered on the 
links in 1858. § At a meeting of the Field Naturalists' Society, Largo, the secretary 
stated that the cists had been arranged in parallel rows, from east to west, at regular 
distances from each other. The contained skeletons were extended, and usually lay 
on shells and pebbles which covered a floor paved with flagstones. I obtained 
several skulls from the graves at Lundin (Table VIII). In one cist a piece of 
corroded iron about 2 inches long lay across the bridge of the nose. At the same 
meeting it was stated that a similar burying-place had been exposed on Hallow Hill, 
St Andrews, and on the skull from one of the graves a piece of corroded iron had 
been found. Dr Lumgair of Largo also presented me in 1864 with a skull obtained 
some twenty years previously from a "coffin built of loose slabs" which had been 
exposed in the field with the well-known standing stones and immediately adjoining 
them. He told me that it showed a fracture in the occipital region in which was a 

* Proc. Hoc. Antiq. Scot., vol. vi, p. 246, 1868. t Idem, vol. vi, p. 65, 1868. 

+ Idem, vol. xii, p. 65, 1878. § Idem, vol. iii, pp. 68, 76, 159, 183, 1862. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 229 

piece of iron that "crumbled into rust" on being touched. The presence of iron in 
these graves aud in that from Cramond might be regarded as indicating that they 
should have been placed in the group belonging to the iron age, but the construc- 
tion of the graves seems to justify their inclusion amongst the long cists. The skull 
from Largo had evidently been injured by an iron weapon such as might have been 
used in a fight in days subsequent to pagan times. Three skulls were dolicho- 
cephalic, and two were meso-dolichocephalic. 

Dunbar. — From time to time during heavy storms the sea had washed away 
portions of the coastline near Dunbar and had disclosed ancient interments. In 
1865 several stone cists were partially laid bare on the links at Winterfield Mains, 
about 3 \ feet from the surface of the soil. When fully exposed three were seen, 
one of which measured a little more than 6 feet in length, whilst other two were 
said to be 5 J feet long, about a foot broad, and the same in depth. They had the 
characteristic construction of long cists, and were lying east and west, the head being 
at the west end. Each contained a skeleton at full length, but no urn nor other 
relic. I obtained three of the skulls. In 1891 another great storm encroached on 
the cliff at Belhaven, Dunbar, and exposed several cists. A note is recorded by the 
Rev. Robert Paul, who stated* that they were about 7 feet above high- water 
mark, and at a uniform level of about 4 feet from the surface. Nine cists were 
counted, situated 6 feet from each other. They were placed due east and west and 
were of the long-cist type ; the floor seemed in each to consist of a single slab. In 
1908 another storm exposed in the same cliff two additional cists which belonged to 
this group. One skull was dolichocephalic, one meso-dolichocephalic, one meso- 
brachycephalic (Table VIII). 

In addition to the above examples, many of which I personally examined, 
similar interments have been found elsewhere. Amongst the earliest was a group 
of twenty-four graves exposed on Lord Rosebery's estate at Cramond in 1822.f 
Similar coffins were also exposed on the adjoining estate of Craigiehall. They were 
arranged in parallel rows from 3 to 6 feet apart, and the skeletons were extended : 
some were of smaller size for children. In one grave at Cramond an iron key was 
found near the skeleton. f In 1849 a similar key was obtained from a grave at 
Cockenzie. In 1829 a -group of thirty cists was exposed at Old Haacks, Fife,! 
arranged in two parallel rows, containing bones, but no grave goods were noted. In 
1859 a single cist was found at Ardyne, Argyllshire,§ which contained an extended 
skeleton ; also a wedge-shaped flint implement, about 2 inches long and f inch at 
its broadest end. In 1862, at Milton, East Lothian, || three long cists were observed, 
containing extended bodies with the head at the west end, but without grave goods. 

In 1864, whilst foundations were being dug in Bonnington Road, Edinburgh, I 

* Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot, vol. xxxix, p. 350, 1905. t Archseologia Scotica, vol. iii, p. 40, 1831 ; referred to supra, p. 220. 
\Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. iii, p. 505, 1862. %Idem, vol. ii, p. 251, 1859. 
\\Idem, vol. iii, p. 503, 1862. 



230 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

ascertained that four stone coffins of this type were exposed, but the skulls were not 
preserved. In 1868 Mr Lawson Tait excavated at Kintradwell, Sutherland,* a 
similar cist 5 feet 3 inches long : the skull was at the west end and the skeleton was 
extended. The skull was removed and sent to me for examination ; its dimensions 
are given in Table VIII: the cephalic index was dolichocephalic. No grave goods 
were found in the cist. Three short cists were found in proximity to the long one. 
The late Mr Wm. Galloway informed me that in 1896 he had seen, some miles 
south of Inveraray, a group of long stone coffins which had been opened and partially 
destroyed. 

In the course of the excavation of the Roman Camp at Inchtuthill, Perthshire, f 
the Hon. John Abercromby exposed in a mound of clayey loam a cist 7 feet 6 inches 
long which contained an extended skeleton. He also described j three long cists with 
skeletons on the south side of the Gladhouse reservoir. Their floors were not paved. 
Subsequently a group of twenty-four graves was described by him and Mr MacTier 
Pirrie at Nunraw, East Lothian § : they had the characteristic construction of long 
cists, and contained skeletons. In 1906 Mr J. W. Loney recorded, on a small island 
in the North Esk reservoir, a group of six graves from 5 to 6 feet long arranged 
in rows. They contained human remains, but no grave goods. The graves were 
approximately oriented. 

In 1901 the Rev. J. Primrose noted the find of over twenty long stone graves at 
Uphall, West Lothian. || They were oriented, arranged in at least two rows, con- 
structed of flagstone of the customary size and form, but not paved on the floor. 

In 1905 Mr Alexander Hutcheson described 5| two full-length stone coffins 
found on Auchterhouse Hill, Dundee, one of which contained a human skeleton. 
In the same year Dr Richardson recorded** eight long coffins lying east and west in 
Stenton parish, East Lothian, one of which contained a skeleton but no other relics. 
In 1909 Mr Wm. Reid noted at Leuchars, Fife, ft a cemetery of thirty-four long cists, 
with two skeletons in each cist ; no other relics. At Broughty Ferry j'J Mr Hutcheson 
found two long cists, one of which had only a single slab on each side, which he 
regarded as the only specimen up to that time recorded in a long cist. 

The examples now specified show that about 260 interments in this form of 
stone-built cist have been recorded in Scotland. In the Lothians, Roxburgh, Selkirk, 
Fife, Forfarshire, Argyll, Perth and Sutherland one or more graves have been 
exposed in the same locality. Elsewhere in the Lothians and in Fife the graves 
were at times so numerous as to give the spot the aspect of a cemetery. Thus at 
Kirkliston 51 were counted, at Leuchars 34, at Old Haacks, Fife, 30, at Cramond 
and Nunraw each 24, at Uphall 20, Dunbar 12, Yarrow 9, Stenton 8, Arniston 7, North 

* Proc. Hoc. Antiq. Scot., vol. vii, p. 515, 1870. t Idem, vol. xxxvi, 1902. 

I Idem, vol. xxxviii, p. 96, 1904. § Idem, vol. xl, p. 60, and p. 328, 1906. 

|| Idem, vol. xxxv, 1901 IT Idem, vol. xxxix, p. 393, 1905. 

** Idem, p. 441. tt Idem, vol. xliii, p. 170, 1909. 
%X Idem, p. 317, 1909. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 231 



Esk G. Iii their arrangement in a cemetery they were in rows parallel to each other, 
and the distance between the graves in each row and between the rows, was such as 
to ensure economy in the use of ground, as in a modern cemetery. Except in such 
modifications in size as were needed for the burial of an adult or a child, no material 
difference in their appearance, as might indicate relative rank or wealth, was 
observed. It should also be noted that whilst several have been exposed at and near 
the seashore, others again have been found inland a number of miles from the coast, 
which disposes of suggestions at one time made, that they were interments of ship- 
wrecked sailors. Their orderly arrangement in cemeteries and the special graves for 
children showed that they did not mark an ancient battlefield, but were the burial- 
places of the people of towns and villages in the district, and had apparently been 
in use for generations. Their uniformity and simplicity of design, the extended 
body and the absence of grave goods and cremation indicated a community of thought 
amongst the builders, which gave to them a character of their own, distinct from 
the megalithic graves of the stone age and the short cists and cinerary urns of the 
bronze-using people. The question therefore naturally arises, were they constructed 
by a race distinct from and later in time than the people of the stone and bronze 
ages and the pagan Celts 1* In regard to this question a careful perusal of the 
recorded examples shows that fragments of rusted iron have been found in a few 
graves. In one of the long graves at Cramond an iron key was found near the 
skeleton, and was figured in the Archwologica Scotica. One of the skulls from 
Lundin had a piece of corroded iron lying across the bridge of the nose ; in another, 
from Largo, the skull had been fractured and a piece of rusted iron was in the 
fracture ; in a cist at Hallow Hill, St Andrews, a fragment of corroded iron had been 
found on the skull. These examples show that the burials had been made after the 
use of iron had become general. Other characters which they exhibited dissociated 
them, however, from interments during the pagan iron age of the archaeologist, and 
the question arises whether the presence of this metal were not due rather to its 
accidental intrusion in individual examples, than as a customary appanage to an 
interment of the period. 

Graves of this type, however, have a feature which has always been regarded 
as distinctive, viz. the orientation of the grave and the body, the head of which was 
at the west with the face looking to the east. This mode of burial is associated 
with the introduction of Christianity and with its adoption, while the absence of 
grave goods and cremation indicate different conceptions of a future state as between 
the pagan builders of neolithic and bronze-age tombs on the one hand and the 
Christian people who apparently constructed the long stone cists on the other. 

I have made measurements, frequently imperfect, of twenty skulls obtained 
from long cists (Table VIII). The crania varied in length from 168 to 190 mm., 
with the mean 182 mm. The breadth varied from 129 to 147 mm., with the mean 

* This question is discussed more fully on p. 251. 



232 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

137 mm.; the height from 120 to 142 mm., with the mean 129*8; the horizontal 
circumference from 524 to 534 mm., with the mean 528 -9. The cubic capacity in 
three male skulls was from 1450 to 1585 c.c, with the mean 1538 c.c. ; in two 
females the mean was 1265 c.c. 

The cephalic index in two specimens was 79 and 79*4 respectively, approximating 
to the brachycephalic standard ; in three specimens it was between 76 and 78 in 
the middle of the mesocephalic group ; in three specimens between 75 and 76, 
approximating therefore to the dolichocephalic ; in eleven it was below 75, 
dolichocephalic. The majority of the skulls, therefore, had dolichocephalic char- 
acters, no specimen was 80, and the mean of the series was 74 "9. The vertical 
index ranged from 63'8 to 76*3 ; only two had the index above 75, high skulls, 
hypsicephalic ; five were from 70 to 75, metriocephalic ; six were below 70, low 
skulls, chamiecepha'lic ; the mean of thirteen skulls was 70 '2, metriocephalic. In 
the crania in which both breadth and height could be measured the breadth ex- 
ceeded the height except in one where these diameters were equal. 

As regards the face, the relation of length to breadth was obtained in eight 
skulls. The complete nasio-mental index was upwards of 90 in three skulls, long- 
faced leptoprosopic ; between 85 and 90 in five, mesoprosopic ; no face w r as low, 
chamseprosopic ; in the upper or maxillo-facial proportions the index in seven 
specimens was above 50, i.e. leptoprosopic ; of the gnathic index no specimen was 
prognathous, three were mesognathous, six were orthognathous. The nasal index 
in one skull, 54*2, was platyrhine ; six were narrow, leptorhine ; one was mesorhine. 
The orbits in four specimens were rounded at the aperture, megaseme ; not so round, 
mesoseme, in three ; low in relation to the width in one specimen, microseme. The 
palato-maxillary index was variable as usual, and ranged from 109 to 128*5 ; two 
were dolichuranic, two were mesuranic, four were brachy- or hyperbrachy-uranic. 

In general configuration the crania from the long cists were an elongated ovoid, 
as a rule dolichocephalic or approximating thereto ; the height was less than the 
breadth ; the face was long and narrow ; the upper jaw was orthognathous or 
approximated thereto ; the nose was narrow or leptorhine ; the orbits were moder- 
ately rounded ; the hard palate was not elongated but in shape like a wide horse- 
shoe. The mean cubic capacity of the male cranium was high. .Those who were 
buried in the long cists were in respect of their cranial proportions a mixed people, 
but with a decided preponderancy of the dolichocephalic type. 

Ethnography. 

In attempting to solve the ethnographic problem, how an island situated in 
proximity to a continent became inhabited, one has to consider if it had been 
continuous with the mainland in a previous geological age, and if through changes 
in the relative level of land and water it had become disconnected by the formation 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 233 

of an intermediate channel or strait. This problem had to be discussed in my inquiry 
into the origin of the Tasmanians,* and it meets us in a more complex form in the 
study of the early inhabitants of Britain. In Tasmania the presence of mammals 
similar to those still living in Australia, which from their size and habits could only 
have travelled along a bridge of continuous land, naturally indicated that its early 
human inhabitants had reached it by the same route. The finding in Britain and 
Western Europe of the fossil remains of large mammals such as the elephant,, 
mammoth, tiger, rhinoceros, cave bear, etc., which through great climatic changes 
are now extinct both here and on the Continent, points to the former existence at 
one time of a similar land bridge. The rude flint and stone implements, known as 
palaeolithic, which occur both in Western Europe and South Britain, were the tools 
of their earliest human inhabitants, whose skeletal remains have been discovered on 
the Continent, though they have seldom been procured in South Britain. 

In Scotland, again, no satisfactory evidence has yet been obtained of the remains 
of palaeolithic man or his works. If one were to suppose that he had indeed at one 
time occupied North Britain, the absence of any existing evidence may be regarded 
as due to the destructive action of a great ice-sheet, or a succession of ice-sheets, 
which had covered the country almost as high as the summits of its loftiest moun- 
tains, and which by the grinding action of its glaciers had destroyed any trace of 
man and his works lying on or near the surface of the ground. Specimens of 
skulls of palaeolithic man, sufficiently well preserved to enable measurements to be 
taken, are pronouncedly dolichocephalic ; in the Neanderthal and Spy group they 
have the vertex flattened and the glabella and supraciliaries strongly projecting. 
In skulls from other localities, also regarded as palaeolithic, the crania, though 
dolichocephalic, have feeble supraorbitals and a larger cubic capacity. 

After the disappearance of these ice-sheets, when Britain had assumed surface 
characters approaching to those of more modern periods, it became peopled by a 
race which employed for weapons and tools natural products such as stones to be 
shaped and polished into celts and hammers ; flints to be delicately chipped into arrow 
and lance heads, scrapers, and useful articles ; or bone and horn capable of being 
worked into pins, chisels, and other tools. These implements have been designated 
by archaeologists neolithic, a term which is also applied to their makers. The question 
has frequently been discussed whether, on the Continent as well as in Britain, the 
palaeolithic race had become extinct before the advent of the neolithic, or whether they 
had co-existed and the neolithic race in course of time had displaced the palaeolithic 
without destroying, or being substituted for it. Climatic changes, modifying the food 
supply and the temperature, had caused the disappearance in Western Europe of the 
large mammals cotemporaneous with palaeolithic man. Man, however, has a power 
of adapting himself to changes in environment both as regards food and climate far 
exceeding that possessed by any other mammal, so that it does not follow that he 

* See my memoirs in Trans. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, vols, xlvi, xlvii, 1. 



234 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

also should have become exterminated. When the continuous land bridge in course 
of time disappeared, Britain became an island ; and although the larger mammals 
became extinct, other species fit for food, as the boar, deer, urus, and horse, were 
continued from the palaeolithic into neolithic times. One sees therefore no valid 
reason why palaeolithic man should have disappeared either before, or subsequent to, 
the advent of neolithic man, by whom smaller food-producing mammals, as the small 
ox, pig, goat, and perhaps also sheep, were brought into Britain. 

Direct descent from palaeolithic man cannot, however, be claimed in Scotland, 
but there is a possibility of a strain of palseolithic blood existing in the people, 
through intercrossing in more genial climes with their immediate neolithic successors 
before the settlement of the latter in North and South Britain had been effected. 

Neolithic man entered Britain from the Continent possibly before the dis- 
appearance of the land bridge, but, if the intermediate strait had formed, then by 
water, though it is difficult to conceive that their domestic mammals could have been 
•conveyed in dugouts or coracles. Hence it has been suggested that a secondary land 
bridge, along which their migration could have taken place, may have been elevated. 
Without doubt neolithic man first landed on the south-east coast, and subsequently 
in other places, to spread north and west until he reached the north of Scotland. 
As already stated in the section on the neolithic period, he constructed monumental 
burying-places in Orkney, in the extreme north of the Mainland, in Argyllshire, Bute, 
Arran, Galloway, and the Western Isles. He constructed, especially in the western 
English counties, also in Wiltshire, Staffordshire, Derby, and Yorkshire, monumental 
mounds, frequently chambered, — the Long Barrows for the reception of his dead — in 
which implements of flint, stone, bone, and horn, also rude clay pottery and human 
skeletons, have been preserved ; but there is no evidence of metals. The skulls in 
these long barrows were dolichocephalic, and the weapons and implements were neo- 
lithic in material and more refined in form than those of the palaeolithic age. The 
long-barrow people of the English counties are regarded therefore as of the same 
race as the builders of the chambered cairns in Scotland. It is, however, to be noted 
that the characteristic interments were not diffused over the whole area in either of 
the two divisions of the island, but were restricted to limited districts or counties. 
It should also be stated that both in the long barrows and in the chambered cairns, 
whilst inhumation was the more common practice, cremation had also been employed. 

Consideration has been given to the part of the European continent which had 
been occupied by neolithic man prior to his migration into Britain, and to the race from 
which he was descended. With the object of elucidating these questions interments in 
France, Denmark, the Low Countries, Scandinavia, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, 
Eastern Europe, and North Africa have been carefully compared with those examined 
in Britain. ArchcBologists have studied the modes of burial, the forms of the tools, 
weapons and ornaments found in the sepulchres, the material from which they had 
been made, the form and ornamentation of the accompanying pottery, the practice 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 235 

of occasional cremation along with inhumation, the proportions of the skull, the char- 
acters of the other bones of the skeleton and the probable stature of the individuals 
whose skeletons had been preserved. From this extended comparison it is obvious 
that large tracts in Europe had been peopled by neolithic man, whose crania had 
persistent dolichocephalic proportions and form, and whose tools and weapons were 
made from direct natural products, which preceded in their use the metals, copper, 
bronze and iron, associated with interments in later ages. 

Although opinions have differed as to the race with which neolithic man should 
be associated, there is now a consensus that he was derived from a stock which 
occupied the northern shore of the western division of the Mediterranean ; though 
possibly, as Serg-i supposed, its cradle was on the northern coast of Africa. Some 
ethnographers have attempted to connect it more specifically with the coast of 
Spain, and have named the stock Iberian.* Rice Holmes has not limited its habitat 
to the Iberian peninsula, f but has regarded neolithic man as descended from an 
ancestral race which occupied the basin of the Mediterranean^ so that the term 
Iberian, if applied to the neolithic people of Britain, should be used in a purely con- 
ventional sense. Offshoots from this stock had migrated northwards through France, 
and, after reaching the north-west of that country, had invaded Britain, in all proba- 
bility not as a single migration, but in successive waves and at several points, and under 
the pressure of an increasing population and the need of obtaining more supplies of 
food, had diffused themselves in it to its furthest limits. Professor Bryce briefly re- 
viewed § their continental relations, and stated that the chambered cairns in Scotland - 
resembled the gallery graves in Western France ; he noted also that the pottery found 
in the megalithic burials in Arran had marked affinities with that obtained in the 
" dolmens " in France and with the late neolithic ceramics from the Pyrenees and 
Spain. Further, he entertained the opinion that the migration from France pursued 
two routes : one by the English Channel to the east coast, Caithness, the Orkneys, and 
the Baltic ; the other by St George's Channel to Ireland, the west of England, includ- 
ing the region of the long barrows, the west of Scotland, Arran, and the Hebrides. 

The recognition of ores, the discovery of the methods of extracting metals in 
order to provide, from their hardness and durability, a more suitable material for 
the manufacture of implements and weapons than the flint, stone, and bone already 
in use, marked important advances in the development of human intelligence. 
Copper came apparently first into use ; but further progress was made when it was 
discovered that an alloy, formed by the fusion of copper and tin in certain proportions, 
produced the metal bronze, which from its greater hardness and power of resisting 
the atmosphere was much more serviceable than the simple unalloyed metals. 

* Tacitus considered that the ancient Iberians crossed the sea from Spain and settled in Britain (Agricola, 
section xi) ; a sea route doubtless impracticable to be traversed at that early period. 
t Ancient Britain and the Invasions of Julius Gxsar, Oxford, 1907. 
% See Sergi, The Mediterranean Race : Europa, Torino, 1908. 

§ Bryce in the " Cairns of Arran," P. S. Ant. Scot., July 1902, and Scottish Historical Review, April 1905. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 5). 33 



236 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

So far as Scotland is concerned, bronze must have been introduced from without, 
as the ores of its metals do not occur in North Britain. The brachycephalic builders 
of the short cists were, without doubt, the race which brought bronze into Scotland, 
though, from the small proportion of their burials in which objects formed of bronze 
have been found (p. 184), the more primitive materials employed by neolithic man 
evidently remained for a long time in use during the bronze age. It is probable 
that in England also bronze was introduced by the early brachycephalic invaders, 
but, from the prevalence of the ores of these metals in many parts of South Britain, 
they began at an earlier period to be utilised by its inhabitants from their own 
natural resources, and the supply was not limited to imports from without. 

Bronze had undoubtedly been in use on the Continent before the brachycephalic 
invasion of Britain, which Sir John Evans considered might have taken place be- 
tween 1400 B.C. and at the latest 1200 B.C., though Mr Abercromby gave it an 
earlier date, about 2000 B.C. The bronze age in England preceded that in Scotland ; 
and whilst the interments corresponded in both countries in the bent position of 
the body in the grave, in the brachycephalic proportions and form of the skull, and 
in the general character of the grave goods, it showed not unfrequently differences 
in the aspect of the grave itself. When inhumation was practised in Scotland the 
body was placed in a characteristic short cist, which in some cases was enclosed 
in a cairn of stones, often of great dimensions ; in others in a mound or tumulus 
of sand or earth ; but generally it was placed a little below the surface of the 
ground without any external mark of its position. In England, again, especially in 
certain counties, the bodies had been buried in mounds, or Round or Short Barrows, 
distinguished from the Long Barrows by their smaller dimensions and rounded form. 
Thurnam* in classifying English burials in barrows during the neolithic and bronze 
age periods employed the aphorism "long barrows, long skulls ; round barrows, round 
or short skulls " ; the first axiom of which is undoubtedly applicable to the form of 
the skull in the long barrow in England and in the chambered cairn in Scotland. In 
the latter country short cists may be regarded as equivalent to round barrows, and 
short skulls are as a rule found in them ; but in both countries skulls with dolicho- 
cephalic proportions formed in some localities a proportion of the crania contained 
in the round barrows and the short cists. 

In considering the proportion of the breadth to the length of skulls it should be 
kept in mind that Anders Retzius, who introduced the terms dolichocephalic and 
brachycephalic into the ethnographical description of crania, did not employ the 
sharp numerical definition now in use, but relied on their general character as pre- 
sented to the observer. Broca and the French school of anthropologists were more 
specific, and used the term dolichocephalic to express crania in which the breadth 
bore to the length a proportion of less than 75 to 100 ; whilst brachycephalic signified 
skulls in which the breadth was in the proportion of 80 and upwards to 100. To the 

* '• Ancient British and Gaulic Skulls," Mem. Anthrop. Soc. London, vol. i, p. 158, 1865, 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OP SCOTLAND. 237 

skulls in which the relative breadth ranged between 75 and 80 he gave the name 
mesaticephalic (mesocephalic). The subdivision on these lines into three groups has 
been generally accepted. Dolichocephalic and brachycephalic are terms employed 
to express types at two extremes easily distinguished by the naked eye, but mesati- 
cephalic has not an equally precise signification, for its lowest terms blend with the 
dolichocephalic — its highest with the brachycephalic divisions. 

In Part I of this memoir, I suggested that if the intermediate mesaticephalic 
group were divided into two equal parts, those with an index between 77 "5 and 80 
approached the brachycephali, whilst those that ranged from 75 to 77 "5 were more 
allied to the dolichocephali. Hence in several of my craniological memoirs those 
in the higher term of the mesaticephali are said to be approximately brachycephalic, 
i.e. meso-brachycephalic, and those in the lower term approximately dolichocephalic, 
i.e. mesc-dolichocephalic. 

The divisions are expressed in the following formula : 



below 75 76 77-5 

Dolichocephalic meso-dolichocephalic 



77-6 78 79 80 and upwards 

meso-brachycephalic Brachycephalic 



Mesaticephalic 

From this point of view I shall now analyse the cephalic index in the forty 
measured short-cist skulls in Tables II to V. In twenty-nine specimens it ranged 
from 80 to 94*6, brachycephalic, and of these fourteen were hyperbrachycephalic, 85 
and upwards; in six, from 77'6 to 78 '9, meso-brachycephalic; in three, meso- 
dolichocephalic, 75 and 76 ; in two, dolichocephalic, below 75. In addition, five skulls 
specified in the tables, too much injured to permit the length and breadth to be 
accurately measured, had the brachycephalic form. The brachycephali and the meso- 
brachycephali, in all thirty-five skulls, were 87*5 per cent, of the measured specimens, 
so that obviously a large majority of the builders of the short cists had this type of 
head and were the dominant race in Scotland during the period of the bronze age. 

As the localities from which the skulls came are specified in the tables, a 
conception can be obtained of the parts of Scotland in which this form of head 
prevailed. Table IV contains thirteen measured skulls from Aberdeen and Banff ; of 
these twelve were brachycephali, eight of which were hyperbrachycephalic ; in addi- 
tion, one was meso-brachycephalic. Table III contains eight brachycephali, three of 
which were hyperbrachycephalic. Table II contains six brachycephali, one of which 
was hyperbrachycephalic ; two also were approximately or meso-brachycephalic ; but 
two others from Mull and Forfarshire were approximately or meso-dolichocephalic. 
Table V contains three brachycephali from the Lothians, two of which were hyper- 
brachycephalic, also three were meso-brachycephalic ; but of three short-cist burials 
from the Lothians two were dolichocephalic, one meso-dolichocephalic. 

The number of skulls and their localities were too few to enable a wide generalisa- 
tion to be made, but they are sufficient to show that brachycephali were in 



238 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

occupation of Scotland as far north as Orkney, Caithness and Sutherland, in the 
north-eastern counties of Aberdeen, Banff, Elgin, and Forfar, in the west in Mull, 
Ayr, and Arran, and in the south in the Border counties of Berwick and Roxburgh. 
In the Lothians, again, although four specimens were brachy cephalic and two approxi- 
mately so, the dolichocephalic and meso-dolichocephalic types asserted themselves in 
three crania from short cists at Morrison's Haven, Cockenzie and Bridgeness. 

L also pointed out in Part I, as the result of the study of one hundred and 
seventy-six modern Scottish skulls, that a strong brachycephalic strain pervaded 
the population at the present time. Of the specimens 30 per cent, were brachy- 
cephalic or approximated thereto ; whilst 70 per cent, were dolichocephalic or 
meso-dolichocephalic. The brachycephalic type was well marked in Fife, the Lothians 
and the Border counties. In Renfrew, again, of twenty-one skulls none had the 
cephalic index as high as 80, and in a large proportion the index was below 77. 
Of the seven specimens from Aryshire and Wigtownshire, only one was brachy- 
cephalic, the rest were dolichocephalic or its approximation. In the north-eastern 
counties four were brachycephalic, two meso-brachycephalic, and three were dolicho- 
cephalic. The Highlands and Islands furnished thirteen specimens, none of which was 
brachycephalic, only three had the index above 77, seven were dolichocephalic, and 
three approximated thereto. Of five skulls from the Shetlands, one was brachy- 
cephalic, one meso-brachycephalic, and three were approximately dolichocephalic. 

In comparing the cranial characters of the prehistoric people of Scotland with 
the present inhabitants, our observations should not be limited to a study of the 
cephalic index. The cranial capacity, the relative length and breadth of the whole 
face, the corresponding dimensions of the nasal region, orbits, and hard palate, and 
the projection of the upper jaw should be considered. In making this comparison 
I include both the neolithic dolichocephali and the bronze-age brachycephali. 

As regards the cubic capacity, the mean of the four male dolichocephali in 
Table I (p. 178) was 1480 c.c, the maximum being 1560 c.c. The mean of thirteen 
short-cist male brachycephali in Tables II-V was 1448, the maximum being 
1580 c.c. In the modern series, Part I, the mean capacity of seventy-three 
males was 1488 c.c, the most capacious skull was 1855 c.c, and thirty-three 
were upwards of 1500 c.c Of these skulls twenty-five were dolichocephalic and 
twenty-one approximated thereto, and the mean of the series was 1519 c.c 
Thirteen were brachycephalic and fifteen approximated thereto, and their mean 
was 1460 c.c. In the modern group, as pointed out in Part I, the dolichocephalic 
male crania were distinctly more capacious, had larger brains, than the brachy- 
cephalic group. Further, the modern male dolichocephali were more capacious 
than the neolithic skulls, but the modern brachycephali were only slightly larger 
than the bronze-age brachycephali; it should, however, be kept in mind that the 
prehistoric skulls are too few for a wide generalisation. Similarly the female 
prehistoric skulls were too few to enable one to say that they were on the average 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 239 

10 per cent, less capacious than the males, as was the case in the series of modern 
Scottish skulls. 

The relative dimensions in breadth and length of the complete face could only 
be taken in two neolithic skulls which were high-faced — high in relation to the 
breadth — leptoprosopic, a character also presented by the upper or maxillary face. 
In the bronze-age skulls, again, the customary proportion was low in relation to 
the breadth, chamaeprosopic. In the modern examples the majority of those 
measured were high-faced, though a proportion were low-faced, but the general 
type of the face in the Scottish skulls was leptoprosopic. As regards the neolithic, 
bronze-age and modern skulls, the upper jaw was straight or orthognathic, and in 
only two individuals was a prognathic jaw seen. The nose, not widened at the 
nostrils, was relatively narrow, leptorhine or mesorhine, except in one neolithic 
and in four, which were platyrhine, of the one hundred and twenty-three modern 
Scottish skulls examined. The orbits showed variations in the relations of width 
and height in each of the three series : in the neolithic and bronze-age specimens, 
however, a larger proportion, compressed as it were in the vertical diameter, was low 
in relation to the width than in the modern skulls, in which it was the rule for 
the orbit to be high in relation to the width and somewhat rounded in outline. 

It is important also to compare in each cranium the height or vertical diameter 
with the maximum breadth. In Part I especial attention was called to the relation 
of the breadth to the height of the cranium in one hundred and fifty modern 
Scottish crania measured. With two exceptions the breadth exceeded the height, 
so that the cephalic or breadth index was more than the vertical, both in the dolicho- 
cephalic and brachycephalic groups, and the skulls might be regarded as platychamse- 
cephalic. In the prehistoric skulls now under consideration this point was also 
inquired into ; in the neolithic skulls the breadth exceeded the height ; in the bronze- 
age skulls the breadth also exceeded the height, except in the dolichocephalic skull 
from Morrison's Haven, in which the vertical index was 75 and the cephalic 72 '9. 

From the comparison now made it will be seen that, when the bronze period 
became established, two races existed in Scotland, a dolichocephalic and a brachy- 
cephalic, and that a like distinction in head form prevails at the present time. Both 
prehistoric and modern heads agreed in having a straight or orthognathous upper 
jaw ; a relatively narrow nose, not sunk at the root nor widened at the nostrils ; 
a cranial capacity sufficient to contain a well-organised brain. In the neolithic 
and modern people the face was high and narrow in relation to the breadth ; in the 
bronze age it was lower and relatively wider. In the neolithic and bronze-age skulls 
the orbits were wider in relation to the height, due in part to their thickened upper 
border and the development of the frontal air sinuses, an excellent example of which 
is figured in the skull from Bridgeness (figs. 23, 24) ; whilst in the modern skulls the 
height and width differed less from each other ; the palate also varied from an elon- 
gated to a horseshoe-shaped form. The skulls therefore belonged to a type which may 



210 



PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 



l>e called European, in which were absent, except as an occasional individual variation, 
the platyrhine nose, the prognathic jaw, the cranium very narrow in relation to its 
length, the vertex keeled, the forehead retreating, the capacity relatively small — 
characters which prevail in the lower races of men. The prehistoric stone- and 
bronze-age skulls, when compared with the modern Scottish, were essentially framed 
on similar lines and gave no evidence of structural race inferiority. 

In attempting to deduce from the skull the relative position in mental develop- 
ment and capacities of the races of men, either prehistoric or modern, prime importance 
is to be given to the volume of the cranial cavity to provide space for the growth 
and improvement of the brain in both its quantity and quality. Increase in space 
permits the extension of the convoluted surface of the grey matter of the brain, with 
consequent multiplication in the number of nerve cells, as well as of an amount of 
white matter, with its constituent nerve fibres to connect and co-ordinate the groups 
of nerve cells, which collectively constitute the centres of brain activity. Tn comparing 
with each other different races and their individual members the degree of projection 
of the supraorbital borders, the overhanging eyebrows, the flattened noses with wide 
nostrils, the projecting upj)er jaw, the feeble retreating chin or the absence of a chin, 
are secondary characters, which, if based on a solitary and perhaps imperfect specimen, 
cannot displace or outweigh the significance of a cranial cavity of ample size for the 
lodgment of a brain commensurate with the exercise of human intelligence. 

In Part I attention was called to the fact that in certain races, in whom the 
dolichocephalic index was pronounced, the height as a rule exceeded the breadth and 
the skulls were hypsistenocephalic, whilst in pronounced brachycephalic skulls the 
breadth as a rule exceeded the height and the skulls were platychamsecephalic. In 
pursuing my inquiries into this subject I have selected races which, as regards the 
cephalic index, were with individual exceptions exclusively either of one type or the 
other, and the results stated in Tables IX and X have been obtained from adult skulls 
personally measured. 

Table IX. 

Dolichocephali. 



Race. 

Australians, .... 
Esquimaux, .... 
Dravidians, .... 
Veddahs, .... 
Kaffirs and Hottentots, . 


Number. 


Height above 


B. 


Heights B. 

M. 4 

M. 1 
M. 3 

M. 1 F. 1 
None 


Height less than B. 

M. 4 F. 7 
M. 6 F. 3 
M. 9 F. 2 

None 
M. 6 F. 4 


36 
22 
36 
12 
24 


M. 16 F. 
M. 10 F. 
M. 18 F. 
M. 9 F. 
M. 12 F. 


5 
2 

4 
1 
2 


130 


M. 65 F. 


14 


M. 9 F. 1 


M. 25 F. 16 



Of one hundred and thirty exotic skulls in Table IX the height was more 
than the breadth in sixty-five males and fourteen females, i.e. 60*8 per cent. ; in 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 



241 



nine males and one female they were equal ; in twenty-five males and sixteen females, 
7'7 per cent., the height was less than the breadth, i.e. 31 5 per cent. Ninety-nine 
skulls were probably males and thirty-one females. 

Table X. 
Brachycephali. 



Race. | Number. 


Breadth above H. 


Breadth =H. 


i Breadth less than H. J 


Burmese, .... 
Andaman Islanders, 
Siamese, .... 
Chinese, .... 
Sandwich Islanders, 


34 

7 

4 

11 

7 


M. 32 

M. 3 F. 4 

M. 4 

M. 7 F. 1 

M. 4 F. 3 


M. 2 
None 
None 
None 
None 


None 
None 

None 
M. 3 

None 


63 


M. 50 F. 8 


M. 2 


M. 3 



Of sixty-three exotic skulls in Table X the breadth was more than the height in 
fifty males and eight females, i.e. 92 per cent. ; in two males they were equal ; in 
three males only was the breadth less than the height. Fifty-five skulls were 
probably males, eight females. The persistency of this character was as marked 
in these exotic races as in the Scottish brachycephali. 

In dolichocephalic skulls there is not the same uniformity in the relations of 
breadth to height as in the brachycephali. Of the exotic skulls in Table IX the 
height exceeded the breadth in the proportion of about six specimens to four. The 
crania in a typical dolichocephalic race, like the Australian, were narrow both 
actually and relatively to the length and height ; the side walls were vertical ; the 
vertex was keeled or roof-like, with a sagittal ridge or crest which Sergi has named a 
" lophus " ; the slope from this crest to the parietal eminence was steep ; the vertical 
transverse arc behind the bregma was laterally compressed ; the cranial capacity was 
relatively small, and the skull had the character to which Professor Cleland applied 
the name " ill filled." * In the Scottish dolichocephali, again, both prehistoric and 
modern, the breadth with scarcely an exception exceeded the height. The cranium 
was broad, though not in such relation to the length as to give it a brachycephalic 
proportion ; the side walls bulged a little ; the vertex was not keeled but flattened ; 
the slope from the sagittal line to the parietal eminence was gentle ; the vertical 
transverse arc behind the bregma was rounded ; the cranial capacity was ample, 
and the skull merited the term " well filled " which Cleland used for skulls of this 
character. The term dolichocephalic, while indicating a relation between length and 
breadth, includes skulls which have no common relationship as between height and 
breadth, and requires to have the proportion between these diameters properly dis- 
criminated in the comparison of the skulls of different races with each other. 

* Philosophical Transactions R. S., London, vol. cl, 1870. 



242 PRINCIPAL SIP WILLIAM TURNER ON 

Numerous skulls from the English Barrows have been examined and described 
by Thurnam, * Rolleston, f Garson, | Mortimer and Wright § in their respective 
memoirs. Thurnam's aphorism " Long barrows, long skulls," based on the study 
of the Long Barrows in the south-west of England, has been confirmed by the 
description by Rolleston of skulls from long barrows in Yorkshire and other northern 
counties — that in no skull from any long barrow did the breadth bear to the length 
so high a value as that of 80 to 100. The mean cephalic index in Thurnam's 
specimens was 71*4, in Rolleston's 72 "6. In the neolithic series in my Table I the 
index was 72"8, the maximum of which was only 76. The skulls from the Round or 
Short Barrows were preponderatingly brachycephalic in the south-western counties, 
but in Yorkshire nearly one-half were dolichocephalic, which doubtless indicated a 
large proportion of intermixture or crossing of the bronze-age brachycephali with 
their predecessors the neolithic builders of the long barrows. Thurnam, in his table 
of measurements of twenty-five long-barrow skulls, gave the mean height as 174 
mm., and the mean breadth as 171 mm. Rolleston's measurements of ten long- 
barrow skulls from Swell in Gloucestershire gave the mean height at 76*3 and the 
mean breadth at 72 "6 ; in both series, therefore, the height exceeded the breadth, 
which contrasted with my measures of the neolithic Scottish skulls. In the skulls 
from the round or short barrows the breadth exceeded the height, as was the case 
with the series of brachycephali from the short cists in Scotland. 

Several observers have pointed out that skulls from short cists and barrows, 
whilst as a rule brachycephalic in type, are not uniform in many of their other 
characters. Dr Low has shown || that a large proportion of skulls from the cists 
in the Aberdeen district were distinguished by their great relative width, hyper- 
brachycephalic, that the breadth -height index was low, the parieto-occipital region 
flattened, the supraciliary ridges moderate, the face low and broad, and the lower 
jaw not heavy or strong ; moreover, the people were of low stature. Rolleston 
regarded the brachycephalic type in which the stature was high as having a marked 
sloping forehead, prominent supraciliaries, projecting nose, upper jaw frequently pro- 
gnathic. Dr Wright's series of skulls from short barrows in East Yorkshire con- 
tained so large a proportion of dolicho- and mesaticephalic skulls that the brachy- 
cephalic specimens were not equal in number to both the other types. 

The Stature is a factor of importance in the study of the skeleton of prehistoric 
man. Unfortunately, in my specimens the long bones were so much injured that the 
measurements were imperfect. In the Oban Mackay Cave I estimated from the 
length of the femur the stature of its neolithic occupant as 5 feet 4 inches. The 

* Memoirs Anthrop. Soc, London, vol. i, pp. 120, 459, 1863-4. 

t Skulls described in Greknwell's British Barrows, reprinted in Rolleston's Scientific Papers and Addresses, 
edited by W. Turner, 1884. 

% "Long- Barrow Skulls," Jowrn. Anth. Frist,, vol. xxii, 1893 ; "Orkney Islanders," Joum. Anth. Inst., vol. xiii,1883. 

§ Jowrn. A mil. "ml Ph/ys., vols, xxxviii, xxxix, 1904, 1905. 

|| Proc. A mil. Anthrop. Soc, Univ. Aberdeen, 1904-1906, p. 146. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 243 

femur was platymeric and the tibia platyknemic. Thurnam and Eolleston have 
estimated, from the length of the femora, the mean stature of the neolithic 
occupants of the long barrows as 5 feet 5 inches to 5 feet 6 inches, and that of the 
brachycephali of the round barrows as 5 feet 8 inches to 5 feet 9 inches. As a 
rule, the long bones in the taller brachycephali had stronger muscular ridges than 
in the neolithic skeletons. Subsequent measurements, however, of the Aberdeen 
series of brachycephalic skeletons have given a range of height from 5 feet to 
5 feet 7 inches, the mean being 5 feet 3 inches, indicating therefore a shorter 
stature than with the round heads of the English round barrows. 

The coarse Pottery in the form of Urns contained in the short cists, as well as 
the cinerary urns for the reception of the calcined bones, have been investigated with 
great care by the Hon. John Abercromby,* who compared them with the urns found 
in the English barrows and in corresponding interments on the Continent. He con- 
sidered that the beaker, or drinking-cup, type is the oldest in time, dating probably 
from 2000 to 1500 B.C., coinciding with the earliest invasion of Britain by the 
bronze-age brachycephali, and introduced by them. He thought that the bronze-age 
people had but little knowledge of the use of metal until near the close of the beaker 
period. The bowl-shaped, or food-vessel, type came into use apparently during the 
later stage of that period ; like the beaker urn, it was associated in the Scottish short 
cists with burials by inhumation. The cinerary type of urn for the reception of 
the ashes was naturally taller and more capacious for cremated adult bodies than 
the ceremonial beaker and bowl-shaped forms. Its introduction marked the gradual 
cessation of inhumation in cists ; it ultimately superseded that form of interment, and 
of necessity destroyed the physical characters of the skull and skeleton. This type 
has been found in a few cists side by side with inhumed bodies, at others independ- 
ently, and often collected into cemeteries. Abercromby considered that it continued 
for about seven hundred years to between 700 and 600 B.C. 

Drs Low and Bryce described fifteen beaker urns in the short cists in Aberdeen- 
shire, Sutherland, and Caithness, and established their association with the highly 
brachycephalic skulls and the relatively low stature of the people who built these 
cists. In the short cists specified in Tables II to V and in the text, beaker urns 
were also found in those from Fyrish, Duns, Kelso, Windy Mains (East Lothian), St 
Andrews, and Largs, in addition to the N.orth-Eastern group. Mr Abercromby has 
included in his list a number of specimens from other counties in Scotland which 
corresponded with the migration of the bronze-age people from south to north and 
from east to west. He noted their occurrence in various parts of England, in which 
the beaker period lasted during fifteen or sixteen generations. He referred also to 
examples on the Continent in the Iberian peninsula, Italy, the Rhine, North Germany, 
Saxony, Bohemia, Hungary, France, Holland, Holstein, and Jutland, but no mention 
is made of specimens in Sweden and Norway. 

* Bronze-Age Pottery of Great Britain and Ireland, Oxford, 1912 ; op. cit., p. 173. 
TRANS. ROY. S0C. EDIN., VOL". LI, PART I (NO. 5). 34 



244 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

Only two bowl-shaped food urns were noted in the Aberdeen district at Blackhills 
and Lesmurdie, but specimens were found in the Leith, Belfield, Bridgeness, Cowden 
Hill (Forfarshire), Arrau, Bute, Aonach (Boss), and Ardachy (Mull) cists recorded in 
the tables and text. The type has also been noted by Abercromby in other parts 
of Scotland, and in many English counties. He regarded it as belonging to a later 
period of the bronze age than the beaker urn, though sometimes they were found 
together in the same interment.* 

The pottery of the bronze age is sparsely rejtresented in Ireland. Two beakers 
from Co. Down and Sligo are recorded by Abercromby ; more than twenty bowl- 
shaped urns have been obtained in Ulster, Wicklow, Kildare, Waterford, Kilkenny 
and as far south as Co. Cork and Kerry, and from the west in Co. Galway and 
Mayo. Similarly, a few cinerary urns have been recorded as obtained in the 
Ulster counties, and in Wexford, Kilkenny, Carlow, Galway, and Limerick. It 
would seem therefore as if the brachycephalic people of the bronze age had had, 
as regards numbers, a limited distribution over Ireland generally, but were more 
frequent in the northern counties which constitute the province of Ulster. 

Ethnographers have classified the Races of Europe into groups in accordance with 
their physical characters. W. Z. Ripley and Gustaf Retzius employed three, but 
Deniker by a further subdivision suggested six. Of the three groups, the North 
European is dolichocephalic, with fair skin and hair, blue eyes, and tall stature : the 
Mid European is brachycephalic, with dark hair and eyes and short stature : the 
South European has also dark hair and eyes and short stature, but is dolichocephalic. 
I have already referred to the neolithic dolichocephali as probably descended from 
the South European people of the basin of the Mediterranean (p. 235). 

The question of the origin of the brachycephalic people of the bronze age should 
now be considered. In the endeavour to solve this problem the cranial characters 
of the prehistoric people of north-western Europe have to be studied, as far as the 
paucity of the material permits, also those of the modern inhabitants. 

In Sweden Gustaf Retzius has shown f that, in the latitude of Stockholm and 
to its immediate north, 87 per cent, of the present people were dolichocephalic, 
13 per cent, brachycephalic. Towards Lapland again the proportion of brachycephali 
increased, also in the more southern provinces, but in none did the percentage of 

Supplementary to the bronze-age burials specified in the text, recent volumes of the Proceedings of the S. Ant. 
Scot, contain accounts of short cist and cinerary urn interments by Messrs J. Graham Callander, F. R. Coles, 
W. Rbid, W. Mackenzie, D. M'Kinlay, ami .1. II. Craw. Beaker urns additional to those referred to in the text 
were obtained in Aberdeenshire, Banff, Kincardine, Argyll, North Berwick, Dunbar, and Broomdykes, Berwickshire. 
Bowl urns were also recorded from Ross, the Black Isle, Fife, and Merchiston, Mid Lothian. 

The short cists in general form resembled the dolmens of France, but on a smaller scale as regards the magnitude 
of the stones and the size of the space enclosed by them. The stone boxes seen in many country churchyards with 
large cover slab, built on the surface above the coffin and inhumed body, though without contents, are in form 
a survival in modern times of an ancient cist burial. 

t Crania Suecica dntiqua, Stockholm, 1900, and Huxley Lecture for 1909 in Jouru. Anthrop. Inst., vol. xxxix ; 
also Retzius and V tJMT, A nthropologia Suecica, Stockholm," 1902. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 245 

brachycephali rise above 24 per cent. Of forty-two crania of the stone age 
examined, twenty-three were dolichocephalic, sixteen mesocephalic, and only three 
brachycephalic. In Norway observations have been made by C. Arbo * on the heads 
of recruits for the Norwegian army, which presented two distinct types. In the 
mountains the dolichocephalic type prevailed, and to their west the mesocephalic 
were numerous, though with dolichocephalic and brachycephalic centres interspersed. 
Those from the south and the south-east of the central chain of mountains were 
to a large extent mesocephalic. The south, south-west, and west coast people were 
brachycephalic, and this type extended inland on the shores of the great fiords. The 
general distribution therefore was brachycephalic with dark hair and skin along the 
coast ; and dolichomesocephalic with blonde hair and skin in the interior and at the 
heads of the fiords. These types were associated with differences in stature, which 
was upwards of 170 cm. (5 feet 7 inches) in the long heads and from 166 to 168 cm. 
(5 feet 3 inches to 5 feet 6 inches) in the round heads. Arbo also described a 
Norwegian skull of the stone age rather short and rounded, small, forehead 
broad, and with a cephalic index 76*4. It differed from the ordinary dolicho- 
cephalic type. C. F. Larsen has described and figured! a number of Norwegian 
skulls dolichocephalic, mesodolichocephalic, brachycephalic, mesobrachycephalic. 
The brachycephali were from Sole, Tonsberg, Oslo, Gimso, Trondhjem, and the 
dolichocephali from S0rengen, Trondhjem, Guldalen. David Hepburn examined 
twenty-four skulls j in the museum, University, Christiania, and found fourteen 
from Oslo, Sole, T0nsberg to be dolichocephalic, five from Sole, Tonsberg, Trondhjem 
mesocephalic, five from Sole, T0nsberg brachycephalic. In Denmark also is a mixed 
population of dolichocephali and brachycephali. Virchow, from the examination 
of forty-one stone-age skulls in the Danish museums, observed that some inclined 
to the dolichocephalic, others to the brachycephalic type. The cephalic index in 
the Borreby group was 79, Udby group 78, and a skull from Naes 82 ; other 
skulls from Naes were 75 '4, from Stege 75'9 : the mean of the series was 
77 "3. Virchow considered that the modern Danish skull approximated to the 
Borreby group, mesocephalic, with an inclination towards the brachycephalic 
type. A. M. Hansen considered that in Denmark the bronze age did not 
introduce a new craniological type, for brachycephalic skulls were not uncommon 
in the stone age. H. E. Nielson § had shown that, in one hundred and nineteen 
skulls regarded as of the stone age, the cephalic index was dolicho- or mesocephalic 
in eighty-three specimens, whilst the remainder were meso- or brachycephalic. 
Skulls from the Frisian coast and islands have been examined by Virchow, || which 

* Several memoirs from 1891 to 1904. A general remind 'is given in 0. R. du Gongres International de Medecine, 
Moscow, 1897, and Tidskrift af Svenska Sellslt. Antropol. och Geograf., 1900. 
t Vidensk. Sellshabets Skrifter, Christiania, 1901, 1903. 
X Vidensk. Sellskabets Forandl, Christiania, 1905. 
§ Quoted by G. Retzius. 
|| Abhandl. der Konig. Akad. der Wissensch., Berlin, 1876. 



246 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

in the mean were mesocephalic ; some approximated to the dolichocephalic, others 
to the brachycephalic type, the tendency to which was associated with a low or 
chamaecephalic cranium. 

France in palaeolithic days had a longheaded race and their neolithic successors 
were also, dolichocephalic. Skulls which were found in a gravel pit at Grenelle 
near Paris, believed by some to be of Pleistocene age, were however brachy- 
cephalic, and are considered by others to resemble those of the bronze period. 
Philippe Salmon analysed * the proportions of six hundred and eighty-eight skulls 
of the stone age in France, and stated that 57 per cent, were dolichocephalic; 21 
per cent, mesocephalic (index from 77 to 80) ; 21 per cent, brachycephalic. The 
majority in the dolichocephali had the index 73 and 74, in the brachycephali 80 
to 82. He distinguished in the dolichocephali an older quaternary type and a 
newer or neolithic type, in which the occiput did not project (chignon occipital), 
and he named it the Genay Typus. 

Ample evidence exists, therefore, of the presence of brachycephalic centres in 
countries which had or now have coast lines opposite to Britain, and the question 
arises from which of these came the roundheaded invaders of Britain who constructed 
the round barrows and the short cists. Many ethnographers consider that they 
had come from France, landed on the coast to the south of the Thames, and had 
gradually spread through England, thence northward into Scotland, so that the 
diffusion took place from one original centre of invasion and must haver occupied a 
considerable period of time. The recognition of definite brachycephalic centres of 
population in Scandinavian countries opens up a wider field of inquiry. These people 
had access to the sea, and then as now were doubtless not disinclined to maritime 
adventure across the North Sea ; their boats may possibly have been sufficiently 
large and strong to enable them to have made settlements on the east coast of 
Scotland distinct from the invasion on th.e south coast of England. The Aberdeen 
cists have disclosed skeletons of short stature with skulls of hyperbrachycephalic 
proportions, flattened occiput, and moderate supraciliary ridges, which contrasted 
with the skulls from the round barrows in England, the skeletons in which were 
taller, and with a proportion of the skulls from the Lothians, in which the cephalic 
index was lower and the occipital squama approximated in form to the dolicho- 
cephalic type, while the supraciliary ridges were very prominent. Associated with 
these physical differences was the greater prevalence of the beaker urn in the short 
cists in the north-east of Scotland and of the bowl-shaped urn in the Lothians. The 
inference drawn by Mr Abercromby that the latter shape did not appear until 
towards the close of the beaker period, points to their possible introduction through 
a later wave of invasion by brachycephali who had undergone some crossing with a 
longheaded race, which had modified the relative breadth of the cranium and led to 
an approximation towards the dolichocephalic type. Although the bowl-shaped urns 

* Quoted by G. Ret/.ius, Crania Suecica Antiqua, p. 49. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 247 

represented a later stage of the bronze age than did the beaker urns, both were 
important ceremonial adjuncts in interments by inhumation. With the introduction 
of cremation they and their symbolic significance disappeared. 

Whatever be the immediate starting-point of the invasion, a further question 
naturally arises as to the European centre from which they had originally proceeded. 
A considerable body of opinion favours the view that their parent race was the 
brachy cephalic Mid-European group which is now represented by the people of the 
valley of the Ehine, Switzerland, South Germany and the Tyrol. Their centre of 
dispersion towards Britain was from the Alps of Mid Europe — hence the name Alpine 
i-ace — northward into Scandinavia, westward to France and the Low Countries, 
whence migration to Britain became possible. 

The Iron Age in Britain may be said to start from the Celtic invasion, and the 
discoveries at Hallstatt have shown that on the Continent the metal had been wrought 
into tools and weapons during the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. In a previous 
section (p. 217) I have stated that, through the practice of cremation by the Celts 
and the paucity of distinctive interments, our knowledge of the physical characters 
of these people and of their graves is very imperfect. Since that section was in 
type I have had, through the courtesy of Mr A. 0. Curle, the opportunity of read- 
ing the proof-sheets of his important memoir on excavations of an ancient inhabited 
fortification situated on Traprain Law, Prestonkirk, East Lothian, to be published in 
the forthcoming volume of the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
Though no remains of man himself were recognised, numerous relics were exposed of 
pottery, native and Roman, weapons and implements of bronze and iron, harness 
mountings, flint scrapers, whorls and discs of stone, moulds of stone and baked clay 
for bronze castings, glass vessels and ornaments of jet and glass. The character 
of these objects and a few coins found along with them of the days of Hadrian, 
Antoninus Pius and Trajan, showed them to be of the iron age as found in 
southern Scotland, and associated them with the Roman and Romano-British 
occupation at the end of the first and at the beginning of the second century. 
Interspersed with them were objects having the characteristic Celtic ornamenta- 
tion, of the second century. Some of these resembled objects described by Mr 
James Curle in his elaborate work on the Roman fort excavated at Newstead a 
few years ago.* On the other hand, one or two specimens could be definitely 
associated with the bronze age. 

The collection illustrates the overlapping which' occurs in the transition between 
different periods, the persistency of custom, and the care that is required in the 
interpretation of the age of objects disclosed in archaeological research. 

The presence in graves of articles belonging to different periods is not limited to 
prehistoric interments. I may refer to "goods" (now in the University Museum) 
from the grave of an aboriginal Australian, which, along with the back of a steel 

* A Roman Frontier Post and its People, 1910. 



248 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

knife and a flint nodule doubtless used as a means of obtaining light, contained a 
clay pipe, a rusted iron spoon, and a pannikin. 

Caesar described a Celtic tribe, the Belgae, who opposed his landing in Britain in 
55-54 B.C., and there can be no doubt that the Celts had occupied large tracts of the 
island during several previous centuries. It is difficult to state the exact date of 
invasion — possibly about 400 B.C. ; and scholars differ in opinion as to whether it 
took place before or after the linguistic division into the Goidelic (Gaelic) and the 
Brythonic (Welsh) dialectic groups. Great uncertainty has also prevailed in regard 
to the part of the Continent occupied by the invaders before their migration west- 
wards, due in part doubtless to the indefinite use by authors of the term Celts. 
Bkoca and other French ethnologists had restricted the name to the brachy cephalic 
people who occupied Central Gaul ; others had given it a wider signification, embrac- 
ing a larger area of Europe in which the head form was not of uniform type. Rice 
Holmes* in reviewing the opinions of different writers favours the view that the 
Celtic invaders of Britain were not a pure brachycephalic people, but contained pre- 
ponderating dolicho- and mesocephalic elements, as a result of intermixture and 
intermarriage with longer-headed races before their migration. It is difficult there- 
fore to express by a single term the characteristic form of the Celtic skull. Anders 
Retzius distinguished two varieties : the one long and narrow, the other broader, 
not so compressed laterally. Sven Nilsson pronounced it to be vague and uncertain. 
Owing to the practice of cremation, authentic specimens are few in number, and 
skulls catalogued in museums as Celtic have often been imperfectly named, their 
race and place of origin being uncertain. The conclusion that the Celts are a mixed 
people, whose crania may exhibit brachy-, meso-, or dolichocephalic proportions, 
seems therefore to be not without justification. 

Associated with the Celtic question are the terms Picts and Scots, employed by- 
historians in describing the Roman occupation of Britain and the period immediately 
following its evacuation by them. The term Picts was applied to inhabitants of 
Scotland living to the north of the Forth and the Clyde, and perhaps may have 
included the people between these estuaries and the Wall of Hadrian and the 
Solvvay. Craniology can throw no light on their racial features, as no specimens 
have been preserved which can be definitely regarded as Pictish. The Pictish 
question is essentially a linguistic one, and its solution mostly hinges upon the 
interpretation of the few words believed to be Pictish which have been preserved. 
Scotland had been from remote times occupied in succession by neolithic and 
bronze-age people, afterwards by Celts, and representatives of all these races had 
without doubt survived into the Roman period. In ignorance of the race dis- 
tinctions with which we are now acquainted, the Romans may have regarded their 
Pictish opponents as one people, antagonistic to them in their sentiments and 
actions. I attach therefore weight to the arguments advanced by Mr Rice Holmes 

* Ancient Britain, Oxford, 1907. 



THE CBANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 249 

that the Picts so called were a mixed people, possibly comprising descendants of 
the neolithic aborigines, the bronze-age people, and their Celtic invaders. 

The Scots, again, had originally migrated from Ireland, at that time known as 
Scotia, and belonged to the Goidelic division of the Celtic race which had settled 
there. They took possession of Argyll and the adjacent islands, known as Dalriada, 
and ultimately their name was applied to the whole of Scotland and its people. 

The prehistoric Celts in Scotland should not be regarded as exclusively belonging 
to the Goidelic division of that race. The Brythonic or Welsh division had pene- 
trated north to the estuary and valley of the Clyde and had formed the kingdom of 
Strathclyde, which included the south-western counties. In the early years of the 
eleventh century the northern part of this kingdom became fused with Dalriada, and 
with the Goidelic Celts or Picts who inhabited Galloway. At about the same time 
Malcolm the Second defeated, at the battle of Carham, the Anglo-Northumbrian ruler 
of the Lothians and eastern border counties, when the Sol way and Tweed, and not 
the Forth, became the southern border of the Scottish kingdom. 

The Norse invasion covered an important chapter in the early history of 
Scotland. The Shetland and Orkney Islands, Caithness, Sutherland, and the 
Western Islands were conquered by the Norwegians about the end of the ninth 
century a. d., and several Viking interments have been described in the section on the 
Iron Age (p. 221). To these I may add an account* of two skulls by Barnard Davis. 
One, in the museum of Dunrobin Castle, was from a stone-built grave about eight feet 
long, exposed alongside of a second similar grave in which was the rusted iron socket 
of a spear-head. The cephalic index of this skull was 78, mesobrachy cephalic, 
the vertical index was 67 '2; the breadth exceeded the height, which was chamse- 
cephalic. The occipital squama bulged behind the inion, the face was orthognathic. 
The other skull was found at the foot of one of the erect stones of a cromlech at 
Nisibost, isle of Harris. It was broadly ovoid, with feeble glabella and supraciliaries ; 
vertex flattened ; post-parietal slope gradual ; occiput bulged behind a feeble inion ; 
nose narrow and moderately projecting ; orbits rounded ; teeth much worn. The 
cephalic index, 77 '8, was mesobrachycephalic, the breadth much greater than the 
height, and the vertical index 65 "6. Montelius considered that in the iron age 
in Scandinavia cremation was practised from 500 B.C. to about 1050 a.d. Up to 
about 800 a.d. it was the rule, after which date inhumation in cists of either wood 
or stone, or direct interment in the earth, became the practice. 

G. Retzius, from an analysis of forty-one iron-age interments in Sweden, found 
twenty-eight to be dolichocephalic, ten with the cephalic index from 77 to 78*4, 
mesobrachycephalic, only three were brachycephalic. In the iron age, as in the bronze 
and stone ages, the dolichocephalic type predominated in Sweden as at present. 
Justus Barth recognised f in a set of old Norwegian skulls a Viking type, ovoid, 

* Crania Britannica. The Dunrobin burial was described in P.S.Ant.Sc, vol. i, p- 297, 1855. 
t Quoted by Retzius, Omnia Suecica. 



250 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

# 
dolichocephalic, orthognathic, with a long narrow face and nose ; 42 per cent, in the 

collection were dolichocephalic, 52 mesocephalic, only 6 per cent, brachycephalic. 
Virchow found five iron-age skulls from Denmark to be dolichocephalic. The skulls 
from burials in Scotland recognised as Norse are as yet too few in number to enable 
a general statement to be made, but the presumption is in favour of the type being 
dolicho- or mesodolichocephalic,* like their ancestors in Scandinavia of the iron age. 

At the close of the Roman occupation of Britain in the fifth century the island 
was invaded by tribes from the opposite shores of the North Sea, which we know 
now as Jutland, Schleswig-Holstein, the Elbe area, Frisian coast and islands, and 
the Netherlands. The tribes named separately Angles (Engles), Saxons, and Jutes, 
collectively formed the Anglo-Saxons. Plunder was at first their object, but in 
course of time the south, the east and the middle of England were conquered by the 
Jutes and Saxons, the British people were driven into Wales, Devon, and Cornwall, 
those who remained in the conquered districts were to some extent enslaved, 
Christianity disappeared, was superseded by pagan rites, and small separate Anglo- 
Saxon kingdoms were established. The north country from the Humber to the Forth 
was conquered by the Angles, who divided it into Deira, extending from the Humber 
to the Tees, and Bernicia, from the Tees to the estuary of the Forth (the Frisian 
Sea). In the seventh century Edwin, king of Deira, annexed Bernicia, became king of 
Northumbria which included the south-east border Lowlands and the Lothians, and 
settlements were also formed by the Angles and Jutes along the east coast further to 
the north.f Including the Lothians, the Lowlands were the parts of Scotland which 
were colonised directly by the Angles. During the pagan period the Anglo-Saxons 
practised cremation. No satisfactory evidence has been obtained in Scotland of 
Anglo-Saxon burials of this period, or of their cremation urns, and I know of no 
crania collected in Scotland which can be regarded as those of pagan Anglo-Saxons. 

In England, on the other hand, Anglo-Saxon burials have been investigated by 
several archaeologists. Rolleston has described I Anglo-Saxon cremation-urn inter- 
ments at Frilford, Berkshire, and elsewhere, before they were superseded by the 
Christian practice of inhumation after the arrival of Augustine at the court of 
Ethelbert, the Kentish king, at the end of the sixth century. Rolleston emphasised 
the practice of cremation by saying that every fresh discovery of distinctively Anglo- 
JSaxon urns shows how thoroughly England was overrun by the " heathen of the 
Northern sea," in the period which elapsed between the landing of Hengist in 
Thanet and the Christianising of the invaders by Augustine and his successors. He 

* Baknard Davis gave measurements of an ancient Norse skull found in 1840 near Lough Larne, Antrim, the 
cephalic index of which was 73 ; also another marked "ancient Danish?" from East Riding, Yorkshire, the index 
nl' which was 74. See Thesaurus Craniorum and Supplement. 

t Hodgkin, The History of England from Earliest Times to Norman Conquest, London, 1906, chapters vi, viii, xi. 
W. F. Skene considered ("Early Frisian Settlements in Scotland," P.S.A.S., iv, 169,1863) evidence to exist of 
Frisian settlements as early as 374 a.d., i.e. prior to the Saxon invasion of England, along the north shore of the 
Firth of Forth, the south-east shore, and the shore of Forfar and Kincardine. 

j Archasologia, 1870 and 1879 ; also Collected Scientific Papers, vol. ii, edited by W. Turner, Oxford, 1884. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 251 

regarded the discovery of urns from a cemetery at Sancton, Yorkshire, as the 
limit of cremation known to him as practised by the Anglo-Saxons in the north 
of England. The conversion of Edwin, the king of Northumbria and the Lothians, 
did not take place until 625 a.d. 

Anglo-Saxon relics of various kinds and their crania have been described by 
Rolleston, who contrasted the skulls with the Romano- British skulls also found in the 
Frilford cemetery. Barnard Davis described nineteen skulls in Crania Britannica 
and the Thesaurus Craniorum belonging to Jutes, West and South Saxons, East and 
North Angles, only one of which was marked " Northumbrian Angle." Fourteen skulls 
were dolichocephalic or mesodolichocephalic, three were bracbycephalic, and two meso- 
brachycephalie. In sixteen both breadth and height were measured, and in eleven 
the breadth exceeded the height, in one they were equal, and in two dolichocephali 
the breadth was less than the height. F. G. Parsons has investigated* Saxon 
skulls, probably Jutes, exposed at Folkestone and Broadstairs, those from the latter 
place being in the same ground as two undoubted interments of the bronze age. Of 
the six Jutes from Folkestone, one-half were dolichocephalic and the others meso- 
dolichocephalic, the mean being 74 '1 ; the skulls from Broadstairs were described as 
narrow and long, but certainly not low, and having high orbital apertures. 

In the section on the Long Cists (p. 226) I described the construction of graves 
of that type and the absence of grave goods, which distinguished them from the 
pagan neolithic and bronze-age burials, whilst their orientation associated them with 
Christian interments. The question therefore naturally arises, at what period 
subsequent to the adoption of Christianity did this form of burial come into use? 
The conversion of the southern or Galloway Picts by St Ninian is said to date 
from the close of the fourth century. In the latter half of the sixth century 
St Columba converted Brude, the king of the northern Picts. Since the middle of 
that centurv the Northumbrian Ano-les had extended their rule as far north as the 
Firth of Forth, and doubtless with their strong pagan beliefs repressed Christianity 
and its observances, destroyed its memorials and decimated the people. Hence in the 
Lothians and south-eastern counties no definite relics of the early Christian period have 
been preserved. Though Edwin, king of Northumbria, was baptised in 627, his people 
remained in, or relapsed into paganism, and it was not until thirty years after, that 
Aidan the missionary bishop accomplished the conversion of the northern Angles. 

In a previous section, p. 230, I directed attention to the number and orderly 
arrangement of long cists in cemeteries in the Lothians, Roxburgh, Selkirk, Fife, 
and Forfar, counties which had been occupied or invaded by the Angles and possibly 
by Jutes. As Scotland became more settled in the Lowlands and the people con- 
gregated in villages and small towns, graves would cease to be isolated interments, 
but would follow a common plan in a prescribed area more or less associated with 
Christian worship. I think it is not unreasonable to regard this type of grave as 

* Journ. Anthrop. Inst., vol. xli, 1911, and vol. xliii, 1913. 
TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 5). 35 



252 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

possibly that in use by the Anglo-Saxon people after their conversion to Christianity, 
and the occasional presence of iron in long cists, to which I have previously referred, 
is not adverse to this view. In making this statement I do not wish it to be thought 
that the type was exclusively used by persons of Anglo-Saxon descent, but with the 
spread and universal acceptance of the Christian faith in the Lowlands it would 
doubtless, from its simple construction and symbolic significance, be adopted and 
become for a long period of years the general habit of the people. 

I would recall that some fifty years ago I saw for the first time in progress an 
archaeological excavation of long cists in the Catstane field at Kirkliston (p. 226). 
Sir James Y. Simpson, whom I accompanied, published an elaborate memoir on that 
ancient stone, a pagan memorial, the inscription on which could, he thought, be read 
as "Vetta F(ilius) Victi"; Vetta being regarded as the grandfather of Hengist and 
Horsa, the Jutish invaders of Kent. Should this reading be correct, it would point to 
the presence of Saxons north of the wall of Hadrian before Hengist landed in the isle of 
Thanet, which Sir James thought might have been owing to Saxon soldiers who had 
constituted an element in the Eoman army during its occupation of Britain. Should 
it be the case, however, as some historians have indicated, that a direct Jutish 
or Frisian invasion of the south-east coast of Scotland took place, the stone may 
have been inscribed by them prior to the departure of the Romans. 

The measurements made by Dr John Beddoe* of the heads of persons in the 
border counties of Scotland gave the mean cephalic index 76 "4, equal to an index 74 # 4 
for the cranium ; measurements of heads in Edinburgh and the Lothians yielded the 
index 77 "4, equal to the cranial index 75. The dolichocephalic and mesodolicho- 
cephalic proportions associated them with the Anglo-Saxon type. 

The Anglo-Saxons in their turn were attacked by people known to history as the 
Danes. The invasion began in the tenth century along the east and south coasts of 
England, and continued at intervals for nearly half a century, when Canute became 
king and ruled the south of England, London, and the eastern counties. Northumbria 
also came under his influence ; but it is doubtful if the Lothians and Scottish border 
counties did to a material extent, except perhaps on the sea coast, as they had been 
lost to Northumbria and annexed to Scotland before the Danish invasion, when the 
present border line became established. Although called Danes, the invaders were 
from at least two of the three Scandinavian countries, and Norway undoubtedly 
provided a large Norse contingent. 

About the same time western France was invaded by the Norsemen, who 
established the dukedom of Normandy. In the latter half of the eleventh century 
Eugland was conquered by the Norman French, who founded a dynasty, and 
inaugurated a political and social revolution. No material change in the physical 
type of the English people was induced by this new invasion, and it exercised no 
influence on that of Scotland. 

"Sur Pliistoire de Pindex cdphalique dans les Isles Britanniques," in L' Anthropologic, vol. v, 1894. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 253 

Reference has incidentally been made in the text to the colour of the hair, eyes, 
and skin of the races now under consideration : aspects of the subject which form 
important topics for anthropological research. I have not, however, personally 
conducted systematic investigations into these matters. As regards Britain, elabor- 
ate series of observations have been made by the late Dr Beddoe and Messrs 
Gray and Tocher.* Mr Tocher has found that amongst the school children the 
hair in about one-fourth was fair, in one-fourth dark, and in nearly one-half it belonged 
to two intermediate classes embracing various shades of brown, or medium, and red 
hair. As regards the eyes, nearly one-fourth were dark brown or dark eyes ; over 
three-fourths were divided into 15 percent, pure blue eyes, 30 per cent, light eyes, 
and about 32 per cent, had eyes mixed in their type. He observed that an excess of 
the dark- and jet-black-haired, along with blue eyes, occurred in the western Gaelic- 
speaking counties — the Scoto-Celts ; though in Argyll and the Isles a light-eyed, 
dark-haired type prevailed. 

The skin in the Scottish people is mainly fair or blonde, though in some localities 
shades of brunette appear, with sometimes in the children of the same family 
examples of the blonde and the brunette. 

The pigmentation characters, the stature, and the head form testify to the 
influence exercised by the races of Northern Europe on the physical structure of 
the people of Britain. 

Summary. 

The review which I have attempted in this memoir of the people of prehistoric 
Scotland, though necessarily imperfect from paucity of material, is sufficient to show 
that the Scottish people have a long ancestral descent, modified in type throughout 
the centuries by a succession of invasions from the Continent. The most ancient in 
point of time, of which we have evidence, were the neolithic people of the polished 
stone age, of short stature, but not dwarfs. They, the builders, of the long barrows 
and chambered cairns, were ignorant of the use of metals. Their crania were long 
and relatively narrow, purely dolichocephalic. The face was high in relation to its 
breadth, the jaw not projecting, the nose narrow. We have no knowledge of the 
colour of the skin, hair, and eyes, but if the conjecture be correct that they were 
descended from the South European people of the Mediterranean basin, the skin 
would have been brunette, the hair jet-black, and the eyes black or dark brown. 

They were followed by a different type, the builders of the round barrows and 
short cists, with whom cremation was at first an occasional accompaniment of 

* Beddoe, in Races of Britain, 1885, and the Rhincl Lectures reprinted from Scottish Review, 1893 ; Gray and 
Tocher in a joint memoir (Journ. Anthrop. Inst., vol. xxx, 1900), and in separate memoirs, of which Tocher's " Pig- 
mentation Survey of School Children in Scotland," Biometrika, vol. vi, 1908, is the most comprehensive. He analysed 
the colour characters of somewhat more than half a million child ren, and gave the distribution of the various tints and 
shades of colour in the counties in Scotland. 

Dr John Brownlee, ina suggestive paper(Jo«ra. Anthrop. Inst.,\o\. xli, 1911), based on Dr Beddoe's measure- 
ments, considered the possibility of analysing race mixtures into their original stocks through the Mendelian formula. 



254 PRINCIPAL SIR WILLIAM TURNER ON 

inhumation, but subsequently became general and gave a marked character to their 
interments. In the early occupancy of Britain their weapons and tools resembled 
those of their neolithic predecessors, but bronze was introduced later and came into 
use. which has led to the expression bronze-age people being applied to them. In 
stature they were, as a rule, taller than their predecessors, though in some localities 
shorter skeletons have been observed. Their crania were shorter and relatively 
broad, brachycephalic or round-headed, though in some of the short-cist and round- 
barrow burials a proportion of longer skulls occurred. The face was low in relation 
to breadth, the jaw not projecting, the nose narrow. We do not definitely know 
the colour of the skin, hair, au,d eyes, though, on the supposition that they were 
derived from the Mid-European Alpine stock, the hair was probably dark-brown or 
black, the eyes brown or hazel, and the skin a pale brunette. The round-heads for 
more than a thousand years had occupied Britain from the English Channel to the 
Pentland Firth and from the North Sea to the Atlantic, though their remains are more 
abundant on the east than on the west side of the island. They were a most important 
factor, which persisted during later invasions and is in evidence at the present day. 

Next in succession were the Celts, derived apparently from G-aul and the country 
of the Belgae. The stock may at first have been brachycephalic, but through an 
intermixture with a preceding neolithic race in their own area, and perhaps also 
with North European tribes bordering on Mid-Europe, they became a mixed people. 
They did not possess therefore a uniform type of skull, and in addition to dolicho- 
cephali and brachycephali had examples of the intermediate or mesocephalic type. 
The jaw did not project, the nose was narrow, and the face was not relatively broad. 
They constituted, and still form, an important element in the people of both North 
and South Britain, who derived from them recognisable physical characters. 

The Norsemen, from the three Scandinavian countries of Northern Europe, were 
dolichocephalic, though, from the presence of brachycephalic centres on the sea coast of 
both Norway and Sweden, the invaders had possibly brought with them a proportion 
of round-headed comrades. Their stature was tall, skin and hair fair, eyes blue. 

The Anglo-Saxons were in large measure of Norse descent, though the Saxon 
element had doubtless undergone some intermixture with Mid-European people. 

Owing to constant intermarriage and crossing amongst these races in the course 
of centuries, it has become difficult to discriminate in the densely populated areas of 
the British Isles the several strains of blood. Where the inhabitants are fewer in 
number and through local conditions scattered and relatively isolated, evidence of 
descent from an original stock, or stocks, can be traced. From the intermarriage 
and crossing a mixed and virile people have been evolved, endowed with physical 
frames capable of great endurance ; provided with and acting under the governance 
of brains of energy, quality, and volume, which have enabled them to gain and 
retain a dominant position amongst the nations. 



THE CRANIOLOGY OF THE PEOPLE OF SCOTLAND. 255 



EXPLANATION OF FIGURES. 

Figs. 7, 18, 19, 29 are from illustrations in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland ; 
the blocks were kindly lent me by the Council of the Society. Figs. 6, 10, 12,20,21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 
28, 31 are from photographs of the skulls kindly made by Dr W. E. Carnegie Dickson. Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 
13 are from photographs made by Mr J. C. M'Kechnie. The process blocks are by D. Stevenson & Co. 

Fig. 1. Implement of deer-horn found alongside skeleton of whale. Drawn by A. A. Turner. 

Fig. 2 vertex, fig. 3 profile of skull from Newbattle. 

Fig. 4 vertex, fig. 5 profile, fig. 6 face of skull from Nether Urquhart, Fife. 

Fig. 7. Plan of chambered cairn with passage, Rousay, Orkney. 

Fig. 8. Cinerary urn, Kirkpark, from sketch by Professor Arthur Thomson. 

Fig. 9. Cinerary urn, Chesters, from drawing by Mr M. G. Craig. 

Fig. 10. Bowl- shaped urn, Beltield. 

Fig. 11. Short cist, Lei th. 

Fig. 12. Bowl -shaped urn, Leith. 

Fig. 13. Bowl-shaped urn, Bridgeness. 

Figs. 14 and 15. Short cist, Cousland, side and interior, from sketch by Mr Andrew Gow, not drawn 
to scale. 

Fig. 16. Flint arrow from Belfield cist, tip broken. Drawn by A. A. Turner. 

Fig. 17. Flint arrow-head from cairn on Pentlands. Drawn by A. A. Turner. 

Fig. 18. Vertex and right side of skull from Duns. Drawn by W. Turner. 

Fig. 19. Skulls from short cists, Ardachy, Mull, front face and profile. 

Fig. 20. Skull from Leith, profile, fig. 21 vertex. 

Fig. 22. Skull from Birsley, vertex. 

Fig. 23. Skull from Bridgeness, face, fig. 24 profile. 

Fig. 25. Skull from Morrison's" Haven. 

Fig. 26. Skull from Belfield, face, fig. 27 vertex. 

Fig. 28. Skull from Cavers, vertex. 

Fig. 29. Skulls from MacArthur Cave, Oban ; A, profile, B, profile, vertex, and face. 

Fig. 30. Section of Seafield Mausoleum, from a pen-and-ink sketch by W. Turner. 

Fig. 31. Skull from Mausoleum, profile. 



TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 5) 36 



( 257 



VI. — The Morphology and Development of the Free-swimming Sporosacs of the 
Hydroid Genus Dicoryne (including Heterocordyle). By J. H. Ashworth, 
D.Sc, University of Edinburgh, and James Ritchie, M.A., D.Sc., Royal 
Scottish Museum, Edinburgh. 

(Read June 21, 1915. MS. received August 25, 1915. Issued separately December 10, 1915.) 

[Plates VI-VIII.*] 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction , . 

Dicoryne conybearei, General Description of 

Colonies ...... 

Stolon : Regenerative Capacity of the Stolon 

Hydrocaulus and Hydranth 

Blastostyles ...... 

Development of the Sporosacs . 

The Sporosacs of Dicoryne conferta . 

Affinities of the Free-swimming Sporosacs 

Dicoryne conybearei ..... 



of 



PAGE 

257 

258 
259 
260 
261 
263 
266 

269 



A Discussion of the Homology of the Sporosacs of 
Dicoryne ........ 

Abnormal Sporosacs of Dicoryne conybearei 

Early Developmental Stages of Dicoryne conybearei . 

Distinctive Characters of the Species of Dicoryne 



Specific Characters of Dicoryne conybearei 

emend 

Dicoryne, Allman, char, emend. 
List of Works Quoted 
Description of Figures 



(Allman), 



271 

277 
278 
280 

282 
282 
283 

284 



Introduction. 

Hitherto there has been described only a single species — Dicoryne conferta 
(Alder) — amongst the Hydrozoa in which the reproductive body is a sporosac which 
becomes^ ciliated and free-swimming. We have found that another species which, 
as we shall show (pp. 269-271), must be named Dicoryne conybearei gives rise to 
reproductive ' bodies of this type, which, however, differ from those of Dicoryne 
conferta in several important respects. The free-swimming type of sporosac has 
not been the subject of close observation since 1872 ; we have therefore made 
as complete a study of the structure and development of the sporosacs, especially 
of D. conybearei, as material gathered from several sources would permit. 

The material of D. conybearei at our disposal consists of colonies on seven 
gastropod shells,! dredged off the island of Nisida, in the Bay of Naples, in April 

* The cost of the blocks for text-figs. 2 and 3 and of reproduction of the plates has been defrayed by a grant 
from the Carnegie Trust for the Universities of Scotland, and we are further indebted to the Trust for a grant for 
artistic assistance in connection with Plate VI. 

t The specimens were brought to the Naples Zoological Station, and handed, along with other hydroid material, 
to Mr T. J. Anderson, who was at that time studying the Hydrozoa while holding a Carnegie Scholarship. 
I was working in the Naples Station at the same time, and, on seeing these colonies and their sporosacs, realised, 
as did Mr Anderson, that they presented several new and interesting features. Mr Anderson left Naples shortly 
afterwards, and, before he had been able to work further at the material, went to Nairobi to take up the 
appointment he now holds. On his departure he kindly placed the specimens in my hands. Unfortunately, 
Mr Anderson did not make any notes on the colours of the colonies, or on the movements of the sporosacs, so 
that on these points I have merely impressions derived from glimpses of the specimens in the brief intervals of my 
own work on other subjects. — [J. H. A.] 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 6). 37 



258 DR J. H. ASHWOHTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

1906, and of two slides containing a considerable number of sporosacs of both 
sexes, from the same source, mounted in formalin. The eruption of Vesuvius of 
that year had just concluded, and the showers bf fine dust had produced great 
mortality among the marine organisms. To this cause we attribute the fact that, 
of the seven shells, one bore a dead colony, and five others bore colonies from which 
the ordinary polyps had almost wholly disappeared. In these five colonies, however, 
living substance in the form of coenosarc in the stolon was present, and a number 
of blastostyles — though on two of the colonies there were very few — had managed 
to survive. The remaining shell bore a colony in good condition, and it is on this 
that most of our observations have been made. 

General Description of the Colonies of Dicoryne conybearei.* 

(See PI. VI.) 

The colonies are in each case on small, gastropod shells of the genus Nassa, and 
those which are well established spread over the entire shell, showing no preference 
for any particular portion, though, as a rule, the individuals in the neighbourhood 
of the mouth of the shell are more luxuriantly developed. 

In young examples the stolon can be easily seen forming an irregular meshwork 
on the surface of the shell, but in older examples the interspaces between the strands 
of the stolon become filled with diatoms and debris so that a uniform rusty-grey 
covering is formed, obscuring the stolon and obliterating the finer marking of 
the shell. 

From the stolon, at irregular intervals, arises either a short stalk terminated by 
a single hydranth, or a longer branched stem bearing two, three, or four, (rarely 
more) hydranths. The stems are rusty grey in colour, due, as in the case of the 
stolons, to a covering of foreign bodies (in this case chiefly volcanic dust) adherent 
to the chitin. The perisarc of the stem is irregularly corrugated or wrinkled, and 
at its distal end widens slightly, forming a small, transversely wrinkled cup, which 
bears a dense coating of foreign particles. This elementary hydrotheca covers, in 
the full-grown polyps, only a very small proximal portion of the hydranth body. 
The hydranths are ovoid or fusiform according to the state of expansion. Each has 
a prominent conical hypostome surrounded by a whorl of filiform tentacles. The 
number of tentacles varies from six in the youngest specimens observed to sixteen 
in the largest adults. 

The sporosacs are borne on blastostyles which arise either directly from the 
stolon or from the stems of polyps. The blastostyle varies in form according to 
its phase of development. It is at first almost cylindrical or slightly dilated at 
its distal end, which is armed with numerous nematocysts, but soon becomes 
swollen about the middle of its length and is henceforward more or less vase-shaped. 

* For the diagnostic characters of this species see p. 282. 



FREE-SWIMMTNG SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 259 

The fully developed blastostyle lias a narrow base of attachment to the stolon or to 
a hydranth stem, a wide middle region on which the sporosacs are borne, and a 
narrower, dome-shaped distal region bearing plentiful nematocysts. The blastostyle, 
which has neither mouth nor tentacles, is enveloped at its base by a simple 
hydrotheca similar to that of a hydranth. 

A full-grown blastostyle bears usually from eighteen to twenty-four sporosacs, but 
occasionally more are present ; the largest number observed was thirty-four. All the 
sporosacs on a blastostyle are of the same sex, and throughout any one colony the sex 
of the blastostyles is uniform. 

The free-swimming sporosac is provided with a single tentacle * and is ciliated 
all over. The female sporosac is sub-spherical and bears in every case only a single 
oocyte, at one side of which a well-developed spadix is present. The male sporosac 
is usually rather smaller, and more oval in form, and the mass of spermatozoa is 
arranged round an axial spadix. 

Further details of the various portions of the colony may now be given. 

Stolon (PI. VI, fig. 1 ; PI. VIII, figs. 14, 15). 

The external surface of the stolon or hydrorhiza is moderately smooth, i.e. without 
corrugations, and there are no internal chitinous projections of the perisarc such as 
are found supporting the walls in several gymnoblastic and calyptoblastic hydroids, 
e.g. Podocoryne anechinata, Ritchie ; Sertularia heterodonta, Ritchie ; Plumularia 
lagenifera, var. septifera, Torrey. Branches are produced from the stolon strands 
(fig. l), and for a time their ends are free and rounded, but later they anastomose 
with neighbouring strands of the stolon, and thus the meshwork becomes complex. 
The perisarc of the stolon is about 6 (jl thick and of a brown colour. The histology 
of the ccenosarc does not present any unusual feature. 

Regenerative Capacity of the Stolon. — A point of considerable biological interest 
may be noted here. It has already been remarked that on all the colonised shells, 
except one, almost all the larger hydranths are disintegrated and their stems empty 
of ccenosarc. One colony was evidently dead when preserved, but even in the least 
promising of the others a few very small hydranths, with only six tentacles (fig. 1, H i), 
can be seen growing out directly from the stolon, thus giving evidence that, in spite 
of. the destruction of the more visible portions of the colony, a residue of living cells 
still remains within the stolon ready to start into being a new series of individuals. 
Probably these young hydranths had developed during the few days the colonies had 
been living under favourable conditions in an aquarium in the Zoological Station. 
Microscopic examination of the stolons from these colonies shows that although 
many parts are empty, other portions contain a plentiful amount of normal ccenosarc. 
This living ccenosarc had been protected and shut off from the influence of deleterious 

* One abnormal sporosac with a bifid tentacle and two others each with two tentacles have been observed 
(see p. 277). 



260 DR J. H. ASH WORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

conditions by the formation of thin transverse partitions of chitin barring the 
lumen of the stolon at certain points. In several cases barrier after barrier had been 
successively formed by the ccenosarc, which had been forced to retreat stage by stage 
within the stolon (PI. VIII, fig. 14). Such chitinoid barriers are formed by a plug of 
coenosarc (fig. 15), composed of a circular plate of thick ectoderm and of solid 
endoderm, similar in general form and structure to the " Deckenplatte," which 
secretes the operculum in many species of calyptoblastic hydroids. It is clear, 
therefore, that, in addition to serving as a hold-fast for the colony, the stolon 
performs an important function during time of stress in retaining and protecting 
from harmful environmental influences sufficient ccenosarc to give rise, when con- 
ditions have again become favourable for normal existence, to new series of nutritive 
and reproductive individuals. 

Hydrocaulus and Hydranth (PI. VI). 

The smallest hydranths observed on the stolon are sessile, are about '2-'3 mm. in 
length, and have already developed six slender tentacles (fig. l). The stem of the 
polyp gradually elongates, and not long after the polyp has attained a length of 
about a millimetre a branch usually appears, others being formed later. The largest 
living stems observed are 2*8 mm. long and bear four individuals. There are, how- 
ever, on two of the colonies dead stems 4-5 mm. long, which bore seven to eight 
individuals. The branches arise at intervals along the stem and lie at acute angles 
to the main stem, to which they are more or less parallel. It is rare to find the 
branches subdivided; this occurs only in a very few of the basal branches of the 
largest stems. Such branches bore two, and in one case three, hydranths, one of 
which was small — a blastostyle-bud or a very young hydranth. Examination of 
hydranths of various ages gives the impression that there are longer and shorter 
tentacles alternating, and that the longer ones in life pointed distally while the shorter 
ones were directed more or less horizontally. It is, however, difficult to make certain 
of this in preserved specimens in which the tentacles exhibit various phases of con- 
traction. When well extended the longer tentacles slightly exceed '5 mm. in length. 

Towards the base of the stem or hydrocaulus the perisarc, which as usual is 
laminate, is 3-4 /x thick, and of a brownish-yellow colour. Here the covering of 
extraneous debris is often meagre, in strong contrast to the dense coating present at 
the distal end of the stem at the base of the hydranth body. In its distal portion 
the perisarc is less definite in outline, its laminae more feebly marked, and its colour 
gradually pales until the portion surrounding the base of the hydranth is represented 
by a thin hyaline substance the outline of which is merely indicated by the presence 
of adherent foreign particles. 

The hydrocaulus and hydranth have been examined in several series of longi- 
tudinal sections. As the two cell-layers do not appear to present special features, we 
do not describe their histology in detail. The ectoderm of the hydrocaulus lies in 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 261 

close contact with the perisarc, especially in the distal region. At the level of the 
distal edge of the hydrotheca the cells of the ectoderm are generally more columnar, 
elsewhere they are less regular. Among the ectoderm cells of the stem may be 
noticed a few large nematocysts. The bases of the ectoderm cells are prolonged into 
very thin contractile processes which run longitudinally. The ectoderm is separated 
from the endoderm by a well-defined lamella of mesoglcea. The endoderm of the 
stem is a layer of flattened epithelial cells with granular protoplasm and large 
vesicular nuclei in most of which a large nucleolus is present. Here and there are 
large oval cells crowded with deeply staining spherules, probably of excretory 
nature. 

In the greater part of the hydranth the mesoglceal lamella is more strongly 
developed than in the stem, but diminishes in thickness towards the mouth and also 
on entering the tentacles. The ectoderm at the apex of the hypostome contains 
numerous oval nematocysts. The largest of these are about 6 /a long and 3 fi broad, 
but many others are only about two-thirds this size. The endoderm, which in the 
stem is thin, becomes in the hydranth a very thick layer. Among the ordinary 
elongate, vacuolated endoderm cells are many clavate cells packed with spherules of 
secretion. The wide lumen of the hydranth narrows rapidly proximally, i.e. on 
approaching the stem, to a canal about 25-30 /x, in width which is continuous through 
the similar lumen in the stolon with the cavities of the neighbouring individuals 
of the colony. 

The tentacles are solid, the endoderm of each being composed of a single column 
of discoidal cells with stout walls. Each cell is much vacuolated, the protoplasm 
being aggregated into a small mass around the central nucleus, from which a few 
strands radiate. The nematocysts of the tentacles are small and oval, about 4 [x long 
and 2 /a broad. 

Blastostyles (PI. VI). 

The blastostyles arise either directly from the stolon or from the hydrocaulus, 
but most of them are borne on the stolon. Those arising from polyps (fig. 1, B v) 
are more recently formed than the majority of those on the stolon ; possibly they 
are formed in seasonal succession, first on the stolon and later on the hydrocaulus. 
A blastostyle arising from a hydrocaulus is at first difficult to distinguish from a 
polyp-bud of the same size, but the latter soon develops tentacles and a mouth, 
structures which are not present in blastostyles. The basal portion of each blasto- 
style is protected by an envelope of perisarc the distal region of which is sometimes 
moderately thick, widened into a shallow cup-shape, and easily seen ; but more often 
the perisarc is thin and almost transparent. Invariably, however, the distal margin 
of the perisarc is marked by a coating of extraneous matter. 

The blastostyles vary in form according to their phases of development, and there 
are also considerable individual variations. Young blastostyles are, for the most 
part, nearly cylindrical or slightly dilated at their distal ends, where numerous 



262 PR J. H. ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

ncmatocysts are present (fig. 1, B i). In some cases, however, the blastostyle is more 
clavate, and in others is even more dilated, being almost ovate distally owing to the 
great development of the ectoderm of the region bearing the nematocysts (fig. 1, B in). 
The nematocysts are of two kinds : those at the tip of the blastostyle are large and 
elongate oval in form (PI. VII, fig. 7), their length being about 15-16 /x and their 
breadth 4-5 /a ; the nematocysts on the sides of. the distal portion of the blasto- 
style are smaller and of more rounded oval form, their length and breadth being 
about 6-7 ft and 4 /a respectively. 

In young blastostyles the endoderm consists of high columnar cells, filled with 
finely granular protoplasm, so that the ccelenteron is represented by a narrow axial 
slit, but in mature blastostyles a large ccelenteron is present, though in the distal 
portion — corresponding to the hypostome of a hydranth — the cavity is smaller. The 
greater part of the endoderm of such a mature blastostyle is composed of elongate, 
thin-walled cells which are highly vacuolated, but the endoderm of the hypostomal 
region consists of smaller columnar cells similar to those of the young blastostyle, 
and their granular protoplasm is but little vacuolated. Among the ordinary 
endoderm-cells are globular cells — numerous in some blastostyles, more scanty in 
others — containing masses of granules, probably excretory, which stain deeply with 
iron-heematoxylin. 

The ectoderm of the column of the blastostyle is similar to that of a hydranth, 
and its cells are provided with muscle-processes which run longitudinally, but at the 
distal end of the blastostyle the ectoderm is thicker and heavily charged with 
nematocysts of two kinds (see above). The external surface of the ectoderm is 
covered by a thin cuticle. 

The mesoglcea of the middle region of the blastostyle attains a great development, 
often reaching a thickness of 6 fi, and on the endodermal side is raised into many 
irregular folds. In the hypostomal area the mesoglcea is much thinner, and at the 
tip of the blastostyle is a film of extreme tenuity. 

Oocytes about 6 /u, in diameter are distinguishable in the ectoderm of the blasto- 
styles by the time the latter have attained a length of little more than '2 mm. They 
are situated in a zone around the blastostyle near the middle of its length. By the 
time the blastostyle is about '5 mm. long the oocytes become so large as to cause 
ectodermal elevations * — the beginnings of the sporosacs — on the surface of the 
blastostyle. About this time the blastostyle generally becomes swollen in its middle 
region and is henceforward vase-shaped, the sporosacs being borne on this wider 
portion (fig. 1, B iv). The distal region, which throughout the life of the blastostyle 
is armed with the two varieties of nematocysts described above, remains narrower 
and somewhat dome-shaped. The longest blastostyles observed are about "7 mm. in 
length (see fig. 1, B iv). 

* Occasionally such elevations are present in smaller blastostyles, in one case when the blastostyle was only 
■25 mm. long (see fig. 1, Bn), but this is exceptional. 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 263 

Development of the Sporosacs. 
A. The Female Sporosacs (PI. VII). 

The oocytes are differentiated and grow in the ectoderm of a blastostyle in the 
positions which the sporosacs will subsequently occupy ; there is no migration of 
oocytes from endoderm to ectoderm, nor does there appear to be any movement of 
oocytes in the ectoderm. The differentiation and early phases of growth of an 
oocyte precede the formation of the sporosac which is to contain it. Oocytes of 
apparently very different ages are present in the reproductive zone of a single blasto- 
style, and there seems to be no definite rule as to the period of growth or size of 
oocyte governing the first appearance of the sporosac. For instance, small oocytes 
7—10 ft in diameter have been observed within distinct ectodermal swellings, but 
two others, each about 18 ft in diameter, lie in ectoderm the surface of which 
is not elevated. 

The first stage of formation of the sporosac is due directly to the growth in 
volume of the oocyte. As the bulk of the latter increases the overlying ectoderm is 
raised into a dome-shaped mound, and the ectoderm cells surrounding the oocyte 
become considerably elongated. At this stage (fig. 2) the sporosac-elevation is 
entirely ectodermal, no changes having taken place in the neighbouring endoderm 
and mesoglcea. 

Further increase in the size of the oocyte soon involves the formation of a more 
definite ovoid outgrowth (fig. 3). The ectoderm cells covering the rapidly growing 
oocyte multiply and form a single layer of moderately regular cells ; at the same 
time the subjacent endoderm increases and the mesoglcea becomes arched outwards 
and diminishes in thickness to a mere film. The base of the sporosac thus becomes 
occupied by a mass of endoderm — the spadix — connected with the endoderm of the 
blastostyle by a narrow neck. The cells of the spadix are arranged radially and 
with considerable regularity, and there is a small axial cavity (frequently filled with 
granular matter as indicated in the figure) continuous with the ccelenteron of the 
blastostyle. The base of the oocyte applied to the endoderm lies obliquely with 
regard to the axis of the gonophore, and this obliquity is still further increased as 
growth proceeds, the spadix eventually being pushed to one side of the oocyte. 

In the older sporosac, shown in fig. 4, the spadix has a large central cavity and 
its cells contain brownish granules which apparently increase in number with the 
age of the sporosac. Some time prior to the stage figured there appears, immediately 
proximal to the sporosac proper, a constriction which is of great importance in the 
subsequent history of the sporosac. For convenience of description we shall refer 
to the region proximal to the constriction as the sporosac-stalk, to the distal region 
as the sporosac, and to the connection between the two at the zone of constriction 
as the sporosac-neck. In the sporosac-stalk the ectoderm retains its original character 
and resembles that of the blastostyle, being composed of relatively large cells with 



264 DR J. H. ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

correspondingly large oval nuclei. The ectoderm cells of the sporosac are smaller 
and of a different type ; they have undergone rapid division, resulting in the formation 
of a thin layer of uniform squarish or oblong cells with small, spherical, deeply 
staining nuclei. Occasional small oval nematocysts are present in the ectoderm of 
the sporosac and the cells are finally ciliated. A thin continuous cuticle envelops 
the whole ectoderm both proximal and distal to the constriction. In the sporosac- 
stalk the mesogioea is of moderate thickness, but at the constriction it rapidly 
diminishes in amount and in the sporosac is very thin. At an early stage in the 
differentiation of the neck-region of the sporosac an outgrowth — consisting of 
ectoderm and endoderm — appears at the base of the sporosac. This outgrowth 
undergoes rapid development and becomes a finger-like process — the future tentacle 
of the sporosac — with ectoderm like that of the sporosac and with solid endoderm in 
a single column of cells. The tentacle is confined between the ectoderm and cuticle 
of the sporosac, its tip being directed distally. 

With the further development of the sporosac the constriction at the neck 
becomes more and more pronounced. The ectoderm of the sporosac and that of the 
stalk no longer maintain continuity, with the result that in its final stage the neck 
consists only of a narrow tube of mesoglcea with a slender central core of vacuolated 
endoderm (fig. 4). 

During the later phases of growth of the sporosac and oocyte a narrow peripheral 
zone of the latter becomes differentiated ; it is more finely granular than the 
remainder of the yolky cytoplasm and reacts differently to stain (p. 278). Several 
of the larger oocytes examined in sections are enveloped by a thin pellicle about 
1 /x in thickness — the vitelline membrane. 

By the time the oocyte has attained a diameter of about 80-90 /a the tentacle 
of the sporosac is fully developed, the neck has been reduced to its minimum, and the 
sporosac is ready to break away from the blastostyle and become free-swimming. 
The process of release appears to be purely mechanical, and to be due to the action 
of currents in the surrounding medium playing upon the relatively large bulk of 
the sporosac and breaking its slender attachments. At any rate, no histological 
change could be observed in sporosac-stalks from which the sporosacs had recently 
escaped. The escape is evidently due simply to the rupture of the loose cuticle in 
the neighbourhood of the neck and then of the thin neck itself. In a few cases 
where the cuticle had failed to rupture, the sporosacs have remained attached to their 
stalks, and their respective oocytes have undergone degeneration. 

On the sporosac becoming free the loose cuticle which covers it is usually soon 
discarded. The tentacle, now released from its confined position, becomes extended 
so as to lie more or less in line with the long axis of the sporosac, in the position 
shown in fig. 5. The numerous cilia of the general ectoderm and of the tentacle 
come into play and the sporosac swims, at the same time rotating on its own axis, 
probably with the tentacle directed anteriorly, though the observations on the 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 265 

living specimens in captivity were not sufficient to establish this point with 
certainty. 

The subsequent life of the sporosac is probably of short duration. The ectoderm 
is ruptured (fig. 6), the oocyte escapes, and maturation and fertilisation no doubt 
soon take place. We have, however, seen three examples in which fertilisation and 
egg-cleavage had occurred while the egg was still contained in the remains of the 
sporosac, but these are probably exceptional cases and may have been determined by 
the abnormal conditions of captivity. All the other developing eggs were found 
free from the sporosacs. Whether the eggs, when liberated, float or sink to the 
bottom we are unable to say. 

The blastostyles apparently produce successive series of sporosacs, for on a blasto- 
style which bears almost fully formed sporosacs are oocytes only about 15/x in 
diameter in small elevations of the ectoderm, forming incipient sporosacs of a 
new series. 

B. The Male Sporosacs (PI. VIII, figs. 8, 9, 10). 

The material at our disposal for the study of the male sporosacs, while not so 
complete as for the females, is sufficient to enable us to give an account of the main 
features of their development. Several blastostyles bearing male sporosacs in their 
early and middle stages of development were present on three of the colonies ; these 
have been studied entire and in longitudinal serial sections, and about a score of 
free male sporosacs have also been examined. 

The male sporosacs are confined to a narrow zone about the middle of the 
blastostyle. The first indication of their appearance is the differentiation in the 
base of the ectoderm of one or more cells (usually there seem to be two or three). 
These are ovoid in form, their protoplasm stains more deeply than that of the 
neighbouring cells, and their nuclei are larger and of a more vesicular type, with 
peripheral granules of chromatin and a large nucleolus (fig. 8). 

The elevation which eventually becomes the sporosac seems to be due to the 
almost simultaneous activity of both cell-layers. The ordinary ectoderm cells of 
such an incipient sporosac multiply pari passu with the spermatogonia, and the 
subjacent endoderm, judging from the special character of the cells, is also in a state 
of considerable activity, so that the condition seen in fig. 9 soon results. 

The thick ectoderm of the distal end of the sporosac is composed chiefly of 
a mass of deeply staining cells — the spermatogonia — on the periphery of which 
are scattered cells which stain more faintly, these being the ordinary cells which 
will later form the ectodermic envelope of the sperm mass. The endoderm cells 
below the spermatogonia are more granular and stain rather more deeply than the 
cells proximal to them. This endodermal spadix is either solid or has a narrow 
central lumen continuous with the ccelenteron of the blastostyle. The mesogloea of 
the sporosac is thin and grades into that of the blastostyle. Such a sporosac, having 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 6). 38 



2G6 DB J. H. ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

an axial spadix, is radially symmetrical, a symmetry which it retains until the 
formation of the tentacle. 

We have no examples intermediate between that just described and the free 
sporosac (fig. 10), but no doubt the male sporosac becomes detached from the 
blastostyle in the same manner as the female. Like the latter, it is clothed with 
long cilia, as also is the tentacle, which comes to lie in line with the long axis of the 
sporosac ; and probably the male sporosac, like the female, swims with the tentacle 
directed anteriorly. 

In shape the male sporosac is readily distinguishable from the female, since it is 
elongate oval — the female being sub-spherical, — and is usually a little smaller. The 
average length (excluding the tentacle) and breadth of twenty male sporosacs are 
'096 mm. and '064 mm. respectively, the largest being '12 mm. long and '07 mm. 
broad. The tentacle, when extended, is "04-'06 mm. long. The average length and 
breadth of twenty female sporosacs are '115 mm. and '1 mm. respectively, the largest 
being '135 mm. long and "115 mm. broad, and the tentacle is '05-'07 mm. in length 
when extended. 

The free male sporosac is of simple structure (fig. 10). Externally it is covered 
with ectoderm composed of regular ciliated cells. The endodermal spadix, which has 
a central cavity, runs axially from one pole to the other, passing at one end into the 
solid endoderm of the tentacle and at the other abutting against the ectoderm. The 
cells of the spadix of most free sporosacs exhibit a degenerate appearance. Between 
the ectoderm and the spadix lies the cylindrical mass of spermatozoa. We have no 
observations on the mode of escape of the sperms from the sporosac. 

The Sporosacs of Dicoryne conferta (Alder). 

The characters of the reproductive bodies described in the preceding pages clearly 
place them in close relationship with the free-swimming sporosac of Dicoryne con- 
ferta described by Allman (1861 and 1872). The most marked differences lie in the 
single tentacle of the Neapolitan examples as contrasted with a pair in D. conferta, 
and in the single oocyte of the former as against the normal pair * in the latter. 
Allman was content merely to mention the " defined line" along which the sporosac 
of D. conferta becomes detached, without indicating its origin or nature, and, owing 
to lack of mature material, the detailed descriptions of later writers have stopped 
short of the stage at which the tentacles develop. In the hope of correlating more 
definitely the developmental stages of these remarkable and closely related sporosacs, 
we have re-examined their development in D. conferta. 

The material examined consists of colonies from (a) Kristineberg, Sweden, lent 
by Professor Hjalmar Theel from the collections of the Stockholm Museum ; (b) 

* Goette (1907, p. 67) has stated that in young sporosacs of D. conferta there are occasionally three or four 
oocytes, and sometimes only one ; and Hartlaub (1897, p. 480) has recorded the finding of free-swimming sporosacs 
of this species, in plankton collections off Heligoland, which possessed three oocytes and the normal two tentacles. 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 267 

Blacksod Bay, Plymouth:, lent by Dr E. J. Allen, F.R.S., from the collections in the 
Laboratory of the Marine Biological Association, Plymouth ; and (c) North Sea, 
lat. 57° 43' N., long. 0° 38' E., in a collection received for identification by one of us 
from the North Sea Investigation Committee of the Scottish Fishery Board. 

It is a matter for regret that the specimens from each of these localities bear 
male sporosacs only. As in the Neapolitan examples these are clustered upon blasto- 
styles borne upon the hydrorhiza or upon the hydrocaulus, but in D. conferta they 
are relatively more frequent on the latter. 

The spermatogonia are first to be distinguished in the ectoderm of the blastostyle 
on account of the deeper stain absorbed by their nuclei. They do not migrate : their 
situation already indicates the position of the future sporosacs. In all the blasto- 
styles of D. conferta which we have sectioned the mesogloea is of unusual thickness, 
averaging 6 ft and reaching even 13 /a, and this induces a slight modification in the 
early development of the gonophore. For whereas in the Neapolitan examples of 
D. conybearei the mesogloea, even at the earliest stage, was bent outwards into the 
sporosac-mound, in D. conferta the abrupt edges of mesogloea at the junction between 
blastostyle and gonophore show that a disc of the mesogloea has been almost com- 
pletely resorbed, the thin film remaining being then pushed outwards by the growing 
endoderm taking part in the formation of the sporosac. 

The early development of the sporosac follows the course described for the 
Neapolitan examples (see pp. 265, 266). There is a large endodermal spadix which 
either has a narrow central lumen or is solid, a thin film of mesogloea, and a thick 
cap of ectoderm consisting of a mass of spermatogonia with more peripherally placed 
covering cells. The sporosac is invested with a cuticle considerably thicker and 
usually developing at an earlier stage than that present in the Neapolitan ones, 
and foreign particles are adherent to it. 

The subsequent development is marked by a constriction in the proximal portion 
of the sporosac. This proceeds to such an extent that finally a neck is formed 
containing only a narrow cylinder of endoderm invested by a thin film of mesogloea 
which is separated by a considerable interval from the cuticle still strengthening the 
connection between the newly developed sporosac-stalk (see p. 263) and the sporosac 
proper (PI. VIII, fig. 16). The blastostyle type of ectoderm is retained in the 
sporosac-stalk, but in the sporosac a thin ectoderm of almost uniform cells, with 
relatively large nuclei, is formed by rapid division. With the appearance of two 
tentacles, the origin of which dates from the- beginning of the constriction at the 
sporosac-neck, the sporosac assumes bilateral in place of radial symmetry. The 
tentacles originate as a couple of buds which arise opposite each other from the wall 
of the sporosac immediately distal to the narrow neck. Pushing distalwards they 
are retained alongside the sporosac by the cuticle. With the maturing of the 
reproductive products the cells of the spadix undergo regenerative changes, and in 
most cases the spadix exhibits a distinct central cavity. The cuticle enveloping the 



268 DR J. H ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

sporosac appears to become gradually thicker and of deeper colour, and its coat of 
debris also increases in amount. The length of a mature male sporosac is '17-' 19 mm., 
and its maximum diameter "1— '13 mm. 

Although we have been unable to follow the development further and to study the 
actual release of the sporosacs, it is evident that, as in the Neapolitan examples, the 
cuticle, probably under mechanical tension, becomes ruptured in the neighbourhood 
of the sporosac-neck, that the neck itself, being unable to bear the whole strain put 
upon it, breaks, and thus the sporosac is liberated. The tentacles, on being released 
from confinement, come to lie more or less parallel to the long axis of the body. 

Allman, in 1861 (p. 169), gave a description of the adult male sporosac, and this 
he repeated in substance in his monograph (1872, p. 226). He gives no information 
regarding the development of the sporosac, nor does he mention the peculiar con- 
striction which ultimately leads to its release; indeed his figure (1871, pi. viii, 
fig. 5) is defective in showing no trace of a constriction nor of the "defined line" to 
which he refers as forming the breaking plane proximal to the tentacle bases. It 
seems to us also that Allman has distorted his description and obscured the issues 
by impressing on this unique type of sporosac a terminology derived from and 
depending on medusoid homologies. Thus, as applied to the male sporosac of 
D. conferta, Allman' s " internal sac" or " endotheca" is no more than the ectoderm, 
a direct derivative, slightly modified, of the ectoderm of the blastostyle ; and the 
" external sac " or " ectotheca " is simply the cuticle secreted by the ectoderm, 
homologous and continuous with the cuticle which covers the ectoderm of the blasto- 
style and of the colony in general. The assumption that the sporosac is a medusoid 
has led Allman into a further error ; for assuming the usual construction of a medu- 
soid to be followed in this case, he described and figured a distinct space between 
the "ectotheca" and the "endotheca" (1871, pi. viii, fig. 5). So far as we have 
observed, the cuticle, except for such small distortion and displacement as are 
unavoidable in preservation and mounting, lies close upon the ectoderm, and there 
is no determinate space between the two as represented in Allman's figure. The 
tentacle in its growth forces apart the cuticle from the ectoderm, but there is not an 
already pre-existing space. In his description of the release of the sporosac an 
obvious slip occurs, for the sporosac could not break through the " endotheca," as 
he states, but escapes from the so-called " ectotheca." 

Female sporosacs were not discovered on any of the mature colonies of D. conferta 
examined by us. In this respect our experience agrees with that of Goette 
(1897, p. 67), who found that colonies with female sporosacs were entirely unisexual. 
Allman, however, states that he " occasionally met with both male and female stems 
in the same colony" (1872, p. 226). The earliest stages in the development of the 
female sporosacs have been described by Goette (1897, pp. 67, 68, Taf. vi, figs. 
122-127). They closely resemble those of our Neapolitan material, except that in 
place of the single oocyte of the latter the sporosac of the former includes two. In 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 269 

the Neapolitan sporosacs the spadix lies to one side of the enlarged oocyte, in 
D. conferta the spadix is situated between the two oocytes and, notwithstanding 
considerable compression in the later stages, retains its original axial position through- 
out development. Goette's observations on the development of the female sporosac 
cease at a stage long before the appearance of the tentacles, but Allman has given 
a moderately full description of the free, tentacled sporosac (1861, 1872). 

From direct observation we can add nothing to Allman's account, but the close- 
ness of the developmental and structural relations between the male sporosacs of 
D. conferta and D. conybearei, together with the similarity in the general lines 
of development of the earlier stages of the female sporosac in these species, 
suggest that the adult female gonophores of the two species will present similar 
structure. We may, therefore, indicate probable additions to and slight emendations 
in the description given by Allman. Some of the remarks made on his description 
of the male gonophore (p. 268) apply also to the female, e.g. in regard to the 
"ectotheca" and "endotheca" and their supposed homology with the layers of a 
medusoid gonophore. Allman does not mention the formation of a constriction at 
which the sporosac breaks away from the sporosac stalk, although such a neck is no 
doubt formed in the female as in the male. Further, he states that " each ovum is 
invested by a proper membrane, which presents the remarkable and unique character 
of possessing considerable thickness and being richly set with thread-cell-like bodies " 
(1872, p. 227). In connection with this statement we draw attention to the fact 
that the oocyte of D. conybearei exhibits a differentiated peripheral zone of cyto- 
plasm and not infrequently also a thin vitelline membrane, but these are not 
cellular layers and they do not contain nematocysts. Probably the condition is 
similar in D. conferta. 

Affinities of the Free-swimming Sporosacs of Dicoryne conybearei. 

The free-swimming sporosacs from Naples are evidently closely related to those 
of Dicoryne conferta, and the former should undoubtedly be referred to the genus 
Dicoryne. The origin and development of the gonads and of their investment 
agree in the two cases almost to the smallest details, the main point of difference 
being that the Neapolitan sporosacs possess only one tentacle and the female bears 
one oocyte, while the sporosacs of D. conferta have two tentacles and the female 
contains as a rule a pair of oocytes. 

A close relationship also exists between the sporosacs from Naples and those of 
Heterocordyle conybearei, Allman, described by Allman (1872, pp. 307, 308 ; pi. x, 
figs. 4-7) from material collected in Glengariff Harbour, Co. Cork, and by Weismann 
(1883, p. 84, Taf. xi, figs. 7, 8) from Neapolitan specimens. Allman names the parts 
of the sporosac of H. conybearei in accordance with his view of their medusoid 
homologies, but from Weismann's account it appears that in every respect the 



270 PR J. H. ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

development of the male and female sporosacs, as far as it was traced, agrees with 
that of our Neapolitan sporosacs. The female sporosac of H. conybearei bears a 
single oocyte. According to the accounts of Allman and Weismann, the develop- 
ment of the sporosacs in 17. conybearei stops a long way short of the stage reached 
by our Neapolitan sporosacs, for in the former no free-swimming stage was observed 
and no trace of tentacle detected, so that the sporosac was considered by both 
authors to belong to the fixed type. 

Evidence we have accumulated indicates that the sporosacs of Heterocordyle 
conybearei examined by Allman and Weismann were not fully mature, and that 
consequently these authors (whose accounts have been followed by later writers) were 
misled as to the final structure and essential nature of the sporosacs. The identity 
of the early stages of the sporosacs of H. conybearei with those of our material has 
already been pointed out, but it was desirable to ascertain definitely whether or not 
the later phases were identical, which could only be determined by examining a well- 
preserved, mature colony indubitably belonging to H. conybearei, and preferably 
obtained from some source other than Naples. We were unable to obtain such a colony 
until this paper was standing in proof, when Mr E. T. Browne kindly lent to us a 
colony, collected near Plymouth in 1895, and identified by him as H. conybearei* — 
an identification with which we fully agree. This colony covers an area of about 
9x4 mm. on a portion of a shell, and is probably younger than those from Naples 
examined by us, since nearly all the stems bear a single hydranth, only a few having 
two. The characters of the trophosome of Mr Browne's colony are in agreement with 
those of our Neapolitan examples, but the largest polyps of his colony are distinctly 
larger than any of ours. Further, the mature blastostyles of his colony are longer 
than ours (his longest being about 1*3 mm. and ours 7 mm. in length respectively), 
but have approximately the same width. We do not attach any significance to these 
differences, as they may both be due to the exceptional conditions under which the 
Neapolitan examples passed their last days in the seat ( see P- 258). 

The blastostyles of Mr Browne's colony are, with one exception, confined to the 
stolon, and are for the most part young, only five bearing sporosacs. One blasto- 
style, which was removed for detailed examination, bears a dozen large sporosacs — 
evidently its first series — in a cluster slightly distal to its middle. More distal, and 
extending to the base of the hypostomal area, is a broad zone the ectoderm of which 
exhibits numerous small elevations (incipient sporosacs) each containing a single 
oocyte. Had these sporosacs become mature, the blastostyle would have been similar 
(except in length) to that shown in fig. 1, B iv. The large sporosacs on this blasto- 
style are about "13 mm. long and "1 mm. broad; each has a single tentacle and a 

" Recorded from Plymouth on shells of Nassa (cf. p. 258) and Buccinum, particularly the former. See Journ. 
Murine Biol. Assoc, vol. vii (N.S.), p. 190, 1904. 

t It is possible that the Neapolitan and British specimens belong to distinct geographical sub-species or races, but 
this can only be determined by examination of a longer series of mature examples. 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 271 

single oocyte, and exhibits a distinct neck or constriction near its base, indicating 
clearly that the sporosacs would soon have broken loose and become free-swimming. 

The sporosacs borne upon this specimen of Heterocordyle conybearei from 
Plymouth have approximately the same form and size, and present exactly the same 
morphological features, as our Neapolitan sporosacs ; and the trophosomes of the 
two specimens being also in agreement, there can no longer be any doubt that 
the specimens are specifically identical. Hence Heterocordyle conybearei, Allman, is 
really a Dicoryne, and should therefore be known as Dicoryne conybearei (Allman). 
To this species belong the British examples described by Allman, and the Neapolitan 
examples * described by Weismann, and by ourselves in the earlier part of this 
paper, f 

A Discussion of the Homology of the Sporosacs of Dicoryne. 

Several views have been advanced as to the homology of the sporosac of Dicoryne 
conjerta. The discovery in another species of a closely related sporosac, of which 
we have been able to trace the complete development, and the re-examination of the 
male sporosac of D. conferta, have provided new facts on which to base a reconsidera- 
tion of the homology of the sporosacs. 

* 

The views hitherto advanced may be grouped into two classes : — 

(1) The medusoid homology. 

(2) The polyp-homology. 

To take them in the order of their appearance : 

1. The Medusoid Homology. 

In 1861 (p. 170) Allman stated his opinion that the sporosac of D. conferta corre- 
sponded to a normal medusiform gonophore in which certain parts were much 
reduced. This theory he retained, and restated in somewhat greater detail in his 
classical monograph (1872, p. 227). The significant points in his statement are as 
follows: — "The planoblast [ = free sporosac] admits of a very instructive com- 
parison with an ordinary medusiform gonophore. It is, in fact, a medusa in which 
the place of the umbrella and its canals is taken by two tentacles, the manubrium of 
the medusa being represented by the rest of the planoblast. It will be recollected 

* The species apparently extends over the northern portion of the western Mediterranean, for Mine. Motz- 
Kossowska has recorded specimens from the Mediterranean coast of France (Banyuls) and Spain (Blanes), and from 
the Balearic Islands (Cabrera, Mahon), in Arch. Zool. Expdr., ser. 4, tome iii, p. 76, 1905. 

t Owing to the lack of mature material indubitably belonging to 11. conybearei for comparison with our Neapolitan 
specimens, and being faced with the definite and accepted statements of Allman and Weismann that the sporosacs of this 
species did not become free, we considered that we were not fully justified, on the evidence available when our paper 
was read to the Society, in regarding our Neapolitan examples as identical with H. conybearei, and as the former clearly 
belonged to the genus Dicoryne we designated them as a new species — D. parthenopeia. (This name, which has 
appeared only in the brief report of the meeting given in Nature, vol. xcv, p. 552, now lapses.) We suggested, how- 
ever, that further study of the sporosacs of H. conybearei might reveal their identity with those described by us from 
Naples. Conclusive evidence now available has shown this to be so, and accordingly the name parthenopeia has been 
deleted from the proof. 



272 DB J. H. ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

that the two tentacles are turned forward, while the sporosac is still invested by its 
ectotheca, and that they then hold exactly the place of an umbrella (mesotheca) 
between endotheca and ectotheca. They are, in fact, the radiating canals of the 
medusa reduced to two and developed as free tubes, instead of being immersed in 
the walls of an umbrella. . . . The free sporosac of Dicoryne is thus a medusa 
reduced to the condition of a manubrium and two opposite radiating canals. In 
order, indeed, to convert it into an ordinary medusa, little more is necessary than to 
suppose the number of tentacles increased to four by the symmetrical development 
of two others, their extremities connected by a circular canal, and their sides by a 
continuous muscular membrane (umbrella) inflected at its fore margin so as to 
form a velum." 

Allman was led to this view by the interpretation he put upon the parts of the 
sporosac. He regards the external cuticular envelope as homologous with the 
" ectotheca " of an ordinary medusiform gonophore, and the ectoderm layer in which 
the oocytes or spermatogonia are differentiated is, in his view, the " endotheca." 
Consequently the tentacles of D. conferta, lying as they do between the supposed 
" ectotheca " and " endotheca," occupy exactly the position of the umbrella or 
" mesotheca " and its canals, in a normal medusoid gonophore. 

But this view appears to us to be untenable and to have been supported by false 
homologies. The typical medusoid gonophore exhibits, according to Allman's 
terminology (i860, p. 3), an " ectotheca," a " mesotheca," and an " endotheca." " The 
ectotheca is a simple extension of the ectoderm of that part of the zoophyte from 
which the gonophore arises, and it encloses either a sporosac or a medusoid " 
(loc. cit.). Of the other layers " the inner (endotheca) is the equivalent of the 
ectoderm layer of the manubrium of the medusa ; the middle layer (mesotheca) 
corresponds "to the umbrella, and like it may have a system of canals more or less 
completely developed in it" (1871, pp. 39, 40). 

If these terms are to be employed in support of any homology, their application 
must be uniform. The " ectotheca," for instance, must be understood in its original 
significance as applied by Allman in the case of a medusiform gonophore, where it is 
represented by the external investment — an ectodermal layer which arises, along 
with the ectoderm of the ex-umbrella, from the ectoderm of the blastostyle. The 
" ectotheca" may secrete on its outer surface a delicate cuticular film, as, for instance, 
in Bougainvillea. This ectoderm is totally distinct in origin from that covering the 
manubrium, for the latter arises from the thick mass of ectoderm cells — the 
" Glockenkern " — at the distal end of the medusa, in which, by the development of 
the future umbrella cavity, the manubrium becomes differentiated from the ectoderm 
of the sub-umbrella. In a fully differentiated medusa (" phanerocodonic gonophore") 
there are four layers of ectoderm from without inwards, namely, the " ectotheca," 
the ectoderm of the ex-umbrella, that of the sub-umbrella, and that covering the 
manubrium. A similar condition exists in a medusoid gonophore (" adelocodonic 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 273 




A B 

Text-fig. 1. — Diagrammatic sections of A, phanerocodonic, and B, adelocodonicgonopkores. a, ectotheca; b, mesotheca 
or umbrella ; c, endotheca or ectodermal layer of manubrium ; d, spadix ; e, ova ; /, radial canals ; g, circular 
canal seen in transverse section ; h, marginal tentacle ; i, ocellus ; k, velum ; I, peduncle of gonophore ; m, general 
cavity of coenosarc ; n, mouth of medusa. The endoderm is distinguished from the ectoderm by its darker tint. 



[From Allman, 1871, rig. 13, p. 39. 



Printed from the original wood-block, kindly lent by the Council 
of the Kay Society.] 



Coel. 



CoEL. 




A 



B 



Text-fig. 2. — Diagrammatic sections of female sporosacs of Dicoryne conybearei. A, r a mature sporosac on the 
point of liberation ; B, a younger stage which shows more clearly the essential simplicity of the sporosac. 
OffiL., ccelenteron (general cavity of coenosarc) ; Ect., ectoderm; End., endoderm ; 0., oocyte; S.N., neck 
of sporosac ; S.S., stalk of sporosac ; T., tentacle. The ectoderm is indicated by a pale tint, the endoderm is 
darker, and the cavity of the spadix and coenosarc is black. 



TRANS. ROY SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART 1 (NO. 6). 



39 



274 DR J. H. ASHW011TH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

gonophore "), except that the two ectoderm layers of the reduced umbrella have 
become conjoined (text-fig. l). 

But a very different condition is presented by the sporosacs of Dicoryne corcferta 
and D. conybearei (text-fig. 2), for in these the only layer of ectoderm is that in which 
the reproductive products have been differentiated. This forms the external ectodermal 
layer of the sporosac and secretes a thin cuticle over its free surface. The tentacle 
or tentacles lie between this cuticle and the layer which formed it. The tentacles 
therefore do not lie in the position of a " mesotheca," i.e. between an "ectotheca" 
and " endotheca," as in a medusoid gonophore, and Allman's attempt to interpret 
them as homologous with the canals of a medusa, which lie in the " mesotheca," 
therefore falls to the ground. The tentacles have nothing to do with a " mesotheca " ; 
there is, in fact, no " mesotheca " in the full-grown sporosac of Dicoryne, nor is there 
any trace of it during the entire course of development of the sporosac. 

Further, the single ectodermic layer of the sporosac of Dicoryne does not agree 
in mode of origin, and is clearly not homologous, with that covering the manubrium 
of a medusiform gonophore, i.e. is not homologous with the " endotheca." If the 
enveloping ectoderm of the sporosac can be regarded as a homologue of any layer 
in a medusoid gonophore, it is with the external layer of the early stage of the 
latter, which subsequently gives rise to the " ectotheca " and to the ex-umbrellar 
ectoderm. 

Consequently the gonophore of Dicoryne cannot be regarded as a manubrium, 
and we have already seen that the tentacles are not the homologues of radial canals. 
It may be noted that the tentacles of the sporosacs of Dicoryne are solid, and not 
" free tubes," as Allman stated. 

Several authors have followed the view propounded by Allman, that the sporosac 
represents a degenerate medusa which has lost. its umbrella but retained two radial 
canals. Hincks (1868 [1869], p. 106) considered that it consisted "of a sexual 
polypite (manubrium) furnished with two tentacles, which represent the more usual 
natatory organ, while simple ciliary action replaces the propulsive movement of the 
swimming bell." Delage and Herouard (1901, p. 64) and Kemna (1908, p. 280) give 
a general adherence to Allman's " ingenieuse conception," reserving final judgment 
to such time as the development shall be completely known. 

Chun has suggested an alternative view. He regards the sporosac as represent- 
ing a much-compressed medusa in which the sub-umbrellar cavity has become 
entirely closed and filled with sexual products. Regarding the tentacles he offers no 
suggestion. " Bei ihnen [the sporosacs] ist die Glockenhohle vollstiindig geschlossen 
und von den Geschlechtsproducten erfullt. In der Nalie des aboralen Poles des 
Medusoids entspringen zwei lange opponirte Tentakel, die ebenso wie der diinn- 
wandige Glockenmantel mit Cilien besetzt sind" (Chun, 1896, p. 264). Both 
Delage and Herouard (1901, p. 64) and Kemna (1908, p. 280) allege that Chun 
regards the tentacles as true marginal tentacles, and on this account readily demolish 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 275 

his theory. But Chun's statement in the passage quoted above will not bear this 
interpretation. Indeed, the fact that he described the tentacles as occurring at the 
aboral pole shows that he did not regard them as marginal. Unfortunately, Chun does 
not show how his "complete medusoid" homology is to be applied in detail to the 
sporosac, nor can we, after examination of his view, offer any interpretation which 
will bear even the semblance of probability. If the sub-umbrellar cavity is closed and 
has become filled with sexual products, then the ova and sperms should lie between 
ectodermal layers, the inner one representing the ectoderm of the manubrium, and 
the outer one either the ectoderm of the whole umbrella or that of its inner surface. 
But there is no such complication in the sporosac of Dicoryne, nor in the develop- 
ment is there any trace of a medusa rudiment (Glockenkern). Apart from the 
impossibility of applying Chun's theory in detail to the cell-layers, there remain the 
tentacles to be accounted for. With complacency Chun leaves them arising from 
the roof of the supposed umbrella, offering no explanation of- so unlikely a condition. 

Carlgren (1909, p. 11) adopts Chun's view of the relationship of the sporosac 
without adding to our knowledge of its interpretation. 

A third suggestion as to the possible medusoid homology of the sporosac of 
Dicoryne has been made by Delage and Herouard : " On pourrait plutot admettre 
que le corps n'est forme que par un manubrium nu, que l'ombrelle n'existe pas et que 
les tentacules ont ete reportes a la base du manubrium par la regression de 
l'ombrelle. . . . Des lors, le corps reproducteur serait non un simple sporosac, mais 
un gonophore, puisqu'il aurait un rudiment d'endoderme ombrellaire " (1901, 
pp. 64, 65). 

As we have seen above, however, the ectoderm of the sporosac of Dicoryne does 
not correspond in mode of origin to the ectoderm of the manubrium of a medusa, and 
there is no rudiment of umbrellar endoderm, nor, indeed, of any portion of an umbrella. 
The view of Delage and Herouard is therefore entirely unsupported by the facts of 
development and the structure of the fully formed sporosac of Dicoryne* 

The sporosac of Dicoryne (taking the female as an example) is not a preformed 
structure into which migrate comparatively small oocytes, but is an elevation first of 
ectoderm, later of both layers, following upon and seemingly called forth by the 
presence at that point of a large and growing oocyte. 

Even in gonophores so reduced as those of Clava squamata (Harm, 1902) a 
" Glockenkern " is present for some time, and subsequent to its disappearance a 
primary endoderm lamella is found between the oocyte and the ectoderm enveloping 
the gonophore. Such an endoderm layer is not visible in our preparations of the 
early sporosacs of Dicoryne. Further, it may be noted that the ectoderm of the 

* Another argument of general bearing may be adduced against the homology of the sporosac of Dicoryne with a 
manubrium. In the regression of medusie and medusoid gonophores the marginal tentacles are first lost, then the 
manubrium suffers reduction or disappears, and only a hint of the medusoid rudiment is apparent. It is therefore 
directly contrary to the general course of events to suppose that the manubrium should survive the umbrella, and 
still more difficult to imagine that a marginal tentacle should remain after loss of the umbrella. 



276 DR J. B. ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

distal end of the young female sporosac is thinner than that present elsewhere, there 
being no attempt at the formation of a Glockenkern," and although young male 
sporosacs exhibit distally a thickened ectoderm, the increased thickness is due to the 
presence there of the spermatogonia. 

To summarise the evidence regarding medusoid homologies of the sporosac of 
Dicoryne. This view derives no support from the facts of development, for there 
is not at any stage a " Glockenkern," and therefore there cannot be a manubrium,* 
nor is there any trace of umbrella or canals. The single or paired tentacles of the 
sporosac of Dicoryne do not arise at the free end, where marginal tentacles are formed 
in medusae, but at the proximal end, and the tentacles are therefore not equivalent in 
the two cases. There is no evidence that the sporosacs of Dicoryne have undergone 
regression from the condition of medusas or medusoid gonophores. If . they have 
undergone such regression, it is so far-reaching as to have completely suppressed all 
trace of the ancestral condition and to have brought the tentacles into an anomalous 
position. 

2. The Polyp- Homology. 

Goette has suggested the polyp-homology of the sporosac of Dicoryne in place of 
the earlier medusoid homologies. Having traced the earlier stages of formation of 
the female sporosacs of D. conferta (although he failed to obtain the tentacle-bearing 
stage), Goette came to the conclusion that there could be no question of medusoid 
likeness, and that the resemblance to a degenerate polyp was much more evident : 
' Von einer medusoiden Bildung kann also bei den Gonanthen von Dicoryne gar 
nicht Rede sein ; und mit viel grosserem Recht kann mann behaupten, dass die 
basalen Tentakel dieser Gonanthen deren Polypen-ahnlichkeit unzweideutig hervor- 
treten lassen ; es fehlt nur noch der Mund, um ein Hydranthenkopfchen vollstandig 
zu machen " (1907, p. 68). According to this view, the body of the sporosac is 
equivalent to the mouthless hypostome of a hydranth, the tentacles are normal in 
position, but the proximal portion of the hydranth is wanting. 

Of the various theories advanced, Goette's polyp-homology appears to agree 
most closely with the actual condition of the sporosac. But owing to the essential 
simplicity of the structure and development of a polyp, resemblances between any 
two-layered bud and a polyp may be taken for granted, and on this account the polyp- 
homology is as difficult to prove as it is to refute. 

Weismann (1883, p. 245) has suggested that the fact that hydranths never spring 
from the heads of other hydranths militates against the possibility that blastostyle- 

* This statement refers only to the development of medusae in the Anthomedusae, Leptomedusse, and perhaps 
the Siphonophora. An interesting comparison might be made between the sporosac of Dicoryne, regarded as a 
manubrium, and the larva of certain Narcoinedusac in which the manubrium first appears and two tentacles arise 
subsequently near its aboral end. There is a general external resemblance between the free-swimming, two-tentacled, 
ciliated sporosac of Dicoryne conferta and the free-swimming, two-tentacled, ciliated larva of Myinopsis rnediterranea, 
four days old. But in its mode of origin and its subsequent history this larva differs entirely from the sporosac 
of Dicoryne, and the general resemblance in external form is not to be taken as evidence of homology, but is probably 
■in instance of "convergence." 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 277 

borne sporosacs can be regarded as degenerate hydranths. Although there are 
exceptions to this postulate, the general criticism advanced by Weismann seems 
to be valid. , 

Further, the suggestion that the sporosacs of Dicoryne are degenerate hydranths 
which have become secondarily the bearers of sexual products seems to be at variance 
with the actual order of development observed in D. conybearei. For there, in 
the case of both male and female sporosacs, the first indication was the differentiation 
of the germ cell or cells, the stimulus of the presence of which apparently brought 
about the origin and growth of the sporosacs. On' the hydranth-hypothesis we should 
have expected that the hydranth-bud or hydranth-sporosac would have first been 
indicated, and that secondarily the germ cells would have been differentiated therein 
or migrated thereto. Kuhn (1910, p. 103) favours Goette's view, but the theory 
that the sporosac of Dicoryne is a modified hydranth is unsatisfactory in a general 
way, because in asserting it a far-reaching assumption of homology is made which, 
owing to the simplicity of the structures concerned, seems incapable of being either 
proved or definitely disproved. 

A close examination of the anatomy, and especially of the development of the 
sporosacs of two species of Dicoryne, has left us with the impression that too great 
efforts have been made to bring these essentially simple structures into line with 
theories necessitating detailed and not infrequently obscure homologies. It seems 
to us that the sporosac of Dicoryne is essentially an outgrowth of almost the simplest 
possible form, produced apparently by the stimulus due to the presence of the germ 
cells. The ectoderm in which these lie grows 'pari passu with them and forms the 
envelope for them, the subjacent endoderm — which soon grows out as a "spadix" — 
is applied to the germ cells and carries the supply of nutrient material necessary for 
their growth. This bud-like outgrowth, like other simple buds in the Hydrozoa, 
produces one or two tentacles, similar in structure to those of a polyp, and 
eventually becomes free. The most striking difference between such a bud and 
any other known in the Hydrozoa is its ciliation, which is probably an adaptive 
development. The free-swimming sporosacs of Dicoryne are the only ciliated re- 
productive members known in the Hydrozoa. 

Abnormal Sporosacs of Dicoryne conybearei. 

Amongst the many free sporosacs examined three only show any departure from 
the normal, and in each case the variation relates to the tentacle. Both sexes are 
represented in this short abnormal series, which exhibits two types of variation. 

In one of the male sporosacs, otherwise normal, the tentacle is bifurcated near the 
tip (text-fig. 3, A), both branches possessing ectoderm and endoderm cells of the 
usual type and arrangement. 



278 



DR J. H. ASHWORTH AND PR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 



The second type of variation consists in the development of two tentacles. In 
another male sporosac (text-fig. 3, B) one of the tentacles is of normal length, while 
the other is little more than a bud. The remainder of the sporosac is normal, so 
that the abnormality may be regarded as a sport tending towards the condition 
represented in the two-tentacled sporosac of Dicoryne conferta. 

In the solitary abnormal female sporosac two well-developed tentacles, each of 
normal length, are present (text-fig. 3, C). These arise contiguously, and resemble in 





a b c 

Text-fig. 3. — Three abnormal sporosacs of Dicoryne conybearci, from Naples, x 250. 

their arrangement and divergence the tentacles of the sporosac of D. conferta. In 
our specimen, however, the spadix appears to be double, a branch embracing either 
side of the single oocyte. The simplest interpretation of this condition is probably 
that here the phenomenon of duplication of parts, moderately common in other 
groups of animals, is exhibited. 



Early Developmental Stages of Dicoryne conybearei. 
(PL VIII, figs. 11, 12, 13.) 

A considerable number of free-swimming sporosacs of D. conybearei of both 
sexes — but males predominating — were kept alive in small vessels for a day or two, 
and many of them shed their genital products. About sixteen of the eggs had been 
fertilised and had passed through the cleavage phases before the material was 
preserved. 

The earliest stage of development represented is a blastula (fig. 11), slightly oval 
in form, about 100 fi long and 90 /x broad, and consisting of about 120 similar cells 
which surround the large central cleavage-cavity or blastoccele. Cleavage of the egg- 
was total, and apparently equal or nearly so. Cell-outlines are present though not 
easily seen, as the cells are loaded with yolk-spherules of different sizes. In each 
blastomere is a peripheral zone of minute granules of uniform size, which differ from 
the yolk-spherules in their reactions to stains. These granules — the presence of 
which in the oocyte has been already noted (p. 2G4) — remain peripheral throughout 
development and are found, though in diminished number, in the ectoderm cells of 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 279 

the latest stage examined. Their ultimate fate cannot be ascertained in our material, 
but it is probable that they will later form the thin, cuticular covering of the young 
polyp. The nucleus of each blastomere lies near the peripheral margin, is vesicular, 
and usually exhibits two or three deeply staining nucleoli. Ten of the nuclei of this 
blastula are in karyokinetic division, and the axes of the spindles are all placed 
tangentially (see fig. ll); the planes of division of the blastomeres are therefore 
radial, and by such divisions the cells increase rapidly in number, with the result that 
they become less in size, for five blastulae in this later stage, with about 400 blasto- 
meres, are no larger than the blastula first described. 

The next phase of development, represented in our material by four specimens, 
shows the cleavage-cavity containing numerous cells — the endoderm — with here 
and there small spaces between them (fig. 12). A few nuclei in karyokinesis 
are visible in the ectoderm ; the spindles of some of these lie tangentially, but 
others are at right angles to the periphery, so that the divisions of these cells 
result in the formation of inner (endodermic) and outer (ectodermic) elements. 
The appearances presented by sections of these specimens suggest that the 
endoderm has been produced at several or many places (multipolar immigra- 
tion), though here and there are blastomeres which have apparently not yet taken 
part in this process. Some of the endoderm cells are of considerable size, but by 
division of the central cells, and the accession to the endodermic mass of other 
cells from the wall of the blastula, the cleavage-cavity becomes tightly packed with 
cells, in a few of which karyokinetic divisions are present. The surrounding ectoderm 
is composed for the most part of cells of almost uniform size, and the nuclei are 
situated fairly regularly near the periphery. 

In the latest phase (fig. 13), represented by a single complete and two damaged 
specimens, there is a central cavity— the ccelenteron, — which has been formed by 
the breaking down of some of the endoderm cells, the debris of which lies in the 
cavity. Cell-outlines are scarcely distinguishable in the ectoderm, except at the 
extreme periphery of the cells, and are apparent only in a few places in the endoderm. 
The nuclei of ectoderm and endoderm are similar in size and structure. There is no 
indication of the mesoglceal lamella at this stage. 

The general development of the egg most closely resembles that of Bougainvillea 
superciliaris as described by Gerd (1892), a point of some interest, since on other 
grounds, e.g. resemblances in the trophosomes, Dicoryne and Bougainvillea are 
placed in the family Bougainvillidse. 

The egg is usually completely detached from the sporosac. We have three 
examples of D. conybearei in which the sporosac has ruptured and the egg, having 
escaped from the now wrinkled body of the sporosac, has, however, remained 
attached near the point of union of the spadix and the tentacle. Here it has 
undergone normal cleavage : in one case a blastula and in the others morula stages 
had been reached. 



280 



1)1! J. H. ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 



Distinctive Characters of 



Dicoryne conybearei 

(Allman), char, 
emend. 



Dicoryne 
(Alder) 



conferta 



Matuue Tkophosomb. 



Height. 



Up to 4-8 nnii. 



Dicoryne 
Sars 


fle.aiosa, 


Dicoryne annul i it a, 
v. Lendenfeld 



Up to 13 mm. 



i mm. 



About 10 mm 



Hydrocaulus. 



Branches. 



Few or none, seldom 
subdivided, arising 
from a main stem 
which resembles 
them in thickness 



Many, usually sub- 
divided, arising 
from a weak main 
stem, which scarce- 
ly exceeds them in 
diameter 



Few, occasionally 
subdivided, arising 
from a thin, flexile 
stem which is often 
dichotomously di- 
vided 



Few, not subdivided, 
arising from a 
stout stem 



Wriukling of Perisarc. 



Generally distributed, 
but irregular and in- 
distinct 



Base of stem indis- 
tinctly wrinkled 



Hardly any wrinkles 



Wrinkled throughout, 
" terminal cup-shaped 
expansions a little 
larger than in D. con- 
ferta " 



Polyp. 



Maximum N f 

No. of Polyps „, ', 
u , Jt lentacles 
on Hydro- 
caulus. 



Polyp. 



6 on youngest 
to 16 on 
largest speci 
men 



[About 12] 



[About 3] 



[2] 



G on youngest 
to about 16 



12 



[About 10 or 
11] 



Note. — Square parentheses [ ] indicate that in view of the incomplete descriptions of authors the 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 



281 



Species of Dicoryne. 



Gonosome. 



Blastostyle. 



Position of 
Blastostyles. 



On stolon and 
hydrocaulus 



On stolon and 
hydrocaulus. 
[7 on a single 
hydrocaulus] 



On hydrocaulus 
only 



Shape of 
Blastostyles. 



Long, spindle- or 
vase-shaped, pro- 
jecting above and 
below mass of 
sporosacs 



Long, spindle-shaped, 
projecting above 
and below mass of 
sporosacs 



Very short, almost 
or entirely covered 
by mass of sporo- 
sacs 



Sporosacs. 



No. of 
Sporosacs on 
Blastostyle. 



18 to 24 as a rule, 
exceptionally as 
many as 34 to 
40, in globular 
or elongate 

clusters 



17 to 33, in globu- 
lar clusters 



[24 to 30], in 
slobular clusters 



[On stolon] 



Long, spindle-shaped, 
projecting far 
above and below 
mass of sporosacs 



[About 1 2], in elon- 
gated clusters 



Character of Sporosacs. 



Free-swimming, cili- 
ated, with 1 tentacle, 
and female with 1 



ovum 



Free-swimming, cili- 
ated, with 2 tentacles, 
and female with 2 ova 
(exceptionally with 
1 or 3 ova) 



[Free sporosacs not ob- 
served Female with 
2 ova] 



"Generative zooids 
similar to those of the 
European species " 
[i.e. D, confertd] 



Distribution. 



Locality. 



West coast of 
Scotland, and 
Ireland, and 
south coast of 
England; Gulf 
of Naples and 
Western Medi 
terranean 



Iceland, Nor- 
way, Sweden, 
Scotland, Eng- 
land, Ireland, 
Denmark, 
North Sea, 
Heligoland, 
Mediterranean 
Sea 



Norway ; north- 
west of Shet- 
land Islands ; 
Gulf of Maine, 
Nova Scotia 



South coast of 
Australia 



Depth. 



Down to 
about 10 
fathoms 



14 to 200 
fathoms 



50 to 150 
fathoms 



information has necessarily been derived from the figures illustrating the original accounts. 



TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART I (NO. 6). 



40 



282 DB J. H. ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 

Specific Characters of Dicoryne conybearei (Allman), emend. 
Syn., Heterocordyle conybearei of Allman and later authors. 

Trophosome. — The hydrocaulus springs from a network of creeping hydrorhizal 
tubes, reaches a height of 4-8 mm., and is either simple or furnished with a few 
branches which arise acutely from the stem and are seldom subdivided. A well- 
developed perisarc is present, slightly and irregularly wrinkled throughout its length. 
It is covered with a dense coat of foreign particles and widens at the base of each 
polyp into a shallow, cup-like expansion. Up to four to eight polyps are borne on a 
single hydrocaulus, and these are furnished according to age with from six to sixteen 
tentacles in a single whorl.* 

Gonosome. — Blastostyles arise on the stolon and on the hydrocaulus ; their basal 
portion is covered with perisarc which terminates in a cup-like expansion similar to 
that beneath the polyps. Around the blastostyle the sporosacs, in general eighteen 
to twenty-four and exceptionally as many as thirty-four to forty, are grouped in 
a spherical or elongate cluster. The sporosacs arise from a zone encircling the 
middle region of the blastostyle, the tip and base of which project beyond the 
mature cluster. In the adult state the sporosacs are free-swimming, are furnished 
with one tentacle, and are covered with cilia. Female sporosacs bear a solitary oocyte. 
The structure of the sporosacs is of the simplest nature, as they consist of a single 
layer of ectoderm between which and the endodermal spadix lies the oocyte or the 
mass of spermatozoa. 

The inclusion of this species within the genus Dicoryne necessitates a slight 
alteration in the generic characters as given by Allman and accepted by subsequent 
writers. The new definition is as follows : — 

Dicoryne, Allman, char, emend, (including Heterocordyle, Allman). 

Trophosome. — Hydrocaulus consisting of simple or more frequently, in mature 
colonies, of branched stems arising at intervals from a creeping filiform stolon, which 
forms a close network. Hydranths fusiform, merging gradually into the hydro- 
caulus, with a single whorl * of filiform solid tentacles (with a single series of 
endoderm cells) surrounding the base of a conical hypostome. 

Gonosome. — Simple sporosacs, consisting of a single layer of ectoderm and an 
endodermal spadix, between which the sexual products lie. The sporosacs are 
borne in clusters on blastostyles which arise from the stolon or the hydrocaulus or 
from both. At maturity the sporosacs, which are furnished with one or two tentacles 
witli solid endoderm and are entirely covered with cilia, break away from their 
stalks and are free-swimming. 

* In many hydranths there are longer and shorter tentacles alternating ; in life the longer ones? jn'obably pointed 

disUlly, while the shorter ones wen- directed more or less horizontally (see p. 200). 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 283 

For the convenience of systematic workers we have inserted a table summarising 
the distinctive characters of species of Dicoryne, pp. 280, 281. In this table an 
endeavour has been made to indicate as far as possible the points in which authors 
themselves regarded their new species as differing from species previously known. 
These characters are in some cases highly unsatisfactory. 

Dicoryne conferta and D. flexuosa. — As regards the sporosacs themselves no 
difference has been observed, but unfortunately the free-swimming stage of 
D. flexuosa is not known. The "immersion" or otherwise of the blastostyle in the 
sporosac-cluster seems to us to depend more on the state of contraction of the 
blastostyle and on the maturity, and therefore size, of the sporosacs, than upon any 
constant difference in shape. Further, the characters upon which Sars especially 
relied — the deficiency of wrinkling on the perisarc and the flexile and often dichoto- 
mously branched stem in D. flexuosa — are characters upon which little weight can 
be placed, since on occasion they are exhibited by D. conferta. In D. conybearei 
the number of tentacles has been found to vary from six to sixteen ; a similar range 
of variation has been observed in D. conferta, and it is possible that twelve is not 
a fixed number for D. flexuosa. It seems to us that on the whole these two species 
approach suspiciously close to one another, but since we have not seen specimens 
attributed to Sars' species we hesitate to state definitely that D. flexuosa is a 
synonym of D. conferta. 

Dicoryne annulata. — The description of this species given by von Lendenfeld is 
entirely unsatisfactory. There is no evidence that free sporosacs were seen, and 
the statement that the generative zooids are " similar to those of the European 
species" is so vague as to be valueless. Nor is the statement that the "terminal 
cup-shaped expansions [are] a little larger than in D. conferta " of any significance, 
for comparison of von Lendenfeld' s figure with North Sea specimens of D. conferta 
shows that his contrast is inaccurate. The probability is that von Lendenfeld has 
misinterpreted the structure of D. conferta in this respect from Allman's figure 
(1871, pi. viii), in which the terminal expansions are scarcely indicated. 



LIST OF WORKS QUOTED. 

Allman, J. G., 1860, "Note on the Structure and Terminology of the Reproductive System in the 

Corynidse and Seitularidye," Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (3), vol. vi, pp. 1-5. 
Allman, J. G., 1861, "Notes on the Hydroid Zoophytes," Ann. Mar/. Nat. H/'tf., (3), vol. viii, 

pp. 168-173. 
Allman, J.G., 1871-72, "A Monograph of the Gymnoblastic or Tubularian Hydroids," London, Ray 

Society. 
Bonnevib, K., 1898, "Zur Systematik der Hydroiden," Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Jahrg. 63, pp. 465-195. 
Carlgren, O., 1909, "Die Tetraplatien," in Wissens. Ergeb. deutsch. Tiefsee-Expedii. " Valdivia," 1898- 

1899, Jena, vol. xix, pt. 3. 
Chun, C, 1896, "Ccelenterata," in Bronn's Klassen u. Ord. des Thier-Reiclis, Bd. ii, Abt. 2. 



284 



DR J. H. ASHWORTH AND DR JAMES RITCHIE ON THE 



Delage, Y., et Herouard, E., 1901, " Les Ccelenteres," in Traite de Zoologie concrete, t. ii, pt. 2. 

Gerd, W., 1892, " Zur Frage uber die Keimbliitterbiklutig bei deii Hydromedusen," Zool. Am., vol. xv, 

pp. 312-316. 
Goette, A., 1907, " Vergleichende Entwicklungsgeschichte der Geschlechtsindividuen der Hydropolypen," 

Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. lxxxvii, pp. 1-335. 
Harm, K., 1902, "Die Entwicklungsgeschichte von Clava squamata," Zeitschr. wiss. Zool., Bd. lxxiii, 

pp. 115-166. 
Hartlaub, O, 1897, " Die Hydromedusen Helgolands," Wiss. Meeresunters. deutsch. Meere, pp. 449-536. 
Hincks, T., 1868 [1869], A History of the British Hydroid Zoophytes, London, 2 vols, 
Kemna, A., 1908, " Morphologie des Ccelenteres," Ann. Soc. roy. Zool. Malacol. Behjique, t. xliii, 

pp. 229-337. 
Kuhn, A., 1910, "Die Entwicklung der Geschlechtsindividuen der Hydromedusen," Zool. Jahrb., Anat. 

u. Ontog., Bd. xxx, pp. 43-174. 
Weismann, A., 1883, Die Entstehung der Sexualzellen bei den Hydromedusen, Jena. 



DESCRIPTION OF FIGURES. 



List op Reference Letters. 



B i, B ii, B in, B iv, B v, blastostyles. 
C, cuticle. 
CO, covering cell. 
Cosl., ccelenteron. 

D., debris adherent to perisarc. 
Ect., ectoderm. 
End., endoderm. 
Ex.C, excretory cell. 

H i, youngest hydranth of colony. 
M., mesogloea. 
N., nematocyst. 



P., partition formed across lumen of stolon. 

Pe., perisarc. 
P.Z., peripheral zone of oocyte containing fine 

granules. 
S.N., sporosac-neck. 

Sp., spermatogonia. 
Spd., spadix. 
Spz., spermatozoa. 
S.S., sporosac-stalk. 

St., stolon. 

T., tentacle. 



Plate VI. 



Dicuryne conybearei (Allman), from Naples. 



Fig. 1. A portion of a colony showing a recently formed hydranth (Hi) with six tentacles, and three 
larger hydranths, one bearing a blastostyle-bud (Bv) in the ectoderm of which several oocytes are seen. 
Arising from the stolon are three young blastostyles (Bi, En, Bin) and one full grown (Biv), the latter 
bearing twenty-two sporosacs, fifteen of which are seen. It is exceptional for a blastostyle so small as B n 
to exhibit such large oocytes and elevations of the ectoderm (i.e. incipient sporosacs). Two free female 
sporosacs (S i, S n) and one free male (S in) are also shown ; the male was produced on another colony. The 
stolon was covered with debris (omitted, except in a small area on the left), and there was also a considerable 
amount of debris on the perisarc, Bhown only on the large central hydrocaulus. x 75. 



Plate VII. 
All the figures relate to Dicoryne conybearei (Allman), from Naples. 

Fig. 2. Longitudinal section through the wall of a blastostyle, showing a large oocyte in the ectoderm. 
The space around the oocyte is an artefact. For further description see p. 263. x 1000. 

Fig. 3. Longitudinal section of a young sporosac and the adjacent wall of the blastostyle which bears it. 
See p. 263. x 1000. 



FREE-SWIMMING SPOROSACS OF THE HYDROID GENUS DICORYNE. 285 

Fig. 4. Longitudinal section of an older and almost full-grown sporosac. For description see p. 263. 
x 1000 

Fig. 5. Free-swimming, ciliated female sporosac. See p. 264. x 500. 

Fig. 6. Female sporosac after escape of the egg by rupture of the ectoderm. x 500. 

Fig. 7. Section of a portion of the ectoderm at the distal end of a blastostyle, showing a discharged 
nematocyst of the large, elongate oval type. See p. 262. x 1400. 

Plate VIII. 
All the figures except fig. 16 relate to Dicoryne coinjhearei (Allman), from Naples. 

Fig. 8. Longitudinal section of the ectoderm and mesoglcea of a male blastostyle, showing the first 
differentiation of the male sexual cells. In addition to the two spermatogonia represented there was a third 
lying immediately underneath them (i.e. at a deeper level). See p. 265. x 1000. 

Fig. 9. Longitudinal section of the wall of a male blastostyle showing two stages in the formation of 
sporosacs. On the left of the figure note the spermatogonia in the ectoderm ; the mesoglcea is already bend- 
ing outwards. In the later stage shown on the right of the figure numerous spermatogonia are seen in 
the ectoderm at the distal end of the sporosac, and peripheral to them are, here and there, cells with paler 
protoplasm and smaller nuclei which will later form the covering cells. There is a small central cavity in 
the endodermal spadix, but it is filled with granular matter. See p. 265. x 1000. 

Fig. 10. Longitudinal section of a free-swimming male sporosac. See p. 266. x 500. 

Fig. 11. Section of a blastula consisting of about 120 to 130 cells. See p. 277. x 500. 

Fig. 12. Section of a later stage of development; the cleavage cavity is now filled with a mass of 
endoderm cells. See p. 278. x 500. 

Fig. 13. Section of a still later stage in which the ccelenteron has been formed by breaking down of 
some of the endoderm cells, the debris of which lies in the cavity. See p. 278. x 500. 

Fig. 14. Horizontal section of a portion of the stolon, showing the thick perisarc, the adherent debris, 
and the internal partitions (P i-P iv) formed successively by the coenosarc as it retreated under the influence 
of deleterious conditions. See p. 260. x 250. 

Fig. 15. Horizontal section of another portion of the stolon, showing the coenosarc, here composed of 
ectoderm with a solid mass of endoderm, secreting a chitinous barrier across the lumen of the stolon. The 
coenosarc has contracted away from the perisarc. x 500. 

Fig. 16. Dicoryne conferta (Alder). Median section, in the plane of the tentacles, of a mature male 
sporosac ready to be released from its stalk. In most spadices of this species there is at maturity a central 
cavity. Note the great thickness of the mesoglcea in the wall of the blastostyle. Compare with figs. 4 
and 10. For further description see p. 267. x 500. 



PRES 



TRANS. ROY SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART 1 (NO. 6) 41 



jJi.Roy. Soc. Edin. 



Vol. LI- Plate VI 



Ashworth and Ritchie: Dicoryne. 




■ xwell.and J H.Ashworlk del. 



MTarlane JtErskme Lith.Edin 



£vtt&Ufc 






-ans.Roy. Soc. Edin. 



Vol. LI- Plate VII 



Ashworbh and Ritchie: Dicoryne. 




Spd. 




Ect. —4 




Spd. 



End. \^f? 



End. 



Spd 




Ect. 




J Ritchie del 



M c Fa.rlane JtErskne. Lith Earn 



'rans.Roy. Soc. Edin. 



Vol. LI- Plate VIII. 



Ashworth and Ritchie: Dicoryne, 






C.C-- 
SfD. — 



Sp. 





End. 



ECT. 



Spz. 



Ex.C. 



9 






Sk\:--£CT. 



End. 




J HAshwortk and J Ritchie, del. 



M c Farlane ScErskine Lilh.Edm 



The Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh will in future be Sold at the 

following reduced Prices : — 







Price 






Prict 








Price 






Pric( 








Price 






Price 


Vol. 




to the 




to 




Vol. 




to the 




to 




Vol. 




;o the 




to 






Public. 


Fellows. 




Public. 


Fellows. 




] 


D ublie. 


Fellows. 






£ s. 


d. 


e 


s. 


d. 




£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. 


d. 




£ 


s. 


d. 


£ 


s. d. 


VI. 




11 


6 





9 


6 


XXXIII. Pt. 1 


1 


1 








16 





- . / XLII. 
|I JXLIII. 


2 


2 





1 


11 


VII. 




18 








15 





,, Pt. 2 


2 


2 





1 


11 





2 


2 





1 


11 


VIII. 
IX. 




17 

1 






D 


14 

17 






„ Pt. 3 
XXXIV. 



2 


12 

2 








1 


9 
11 


6 



= |')XLIV.Pt.I 
M> ( „ Pt.2 


1 

I 


18 

1 


6 



1 



9 
15 9 


X. 




19 








16 





XXXV.* Pt. 1 


2 


2 





1 


11 





XLV. Pt. 1 


1 


9 





1 


2 


XI. 




14 


6 





12 





„ Pt. 2 


1 


11 





1 


3 


6 


„ Pt. 2 


1 


7 





1 





XII. 




14 


6 





12 





„ Pt. 3 


2 


2 





1 


11 





„ Pt. 3 


1 


13 


9 


1 


5 3 


XIII. 




18 








15 





Pt. 4 


1 


1 








16 


o 


„ Pt. 4 





4 


6 





3 6 


XIV. 




1 5 





1 


1 





XXXVI. Pt. 1 


1 


1 








16 





XLVI. Pt. 1 


1 


1 


10 





16 6 


XV. 




1 11 





1 


6 





„ Pt. 2 


1 


16 


6 


1 


7 


6 1 


„ Pt. 2 


1 


5 


S 





19 4 


XX. Pt. 


1 


18 








14 





„ Pt. 3 


1 











16 





„ Pt. 3 


1 


7 


3 


1 


11 


XXII. Pt. 


2 


10 








7 


6 


XXXVII. Pt. 1 


1 


14 


6 


1 


5 


6 


XLVII. Pt. 1 





19 


9 





15 


„ Pt. 


3 


1 5 





1 


1 





„ Pt- 2 


1 


1 








16 





Pt. 2 


1 


3 








17 4 


XXVII. Pt. 


1 


16 








12 





„ Pt. 3 





16 








12 





„ Pt. 3 


1 





10 





15 8 


„ Pt. 


2 


6 








4 


6 


,, Pt. 4 





7 


6 





5 


8 


„ Pt. 4 


1 


7 


7 


1 


9 


„ Pt. 


4 


1 








16 





XXXVIII. Pt. 1 


2 








1 


10 





XLVIII. Pt. 1 


1 


2 


9 





17 2 


XXVIII. Pt. 


1 


1 5 





1 


1 





„ Pt. 2 


1 


5 








19 





„ Pt. 2 


1 


9 


6 


1 


2 5 


„ Pt. 


2 


1 5 





1 


1 





„ Pt. 3 


1 


10 





1 


3 





„ Pt. 3 


1 


11 





1 


3 3 


, Pt. 


3 


18 








13 


6 


„ Pt. 4 





7 


6 





5 


8 


„ Pt. 4 





16 


8 





12 4 


XXIX. Pt. 


1 


1 12 





1 


6 





XXXIX. Pt. 1 


1 


10 





1 


3 





XLIX. Pt. 1 





7 


6 





7 6 


„ Pt. 


2 


16 








12 





„ Pt. 2 





19 








14 


6 


„ Pt. 2 


1 


12 


6 


1 


4 6 


XXX. Pt. 


1 


1 12 





1 


6 





„ Pt. 3 


2 


3 





1 


11 





>, Pt. 3 


1 


10 





1 


2 5 


„ Pt. 


2 


16 








12 





„ Pt. 4 





9 








7 





„ Pt. 4 


1 


1 


9 





16 


„ Pt. 


3 


5 








4 





XL. Pt. 1 


1 


5 








19 





L. Pt. 1 


1 


5 


9 





18 9 


„ Pt. 


4 


7 


6 





5 


8 


„ Pt. 2 


1 


12 


6 


1 


5 


6 


„ Pt- 2 


1 


7 





1 





XXXI. 




4 4 





3 


3 





,, Pt. 3 


1 


6 








19 


6 


„ Pt. 3 


1 


7 





I 





XXXII. Pt. 


1 


1 








16 





„ Pt. 4 


1 











16 





„ Pt. 4 


1 


2 








17 


„ Pt. 


2 


18 








13 


6 


XLI. Pt. 1 


1 


1 








15 


9! 


LI. Pt. 1 


1 


5 








19 


„ Pt. 


3 


2 10 





1 


17 


6 


„ Pt. 2 


1 


9 


6 


1 


2 

















„ Pt. 


4 


5 








4 





„ Pt. 3 


2 


5 





1 


13 


6 















* Vol. XXXV, and those which follow, may be had in Numbers, each Number containing a complete Paper. 



January 1917. — Volumes or parts of volumes not mentioned in the above list are not for the present on sale 
to the public. Fellows or others who may specially desire to obtain them must apply direct to the Society. As 
the Society reprints from time to time parts of its publications which have become scarce, the absolute correctness 
of this list cannot be guaranteed beyond this date. 



The papers published in this Part of the Transactions may be had on application to the Publishers, 

at the following prices : — 



No. I., . 
No. II., 
No. III., 



rice to Public. 


Price to Fellows. 




Price to Public. 


Price to Fellow 


3s. 6d. 


2s. 9d. 


No. IV., 


8s. 3d. 


6s. 3d. 


9d. 


7d. 


No. V., 


7s. 


5s. 3d. 


2s. 6d. 


2s. 


No. VI., 


3s. 3d. 


2s. 6d. 



TRANSACTIONS 

OF THE 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH. 

VOLUME LI, PART II.— SESSION 1915-16. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

VII. Studies on the Development of the Horse. I. The Development during the Third Week. By 
J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S., Regius Professor of Natural History, University of Edinburgh. 
(Plates IX-XVIII and Twenty-one Text-figures), ... 287 

(Issued December 14, 1915.) 

VIII. Description of a Reconstruction Model of a Horse Embryo Twenty-One Days Old. By Professors 
Arthur Robinson, M.D., and A. Gibson, M.B., F.R.C.S. (Plate XIX, figs. 54-63. Text- 
figs. 22-26), .......... 331 

(Issued January 17, 1916.) 

IX. A Contribution to the Study of the Scottish Skull. By Matthew Young, M.D., Senior Demon- 
strator in Anatomy, University of Glasgow. Communicated by Professor Thomas H. 
Bryce. (With Three Plates), ........ 347 

(Issued January 31, 1916.) 

X. Skiagraphic Researches in Teratology. By Harry Rainy, M.D., F.R.C.P.E., and J. W. 

Ballantyne, M.D., F.R.C.P.E. (With Fifteen Plates), . . .455 

(Issued December 31, 1915.) 

XI. On a Small Collection of Terrestrial Isopoda from Spain, with Descriptions of Four New Species. 
By Walter E. Collinge, M.Sc, F.L.S., etc., Research Fellow of the University of 
St Andrews. Communicated by Professor M'Intosh. (With Two Plates), . . 461 

(Issued December 28, 1915.) 

XII. The Lateral Sense Organs of Elasmobranchs : The Ampullary Canals of the Genus Rata. By 
Augusta Lamont, B.Sc, Baxter Scholar in Natural Science, University of Edinburgh. 
Communicated by Professor J. C. Ewart. (With Eight Plates and Nine Text-figures), . 467 

(Issued January 15, 1916.) 



EDINBURGH: 

PUBLISHED BY ROBERT GRANT & SON, 107 PRINCES STREET, 

AND WILLIAMS & NORGATE, 14 HENRIETTA STREET, CO VENT GARDEN, LONDON. 



MDCCCCXVII. 
Price Thirty-three Shillings. 



( 287 ) 



VII. — Studies on the Development of the Horse. I. The Development during 
the Third Week. By J. Cossar Ewart, F.R.S., Regius Professor of Natural 
History, University of Edinburgh. 

(MS. received June 7, 1915. Read June 7, 1915. Issued separately December 14, 1915.) 

[Plates IX-XVIII and Twenty-one Text-figures.*] 



CONTENTS. 



A. Introduction and Review of Previous Work on 

Young Horse Embryos — 

1. Bonnet's so-called 21-days embryo 

2. Martin's so-called 21-days embryo 

3. Hausmann's 19-days embryos 

B. Reproductive Organs and Fcetal Membranes 

at end of Third Week— 

1. Ovaries and Corpus luteum, Oviduct and 

Uterus ...... 

2. Blastocyst 297 

3. Trophoblast 297 

4. Yolk-sac 301 

5. Mesoderm 303 



292 
292 
294 



294 



6. Amnion 

7. Allantois 



l'AOK 

305 
306 



C. The Embryo at end of Third Week— 

1. Size and External Characters . . 307 

2. Nervous System and Sense Organs . 308 

3. Alimentary Canal .... 309 

4. Notochord 311 

5. Heart and Blood-vessels . . .311 

D. Early Developmental Stages in the Horse and 

Sheep 314 

E. Summary 322 

F. Explanation of Plates 326 



A. Introduction and Review of Previous Work on Young Horse Embryos. 

Soon after the publication of The Origin of Species it was realised by Huxley 
and others that convincing evidence of the fact of evolution might be obtained by 
a systematic investigation of the ancestral history and development of the Equidse. 
From studying material in the British and other Museums Huxley announced at 
the end of the 'sixties that he believed " the Anchitherium, the Hipparion and the 
modern horses constitute a series in which the modifications of structure coincide 
with the order of chronological recurrence in the manner in which they must 
coincide if the modern horses really are the result of the gradual metamorphosis in 
the course of the Tertiary epoch of a less specialised ancestral form." t But this 
conclusion was soon profoundly modified. When in 1876 Huxley had the opportunity 
of examining the Yale and other collections of the fossil horses of America, he was 
satisfied that "we must look to America rather than to Europe for the original seat 
of the Equine series," \ and " that the European Hipparion is rather a member of a 
collateral branch than a form in the direct line of succession." § 

Huxley directed his attention to the development as well as to the ancestral 
history. Convinced that modern horses passed through a three-toed stage, he 

* The cost of reproduction of the plates and of certain of the text-figures has been defrayed by a grant from 
the Carnegie Trust f»r the Universities of Scotland. 

t American Addresses, p. 83, 1877. J Loc. cit., p. 86. § Loc. cit., p. 87. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART II (NO. 7). 42 



288 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

examined the limbs of embryos hoping to find vestiges of the phalanges of the second 
and fourth digits. Unfortunately, he failed to discover in the specimens at his 
disposal evidence that in the modern horse the second and fourth digits are nearly 
as complete during the earlier weeks of development as they were in the three-toed 
Miocene horses. Since 1876, when Huxley lectured in New York on the evolution 
of the Equidse, our knowledge of fossil horses has advanced so rapidly that we are 
now familiar with almost every link in the chain connecting the one-toed Pliocene 
horses with their remote four-toed Eocene ancestors. Further, we know that in 
modern breeds the second and fourth digits of the fore-limbs bear during develop- 
ment nearly the same relation to the third digit as in three-toed Miocene horses.* 

But while some progress has been made during recent years in working out the 
development of the Equidse, we still know surprisingly little of the phases through 
which" the horse passes during the earlier weeks of gestation ; as Assheton pointed 
out some years ago, " a thorough investigation into the development of Equus and 
its placenta has still to be made." t 

It is doubtless true that Hausmann published in 1840 an account of the earlier 
stages of equine development,! and that in 1890 Prof. Martin of Zurich described 
a 21-days horse embryo ; § but Hausmann's views are no longer accepted, and there 
are good reasons for believing that Martin overestimated the age of his embryo. 

That Hausmann's contributions were of no great permanent value may be inferred 
from the statements made by Bonnet in 1889, at the Berlin Conference of German 
Anatomists. When discussing at this conference the foetal membranes of the 
Equidae, Bonnet pointed out that Hausmann's account of the development during 
the earlier weeks had caused more confusion than enlightenment, and that his 
drawings of horse embryos are almost incomprehensible and worthless. 

Though in 1889 Bonnet was in a position to discuss at some length the fetal 
appendages of a 28-days horse embryo, he was unfortunately unable to add 
appreciably to our knowledge of yet earlier stages ; moreover, by asserting that the 
rate of development in the horse varied greatly during the earlier weeks, Bonnet, 
like Hausmann, has caused confusion rather than enlightenment. || 

In the Berlin paper Bonnet relates that he received from a pupil a blastocyst 
taken from a mare 21 days after the first service, but that, owing to the rare specimen 
having been subjected to a preliminary examination before it reached his hands, he could 
only certainly make out that the blastocyst (fig. 3) had a globular form, measured 
12 to 13 mm. in diameter, and was invested by a zona pellucida 4/a in thickness. 

A year after Bonnet's paper was read at Berlin, Prof. Paul Martin of Zurich 

* Ewart, " The Second and Fourth Digits in the Horse," Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh, 1894 ; " The Limbs of the 
Horse," Journ. Anat. and Physiol., Jan. and Feb. 1894. 

f "The Morphology of the Ungulate Placenta," Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, vol. c, Ser. B, 1906. 

I Hausmann, Uber Zeugung und Enstehung das wahren weiblichen Eier bei den Sdugetieren, Hanover, 1840. 

ij Paul Martin, "Ein Pferdeei vom 21 Tage," Schweizer Archivfur Thierheilkunde, Zurich, 1890. 

|| Bonnet, "Die Erhaute des Pferdes," Verhandlungen der anat. Gesellschaft, Jena, 1889. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 289 

published an account of a horse embryo, believed, like Bonnet's, to be 21 days old.* 
This embryo was obtained from an eight-year-old mare, served on the 2nd of April, 
and killed on the 23rd of the same month. 

Martin's blastocyst, instead of being, like Bonnet's, globular and 12 to 13 mm. in 
diameter, was egg-shaped (fig. 4) and measured 25 mm. by 35 mm. This blastocyst 
was very much smaller than a 2 8 -days blastocyst figured by Bonnet. Hence Martin 
came to the conclusion that the embryo from the eight-year-old mare had been 
arrested in its development. On the other hand, Bonnet, on realising in 1891 that 
the blastocyst of his damaged embryo was very much smaller than Martin's blasto- 
cyst, came to the conclusion that the rate of development in the Equidse varies con- 
siderably during the earlier weeks, and unreservedly stated that in the horse the 
blastocyst at 21 days varies from 13 mm. to 35 mm.t 

From the observations made during the last fifteen years, I have arrived at the 
conclusion that Bonnet's 13-mm. blastocyst (fig. 3) represents the stage reached at 
the end of the second week of gestation ; that Martin'^ 35-mm. blastocyst (fig. 4) 
represents the stage reached at the middle of the third week ; and that at the end of 
the third week the blastocyst, in a breed about the size of the wild horse of Mongolia, 
measures at least 50 mm. (fig. 5). If I succeed in giving good reasons for these 
conclusions, in showing that Bonnet's so-called 21-days embryo is 14 or 15 days old, 
and that Martin's so-called 21-days embryo is 17 or 18 days old, and that at the end 
of the third week a horse embryo is nearly as well developed as a 2-days chick and 
an 18 -days sheep embryo, the more important facts about the development of the 
Equidse during the first three weeks of gestation will have been established. 

It is obvious that a difference between blastocysts and their contents may be due 
to several causes : e.g. to (1) arrested development, or (2) arrested growth, or (3) a 
difference in age. When in one of the two embryos derived from the same fertil- 
. ised ovum progress is retarded, we have an example of arrested development ; % when, 
on the other hand, the embryos in one uterine horn, though as well developed, are 
smaller than those in the other horn, we have an example of arrested growth ; § 
but when two embryos from, say, two different mares, belonging it may be to different 
breeds, differ in size, before assuming that the difference is due to arrested develop- 
ment or arrested growth, one must make sure that it is not due to a difference in 
age, to the large embryo being some hours, or it may be several days, older than 
the small one. 

To be in a position to obtain horse embryos of a definite age during the earlier 

* "Ein Pferdeei vom 21 Tage," Schweizer Archiv fur Thierheilkunde, Band xxxiii, 1890. 

f Bonnet, Grundriss der Entivickelungsgeschichte der Haussaugethiere, Berlin, 1891. 

+ Assheton found a difference in the size and in the state of development in twin germinal areas of a sheep. 
Journ. Anat. and Physiol., April 1898. 

§ I once found in a rabbit doe eight young (alike in size) in the right uterus, and four young (also of uniform 
size) in the left uterus ; but when the eight were placed in one scale of a balance and the four in the other, the four 
weighed a few more grains than the eight ; nevertheless, the eight small foetuses were as well developed as the four 
large ones. Ewart, 27th Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry, Dept. of Agriculture, U.S.A., 1911. 



290 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

weeks of gestation, it is necessary to ascertain as accurately as possible when 
fertilisation of the ovum actually takes place. This implies, amongst other things' 
that each mare used should be kept long enough under observation to admit of the 
normal length of the cestrous period being determined. 

In a wild Prjevalsky mare {Equus prjewalskii) imported as a yearling from 
Mongolia, oestrus (the period of desire), first noticed during her third summer, lasted 
as a rule G or 7 days. Between the end of one period and the beginning of the next 
there was an interval of 14 or 15 days; i.e. in the wild, as in most domestic mares, 
the cestrous and anoestrous periods together as a rule occupied 21 days. The period 
of gestation in the wild mare, if one may judge from the Woburn and other records, 
averages 357 days or 17 dioestrous cycles of 21 days each. In the wild mare I had 
under observation oestrus set in 8 days after the birth of her first foal. She was 
served on the tenth and eleventh days after foaling, and the "period of desire" 
passed off before the morning of the twelfth day and never recurred u'ntil after her 
second foal was born. 

In domesticated mares living under nearly natural conditions the length of the 
oestrous period varies considerably ; and one occasionally hears of in-foal mares 
coming regularly " in season " during at least the first three months of the gestation 
period.* I have heard of a mare which proved in foal though the period of desire 
lasted under 24 hours, f and have had mares under observation which were continu- 
ously " in season " for 12 or more days. 

In making a collection of embryos with a view to working out the development 
of the horse it would be a great advantage if one had definite information as to 
when ovulation takes place, how long the ovum, after escaping from the follicle, 
retains the power of effectively combining with a sperm, and also how long sperms 
retain their fertilising power after reaching the oviduct. Unfortunately, we have no 
definite information, either about ovulation in the Equidse or about the vitality of 
their ova and spermatozoa. But from my records made since 1895 it may, I think, 
be inferred (l) that there is in the mare an intimate relation between ovulation and 
the disappearance of oestrus — that in fact the period of desire as a rule terminates 
from 10 to 26 hours after ovulation ; (2) that spermatozoa are usually stale 3 or 4 
days after reaching the oviduct ; and (3) that an ovum usually fails to develop unless 
it is fertilised within two days after escaping from its follicle. In support of these 
conclusions, it may be mentioned that when oestrus lasts from the seventh to the 
tenth day after foaling, the mare is likely to become again pregnant if served on the 

* Mr C. M. Douglas of Auchlochan informs me that Shetland pony mares sometimes take the horse regularly 
all through the period of gestation and yet produce a normal foal to the first service. Further, I am informed that in 
both Shetland and Clydesdale fillies oestrus may occur once and again during the earlier months of pregnancy without 
interfering with the normal development of the foal ; and I have heard of a Clydesdale mare that came in season ami 
was served three weeks before giving birth to a fully developed hut dead foal. 

f This mare belonged to a herd in the possession of the late Lord Arthur Cecil, a very competent and trust- 
worthy observer. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 291 

eighth, ninth, or tenth clay, but may fail to prove in foal if served on the seventh or 
not until the eleventh day. Service on the seventh day is in some cases of no avail, 
because the spermatozoa lose their fertilising power before the ovum escapes from 
its follicle on the tenth day, while service on the eleventh day is in some cases with- 
out effect, because the ovum has become stale before it is reached by the spermato- 
zoon.* 1 With a view to securing a 21 -days embryo, five mares were kept under 
observation for several months. One of the five, a 13'2-hands Highland pony, came 
regularly " in season " every third week, and, as in the wild mare, oestrus lasted from 
6 to 7 days. This Highland mare was served by a 14-hands Arab stallion at 2 p.m- 
on May 18, 1897, 7 days after she came "in season" (i.e. on the seventh day of 
cestrus). As she refused to take the horse on May 19, it may be assumed that an 
ovum escaped and was fertilised soon after the one and only service at 2 p.m. on 
May 18. On June 8, at 4 p.m. (21 days and 2 hours after service), the mare was 
killed and the pear-shaped 50-mm. blastocyst represented in fig. 5 was found in the 
left uterine horn (fig. 15). Obviously the age of the embryo found in the Highland 
mare may be under, but it cannot possibly be more than two hours over, 21 days. 

Bonnet's 13-mm. blastocyst was taken from a mare 21 days after the first service. 
How often the mare was served is not stated. If served on the first day of 
cestrus, and again on, say, the third day, and if, as is quite possible, ovulation took 
place on the sixth or seventh clay of cestrus, the age of the blastocyst (though 
removed 21 days after the first service) would only be 14 or 15 days. I am hence 
inclined to believe that the difference in size between Bonnet's so-called 21 -clays 
blastocyst (fig. 3) and the blastocyst from the Highland mare (fig. 5) was not due to 
either arrested development or arrested growth, but to a difference in age — to the 
ovum from which Bonnet's 13-mm. blastocyst was developed being fertilised 6 or 7 
days after the first service. 

Martin's 35-mm. blastocyst was obtained from an eight-year-old mare, which had 
a foal the previous year. This implies that cestrus probably lasted 6 or 7 days. The 
mare was served at 1.30 p.m. on April 2, and killed at 8 p.m. on April 23. When 
cestrus set in and passed off is not mentioned. If ovulation took place on April 2 
a few hours after service, the age of Martin's embryo was in all probability 21 clays ; 
but if the ovum only escaped from its follicle on, say, April 6, the age would only be 
17 clays. The difference in size and number of somites between Martin's so-called 
21 -days embryo (fig. 7) and my 21 -days embryo (figs. 8 to 11) is considerable. Seeing 
that no information is given by Martin as to whether the mare which yielded his 
embryo was served at the middle or end of oestrus, I think it may be assumed that - 
the difference between the embryos represented in figs. 7 and 8 is more likely to be 
due to a difference in age than to either arrested growth or arrested development. 
Taking these and other facts into consideration, I shall, I think, be justified in 

* In all probability service sometimes induces ovulation ; but, as a rule, no matter how often the mare is served, 
the follicle remains intact until the seventh or eighth day of oestrus, 



292 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

regarding Bonnet's 13-mm. blastocyst as representing the phase reached at the 
beginning of the third week, and Martin's 35-mm. blastocyst as representing the 
phase reached at the middle of the third week of development.* 

1. Bonnet's 13 -mm. Blastocyst (PI. IX, fig. 3). 

Sheep and goats are about as well developed and precocious at birth as foals. It 
might hence be assumed that the rate of development in Ungulates bears, as a rule, 
an intimate relation to the gestation period. In the Celtic pony the gestation period 
is approximately 366 days,f in sheep it seems to be about 150 days, and in the pig 
about 112 days; i.e. in the Celtic pony the gestation is practically three times that 
of the pig and 2"2 times that of the sheep. But the examination of a collection of 
Ungulate embryos clearly shows that the rate of progress, during at least the earlier 
weeks, bears little, if any, relation to the length of the gestation period, and especially 
that, though there is a family resemblance between the embryos of odd-toed and 
even-toed Ungulates, the foetal appendages may differ profoundly. 

Further inquiries will probably show that the blastodermic vesicle of the sheep 
at the end of the twelfth day agrees generally with the blastodermic vesicle of the 
horse at the end of the fourteenth day, and that a 15-days sheep embryo % differs 
but little from a 17- or 18-days horse embryo. But while at the outset horse embryos 
differ but little from sheep embryos, there seem to be, almost from the first, differ- 
ences in the foetal membranes. In Bonnet's 13-mm. horse blastocyst the zona pel- 
lucida was smooth, resistant, and elastic, and had a thickness of 4/u..§ Though in 
the sheep the blastocyst at the end of the twelfth day only measures about 1*5 mm., 
the zona pellucida has completely disappeared — according to Assheton the zona is 
greatly attenuated, if not actually absorbed, at or about the eighth day.|| Owing to 
the 13-mm. blastocyst having been injured, Bonnet was unable to say anything about 
the embryo it contained — he was only able to note the presence of isolated nucleated 
polygonal cells adhering to the inner surface of the zona pellucida. In all probability 
further inquiries will show that a horse embryo at the end of the second week is at 
least as far advanced as a 1 0-day s sheep embryo. 

2. Martins 35-mm. Blastocyst (PI. IX, fig. 4). 

Martin's blastocyst not only differed from Bonnet's in shape and size, but 
also in having a 4-mm. thick albumen coat (fig. 4, alb.) within which was found no 

* A 19-days horse embryo (text-fig. 19) in Hausmann's collection had ten mesodermic somites. Seeing 
that Martin's so-called 21-days embryo had only four somites, it was probably under rather than over 18 days. 

t It is on record that the average gestation period for thirty-three thoroughbred mares of the Middle Park stud, 
Eltham, was 335 - 5 days ; but in Shires and Clydesdales the gestation period seems to approach that of the wild horse 
of Mongolia (357 days), while in the ass it may run to 385 days. 

{ Assheton has pointed out that in the sheep, goat, and pig " there is a close parallelism in time with reference 
to the development of the embryo." (hiy's Hospital Reports, vol. lxii. 

§ That the zona pellucida of a 13-mm. equine blastocyst has a thickness of 4/j. wants confirmation. 

|| Assheton, "Segmentation of the Ovum of the Sheep," Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., vol. xli, 1898, 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OE THE HORSE. 293 

trace of the zona pellucida. Martin thought the albumen coat was perhaps partly 
formed in the oviduct, and that it provided nourishment as well as protection. 
Though Bonnet makes no reference to an albumen coat in his 13-mm. blastocyst, it 
is conceivable that the material for this coat is in part, as Martin suggests, provided 
by the oviduct ; but in all probability the albumen is mainly derived, as in the mole, 
from the uterus.* On making sections through the albumen layer, Martin ascertained 
that it consisted of numerous strongly refractive delicate lamellae, amongst which 
were groups of cells, free nuclei, and spermatozoa at various stages of disintegration.! 
There is no evidence that the albumen coat served to fix the blastocyst to the uterine 
mucous membrane. 

Martin describes the blastodermic vesicle as consisting of two quite distinct 
layers — an ectodermal layer composed of columnar cells which seen from the surface 
appear polygonal, and an endodermal layer of flat polygonal cells between which are 
many gaps of a considerable size. In the neighbourhood of the embryo the blastocyst 
consisted of three layers, an outer, inner, and middle, the last made up of round cells 



ec 




end 

Text-fig. 1. — Transverse section of Martin's embryo, am., amnion fold ; ec, ectoderm ; end., endoderm ; ms, mesoderm ; 
pr., primitive groove. Compare with section of 21-days embryo (text-fig. 12). 

continuous with the embryonic mesoderm. When the blastocyst was removed from 
the uterus, the embryo, being transparent, could not be detected, but as the fixing 
proceeded an oblong structure resembling the sole of a shoe made its appearance. 
As fig. 7 indicates, this embryo, rounded in front and pointed behind, had four somites 
and was separated by a narrow area pellucida from the area opaca. In a pig embryo 
with four mesodermic somites the amnion is represented by head, tail, and lateral 
folds, and there is a mass of mesoderm lying under the tail-fold which in course of 
time takes part in forming the allantois. Though Martin's embryo was 3 "25 mm. in 
length, the amnion was apparently only represented by short inconspicuous lateral 
folds (text-fig. 1, am.), and there was no rudiment of an allantois. 

That Martin's embryo represents a very early phase in the development of the 
horse — a phase reached in the pig on the fourteenth or fifteenth day — is made evident 
by the figures which illustrate his paper. In a dorsal view of the embryo (fig. 7) the 
primitive streak, the broad pointed primitive groove, the position of Hensen's node, 

* Heape, " The Development of the Mole," Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., vol. xxiii, 1888. 

t In Marsupials, as Professor Hill states, the ovum during its passage down the oviduct " becomes surrounded 
by a transparent layer of albumen '015 to - 022 mm. in thickness, composed of very delicate concentric lamellae, and 
having normally numbers of sperms embedded in it," and that this albumen layer is invested by a double-contoured 
membrane comparable to the shell membrane of the Monotreme egg. J. P. Hill, " The Early Development of the 
Marsupialia," Quart. Journ. Micro. Sci., vol. lvi, December 1910. 



294 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

and the narrow medullary groove with four somites at each side are indicated, while 
a transverse section through the posterior end of the primitive groove (text-fig. l) 
makes it clear that the mesoderm in this region had not yet split into somatic and 
splanchnic layers, and especially that very little, if any, progress had been made in 
providing an amnion. 

In a summary Martin directs special attention to the 35-mm. blastocyst being 
egg-shaped, to the presence of an albumen layer, and to the rudimentary condition of 
the amnion. 

3. Hausmann s 19-clays Embryos. 

Hausmann, who had a stud including fifty-two mares, secured three 19-days 
embryos, viz. one 19 days 45 minutes after service, one 19 days and 7 hours, and 
one 19 days and 20 hours after service. Hausmann' s figures of these embryos are 
reproduced in text-figs. 19 to 21. Though it must be admitted that these figures 
are, as Bonnet says, almost incomprehensible, they afford conclusive evidence in 
support of the view that Martin's embryo, instead of representing the stage reached 
at the end of the third week, represents the stage reached on the seventeenth or 
eighteenth day of gestation. Hausmann's 19 days 45 minutes embryo is characterised 
by ten or eleven mesodermic somites ; Martin's embryo had only four somites (fig. 7)- 
As my 21 -days embryo had over twenty somites (fie - . 10), it may be safely assumed that 
Martin's embryo represents the stage reached about the middle of the third week. 

B. The Reproductive Organs and Foetal Membranes at the End 

of the Third Week. 

1. The Ovaries and Corpus luteum, Oviduct and Uterus. 

(l) The Ovaries and Corpus luteum. — The ovaries of the mare from which the 
21 -days embryo was obtained are represented in figs. 12 to 15. Up to the time ova 
begin to mature the ovaries in the mare are small and smooth, and more or less 
kidney-shaped ; but as maturity is reached they increase in size, and eventually 
present a number of prominences each indicating the position of a growing ovarian 
follicle.* 

A number of follicular prominences are seen in figs. 12 and 13, while sections 
through follicles, from which the contents escaped, are represented in fig. 15. 
Evidently, during the three months the Highland mare was under observation, a 
large number of ova were maturing with a view, doubtless, to giving her a chance 

* Under normal conditions fillies reach maturity — begin to discharge ripe ova — about the end of the second or 
beginning of the third year, but under unfavourable conditions ovulation may only begin at the end of the third 
year. On the other hand, when fillies are well fed during their first winter, maturity may be reached at the end 
of the first or the beginning of the second year. Evidence of early maturity we have in a member of the Auchlochan 
herd of Shetland ponies. This pony, born on May 7, 1907, had a well-developed vigorous foal on May 23, 1909 : 
assuming the gestation period was 336 days, this filly became pregnant at the age of 1 year and 45 days. Seeing 
that a heifer may become pregnant when only 5 months old, it is not surprising that a filly sometimes reaches maturity 
before she is a year old. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OP THE HORSE. 295 

of eventually proving fertile even if she several times " broke service." Some of the 
follicles were under 5 mm., some were over 40 mm. in diameter, but even in a 6-mm. 
follicle (fig. l) I found what appeared to be a well-advanced ovum (fig. 2). The 
largest follicle in the left ovary (fig. 15) doubtless contained a nearly ripe ovum. 
In the mare, up to the end of the sixth week the trophoblast is at the best only 
loosely connected to the uterine mucous membrane ; it is hence mainly prevented 
from escaping from the uterine horn by internal hydrostatic pressure.* Had the 
blastocyst escaped from the uterus (i.e. had the Highland mare aborted, " broken 
service") during the third week, the large follicle seen in fig. 15 would have dis- 
charged an ovum on or about June 8, thus giving the mare a chance of again be- 
coming pregnant without any loss of time. On the other hand, had the gestation 
in the mare been allowed to run its course, the maturation of ova would have been 
arrested and the size of the enlarged follicles in both ovaries gradually reduced. 
That the large follicle in fig. 15 would have remained intact is suggested by its 
outer wall being decidedly thicker than that of the wall of the large follicle in the 
ovary (fig. 16) of a non-pregnant mare which died on the second day of oestrus, t 

The corpus luteum in the ovary of the mare which yielded Martin's embryo was 
of a soft consistency, pale red in colour, and about double the size of a lentil. The 
corpus luteum found in the left ovary of the Highland mare is represented in fig. 1 8 
natural size. The corpus luteum seen in fig. 17 occurred in the ovary of a mare 
which died three months after giving birth to a foal.| 

(2) The Oviduct and Uterus. — In the mare at the end of oestrus the trumpet-like 
expansion at the free end of the oviduct (fig. 19) lies near to, or in contact with, the 
follicle about to discharge an ovum. How long the "trumpet" retains this position 
after ovulation is not known — in the sheep the trumpet is said to adhere to the 
surface of the ovary for eight or nine days after service. The trumpet is lined with 
numerous lamellae which converge to the ostium abdominale to become continuous 
with the interrupted ridges extending along the oviduct ; it will be observed from 
fig. 19 that the lamellae lining the trumpet are continued for some distance over its 
outer . surface. The expanded upper part of the oviduct, immediately within the 
ostium, may play the part of a seminal receptacle — in a mare killed about 24 hours 
after service it contained numerous active spermatozoa. The oviduct opens into 
the uterine horn (fig. 19) by a minute aperture surrounded by the terminal portions 
of the lamellae of the oviduct. 

At birth the mucous membrane of the uterus presents few furrows and only 

* Experiments by Marshall and Jolly seem to show that the corpus luteum provides a secretion essential for 
the attachment of the embryo and for its nourishment during the first stages of pregnancy. " Contributions to the 
Physiology of the Mammalian Reproduction," Phil. Trans., Ser. B, vol. cxcviii, 1905. 

f Purther inquiries may show that in the case of mares that come in use during the period of gestation ovula- 
tion may occasionally take place. 

% The function of the corpus luteum in the mare is dealt with in The Physiology of Reproduction, by F. H. A. 
Marshall, Longmans, 1910. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART II. (NO. 7). 43 



296 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

rudiments of glands, but by the third month a number of deep furrows extend along 
the horns and along the greater part of the body of the uterus. By the end of the 
first year the uterine mucous membrane, from a short distance within the cervix up 
to the ends of the horns, is folded longitudinally to form narrow nearly parallel 
ridges separated by deep furrows. Eventually these ridges are cut transversely into 
numerous tongue-shaped processes (figs. 14 and 2l). The condition of the uterine 
mucous membrane at the end of the third week is indicated in figs. 25 and 26. 
With the exception of the cervix the uterus is lined by a layer of columnar 
epithelium beneath which is a somewhat dense layer of connective tissue traversed 
by numerous capillaries (fig. 24). At a deeper level the connective tissue of the 
uterine wall forms an irregular network the meshes of which are traversed by blood- 
vessels of various sizes, and by the numerous uterine glands (fig. 26). 

Before prooestrum sets in — i.e. during the period of rest (anoestrum) — the uterine 
mucosa is of a pale colour and coated with a thin layer of mucus ; but as prooestrum 
advances it becomes more and more congested, with the result that the glands become 
more active. When the oestrous phase is reached the tongue-like processes making 
up the uterine ridges (figs. 14 and 21) are red and swollen ; this is partly due to con- 
gestion of the capillaries, and partly to the engorged condition of the glands. An 
indication of the condition of the mucous membrane during oestrus will be gained 
from figs. 23 and 24, which represent sections of a uterine ridge about 24 hours 
after oestrus set in. The sections, though affording no evidence of the escape of blood 
into the cavity of the uterus during prooestrum, show at places extravasated blood 
in the connective tissue and in the lumen of the glands. It will be noticed that 
amongst the extravasated blood corpuscles bodies resembling hsematoidin crystals 
(fig. 24) are fairly common ; there is, however, an absence of pigment such as usually 
occurs in sheep. # 

Martin states that the mucous membrane of the uterus from which his 35-mm. 
blastocyst was obtained was swollen and spotted. There was no spotting or evidence 
of congestion in the uterine horn which contained my 21 -days embryo; in fact, at 
the end of the third week, as during anoestrum, there is neither marked congestion 
nor evidence of unusual activity of the uterine glands nor yet of destruction of the 
uterine epithelium. In the absence of signs of unusual activity in the uterine mucous 
membrane during the earlier weeks of gestation the mare evidently differs from the 
sheep and pig, in which, in addition to an increase of the interglandular tissue, there 
is considerable degeneration of the lining epithelium. An indication of the difference 
between the uterine mucosa at the end of the third week and during oestrus will be 
gained from figs. 23 to 26 ; in figs. 25 and 26 the mucous membrane of the uterine 
horn containing the 21 -days embryo is represented, in figs. 23 and 24 the mucous 
membrane at the end of the first day of oestrus. 

Notwithstanding the absence of marked congestion of the mucosa at the end of 

* Marshall, "The (Estrus Cycle in the Sheep," Phil. Trans., Ser. B, vol. cxcvi, 1903. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 297 

the third week, there was — if one may judge by the presence of leucocytes and fat 
globules — abundance of the uterine milk so essential during the earlier weeks for the 
nourishment of the embryo. 

2. The Blastocyst. 

It has already been mentioned that the blastocyst is globular in form and measures 
13 mm. at the beginning of the third week; that it is ovoid and has a length of 
35 mm. at the middle of the third week ; and that by the end of the third week it is 
pear-shaped and measures 50 mm. (fig. 5). 

Though the blastocyst is not, as Bonnet stated in 1889, spherical up to the 
seventh week, a globular form is retained longer in the Equidae than in even-toed 
Ungulates ;* in an embryo pig, at the same phase as a 21-days horse, the blastocyst, 
instead of measuring 50 mm., may reach a length of 1000 mm. Bonnet believed 
there was still a trace of the zona pellucida at the end of' the fourth week, but 
Martin failed to find any evidence of the zona in his 35-mm. blastocyst, and there was 
no vestige of a zona at the end of the third week. As soon as the 21-days blastocyst 
was exposed the embryo was seen at the broad rounded end (fig. 5), and there were 
faint indications of the vitelline vessels and the sinus terminalis. Immediately 
beyond the sinus it was possible to detect minute circular projections (trophoblastic 
discs), and still nearer the small end shallow semi-opaque depressions (fig. 34). 

3. The Trophoblast. 

The isolated nucleated polygonal cells seen by Bonnet adhering to the inner 
surface of the zona pellucida of his 13-mm. blastocyst doubtless belonged to the 
trophoblast. The trophoblast of Martin's 35-mm. blastocyst apparently consisted 
throughout of epiblastic cells almost tall enough to rank as columnar cells ; as is 
often the case with trophoblastic cells, the nucleus was nearer the inner than the outer 
end. In my 50-mm. blastocyst, in the absence of the albumen coat present in the 
35-mm. blastocyst, the trophoblast lay in direct contact with the lining of the uterus. 
As in this embryo the amnion was complete and the unsplit mesoderm highly 
vascularised, I expected to find the trophoblast at least as highly specialised as in 
Marsupials at a corresponding stage of development. 

Sections through the blastocyst in the embryonic area, in the region of the sinus 
terminalis, and in the non-vascular distal end made it evident that three kinds of 
epiblastic cells took part in forming the trophoblast, viz. : (a) typical columnar 
cells, (b) very tall columnar cells, and (c) columnar cells ending in free sac-like 
processes. The greater part of the trophoblast consisted of cells of the first category, 
i.e. of fairly tall typical polygonal columnar cells in contact with each other along 
their entire length, with deeply placed nuclei and nearly square-cut outer ends 

* Figures of the blastocyst at the end of the fourth, fifth, sixth, and seventh weeks are given in the writer's 
pamphlet, A Critical Period in the Development of the Horse, A. & C. Black, 1897. 



298 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

(fig. 28, tr.). Cells of this type, with cells of the non-vascular somatic mesoderm of 
the embryonic area, formed the true chorion (text-fig. L2, ch.), and they made up 
the trophoblast forming the outer wall of the space containing the unsplit highly 
vascular mesoderm which extended from the exoccelom to a short distance beyond 
the sinus terminalis (fig. 34, s.t.). Typical columnar cells also occurred beyond the 
sinus; they occupied, e.g., spaces between the trophoblastic discs (fig. 34, t.d.) and 
between the shallow depressions scattered over the pointed end of the blastocyst. 

Though the simple columnar trophoblastic cells in the embryonic area are in con- 
tact with the somatic mesoderm (fig. 34), and the corresponding cells beyond the 
sinus terminalis are in contact with the yolk-sac endoderm (fig. 30), the cells forming 
the trophoblast between the exocoelom and the sinus terminalis are not in contact 
with the unsplit vascularised mesoderm. Evidence of this we have in fig. 28. 
From this figure it is evident that there is a space between the trophoblast (tr.) and 
the yolk-sac endoderm (y.e.), in which is suspended the rich plexus of vitelline vessels 
carrying blood to and from the embryo. 

There is no evidence at the end of the third week that any of the cells of the 
trophoblast up to the sinus terminalis are either phagocytic or in any way adapted 
for fixing the blastocyst to the lining of the uterus. In all probability the simple 
columnar trophoblastic cells simply imbibe the fluid portion of the uterine milk in 
much the same way as the cells lining the intestine of the adult horse absorb the 
fluid constituents of the food in the alimentary canal. This fluid on reaching the 
space between the trophoblast and the yolk-sac endoderm has a chance of at once 
entering the capillaries of the unsplit mesoderm and being conveyed to the embryo 
by the vitelline veins. Taking into consideration the relatively great extent of the 
vascularised mesoderm, it is extremely probable that the trophoblast extending 
between the exocoelom and the sinus terminalis is the chief means by which nourish- 
ment is secured for the embryo at the end of the third week. 

The second, or very tall, cells only occur in the fully developed trophoblastic 
discs. These discs (text-fig. 2) are especially numerous near the edge of the vascu- 
larised mesoderm which extends beyond the sinus terminalis (fig. 22 and text-fig. 4) — 
in an area near the sinus measuring 10 by 3 mm. I counted 27 discs at various stages 
of development. A disc 300 times enlarged is given in text-fig. 3, and a similar disc, 
on a smaller scale, viewed from within, is given in text-fig. 4; sections of discs 
are given in figs. 29 and 30. The majority of the sections of any given disc con- 
tain so many nuclei (fig. 29a) that one is apt to assume that the peculiar tropho- 
blastic projections from the 21 -days horse blastocyst consist of several layers of 
cells, are in fact formed by a heaping up of cells, and are hence akin to the heaps 
of cells met with in the trophoblast of Manis.* But sections carried through the 
centre of a disc (fig. 29) clearly prove that even the largest discs consist of a single 

* Max Weber, " Beitriige zur Anatomie und Entwickelung der Genus Manis," Zoologische Ergebnisse einer Reise 
in Niederliindisch Od-Indien, Leiden, 1892. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 



299 








.■■;•■••■ #■ 



"4ffc 



Text-fig. 2. — Group of trophoblastic discs near sinus terminalis at various stages of development, x 28. 




Text-fig. 3. — A full-grown trophoblastic disc seen from without, x 300. 



300 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

layer of long, narrow, columnar cells ; that proliferation, instead of leading to a 
heaping up of cells, has simply increased the extent of the original single layer, 
with the result that it has bulged outwards to form a dome-like projection with a 
relatively small central cavity. 

The long cells forming the greater part of the disc, i.e. the part in contact with 
the lining of the uterus, never seem to end in sac-like processes, but such processes 
are usually seen protruding from some of the tall cells forming the edge of the discs 
(fig. 29). It might hence be inferred that the discs are only, or at least mainly, con- 
cerned with fixing the embryonic sac to the lining of the uterus. If, however, 
sections of a disc are carefully examined, granules, and vacuoles containing one or 
more deeply stained bodies, are invariably seen in or between the tall cells (fig. 29) ; 
hence it may be assumed that the discs subserve nutrition as well as fixation.* 

As it happens, all the stages in the development of the trophoblastic discs are met 
with at the end of the third week. Nothing of the nature of a basement membrane 
or coagulum is present within the layer of simple columnar cells forming the tropho- 
blast up to the sinus terminalis, but in sections of the 50-mm. blastocyst beyond the 
unsplit mesoderm the cells of the trophoblast seem to rest on a basement membrane. 
As offshoots from this apparent basement membrane extend up between the tropho- 
blastic cells, and as the layer reaches a considerable thickness under the developing 
and completed discs (figs. 29 and 30), it is evidently formed out of material taken in 
by the epiblastic cells forming the trophoblast beyond the sinus terminalis. Under the 
large disc represented in fig. 29 the coagulated material reaches a considerable thick- 
ness, but under the developing disc given in fig. 30 the amount of the coagulum is 
still limited. Sometimes a band connects the coagulum of one disc with that of an 
adjacent disc. Whether the thickening of the coagulum at certain definite points is 
due at the outset to increased activity of the cells under which it lies, or to a zone of 
phagocytic cells around those destined to form the disc, I am unable to say. It is, 
however, certain that as the coagulum increases in amount the cells lying over it 
increase in number, and especially in length. 

It is well to bear in mind that these trophoblastic discs are only present for a 
short time — they are not yet developed at the middle of the third week, and they 
disappear before the end of the fourth week. 

The third kind of trophoblastic cells, instead of ending in square-cut ends, 
terminate in sac-like processes separated from each other by more or less distinct 
spaces. Cells of this type are always found in the grooves surrounding the discs 
(fig. 30, pc.) ; they also occur in patches between the discs and line the shallow de- 
pressions scattered over the distal end of the blastocyst. There is no evidence that 
the sac-like projections of these cells either adhere to, fit in between, or destroy the 

* From the appearance of some of the round bodies seen in the disc represented in fig. 29 it is extremely 
probable that had the 21-days blastocyst been fixed with osmic acid, fatty globules like those found by Jenkinson 
in the sheep would have been met with in the cells forming the trophoblastic discs. Jenkinson, " Notes on the 
Histology and Physiology of the Placenta in Ungulata," Proc. Zool. Soc, 1906. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 301 

cells of the uterine mucosa. While the simple columnar cells of the trophoblast are 
probably mainly concerned with taking in nutritive fluids, the cells with sac-like 
processes seem to be truly phagocytic. In one of the cells in fig. 30 minute bodies 
are seen in the sac-like projection. 

It is probable that, aftes the albumen layer (text-fig. ll) disappears, phagocytic 
cells are comparatively common, but that, as the sinus terminalis migrates towards 
the distal pole, their number is gradually reduced. Seeing that a membrane-like 
coagulum is not present within the layer of simple columnar cells forming the 
trophoblast up to the sinus terminalis, it may be presumed that the coagulum under 
the trophoblast beyond the sinus is mainly formed from material taken in by the 
epiblastic cells with sac-like processes. 

Though the trophoblastic discs and the internal hydrostatic pressure may together 
be sufficient at the end of the third week to retain the blastocyst in the same position 
in the uterine horn, they are evidently not able to prevent it escaping from the 
horn when by accident or otherwise the passage leading to the uterus becomes 
dilated. At the end of the third, as at the end of the sixth week, the moment the 
blastocyst is exposed it seems to detach itself from the lining of the uterus ; to 
what extent this result is due to uterine contractions induced by incisions made to 
expose the embryo it is difficult to say, but the fact remains that until the allantoic 
villi begin to appear at the end of the seventh week such adhesions as exist between 
the blastocyst and the uterus are easily broken down. Structures at all comparable 
to the trophoblastic discs of the 21 -days horse blastocyst have not, as far as I am 
aware, been met with either in other Eutheria or in the Marsupialia. The discs 
differ from the irregular epiblastic villi which in the rabbit during the second week 
of gestation acquire a close attachment to the mucous membrane of the uterus and 
thus aid in fixing the blastocyst. They differ still more from the multinuclear giant 
cells which in some cases erode the uterine mucosa, and from the large trophoblastic 
masses (syncytia) which, e.g. in Spermophilus, not only penetrate the epithelium but 
extend some distance into the connective tissue of the uterus. 

4. The Yolk-sac. 

Just as a typical amnion consists of an inner layer of ectoderm and an outer 
layer of somatic mesoderm, a typical yolk-sac consists of an inner layer of endoderm 
and an outer layer of splanchnic mesoderm. In the horse at the middle of the third 
week the extra-embryonic endoderm consists of polygonal epithelial cells separated 
by many gaps of a considerable size. In the absence of mesoderm, except in the. 
vicinity of the embryo, this imperfect layer of endoderm lies in direct contact with 
the trophoblast. Hence at the middle of the third week the yolk-sac, except in the 
neighbourhood of the embryo, consists only of an imperfect layer of endoderm. 

Before the end of the third week is reached the mesoderm has greatly increased, and, 
more important still, has split within and for some distance beyond the embryo (fig. 33 



302 



PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 



and text-fig. 12) into somatic and splanchnic layers, thus giving rise to coelomic and 
exocoelomic spaces. Owing to this partial splitting of the mesoderm the part of the 
yolk-sac nearest the embryo is complete, i.e. it consists of a layer of endoderm and a 
layer of splanchnic mesoderm. But beyond the exocoelom (fig. 34 and text-fig. 12) the 
yolk-sac at the end of the third week is not yet provided. witli its mesodermic coat, for 
up to a line slightly beyond the sinus terminalis it simply consists of a single layer 



_ ^jaffsT • • • •• « • • * 







Text-fig. 4. — Sinus terminalis (s./. ) of a 21-days embryo and trophoblastic disc (t.d.) seen from within. 
b. v., blood-vessels on growing margin of unsplit mesoderm beyond sinus terminalis. x 90. 

of endoderm which forms the inner boundary of a space occupied by the unsplit 
mesoderm ; beyond this line the endoderm is intimately related to the trophoblast 
(fig. 28).* The cells of the yolk-sac endoderm around the opening into the yolk- 
stalk, like the cells lining the stalk, are columnar in form (fig. 50) ; but within a short 
distance of the yolk-stalk, right up to the sinus terminalis, the yolk-sac endoderm 
consists of a single continuous layer of fiat polygonal cells (fig. 31, a) some of which 

* Iu the sheep and pig the mesoderm is soon completely split into somatic and splanchnic layers. The result 
of this splitting is the formation of a free yolk-sac vesicle (text-fig. 13). The yolk-sac is nearly, but never quite, 
a free vesicle in the horse. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 303 

are connected by protoplasmic bands with the vessels of the unsplit mesoderm 
(% 28). 

Except within the trophoblastic discs, the endoderm beyond the margin of the 
unsplit mesoderm also consists of a single layer of polygonal cells (fig. 30), but 
opposite the discs the endoderm cells proliferate to form tubercles which project 
into the cavity of the yolk-sac (figs. 29 and 32). 

The first indication of a trophoblastic disc is a local thickening of the coagulum 
lying between the trophoblast and endoderm, presumably the result of the increased 
activity of a group of trophoblastic cells (fig. 30). The first indication of a yolk- 
sac tubercle is an ingrowth from the thickened coagulum which causes the endoderm 
to bulge into the cavity of the yolk-sac (figs. 31 and 31a). The endoderm cells in 
contact with the globular ingrowth from the coagulum stain more deeply and are 
decidedly more granular than the surrounding cells (fig. 31a). It may hence be 
inferred that the coagulum is attacked by the endoderm cells in its immediate 
vicinity. As the coagulum expands and projects further into the cavity of the 
yolk-sac it acquires an almost complete investment of endoderm cells with relatively 
large nuclei. A section through the centre of a growing tubercle (still connected 
by a short stalk with the subtrophoblastic layer of coagulum) is represented in 
fig. 32, while fig. 32a represents a section through the edge of the same tubercle. 

If, as is usually the case, the coagulum forming the kernel of the tubercle reaches 
a considerable size, the capsule of endodermic cells ruptures, with the result that the 
coagulum projects freely into the cavity of the yolk-sac (fig. 29). Just as it is im- 
possible to say to what extent the uterine milk is modified as it passes through the 
trophoblastic discs to form the coagulum, it is impossible to say how the contents of 
the tubercles are modified by the endodermic cells forming their capsules. 

5. The Mesoderm. 

At the middle of the third week the mesoderm is in the act of splitting in the 
region of the mesodermic somites ; at the end of the third week, as already mentioned, 
the splitting of the mesoderm into somatic and splanchnic layers has extended some 
distance beyond the embryo (fig. 34 and text-fig. 12). The inner portion of the space 
resulting from the splitting becomes the coelom, the outer forms the exoccelom (text- 
fig. 12). As fig. 34 and text-fig. 12 indicate, the greater part of the mesoderm at the 
end of the third week is still unsplit, and lies between the endoderm and trophoblast. 
This unsplit mesoderm is in contact neither with the trophoblast nor the endoderm ; 
it occupies a space between these layers, and supports the vitelline vessels carrying 
blood to and from the embryo. The blood comes direct from the two aortse by the two 
vitelline arteries (text-fig. 7). The left artery (l.v.), very much larger than the right 
(figs. 27 and 35), eventually bifurcates and encircles the blastocyst as the sinus 
terminalis (fig. 34) ; the left artery, before bifurcating to form the sinus, gives off 
numerous branches, some of which anastomose with branches from the small right 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART II (NO. 7). 44 



304 



PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWAHT. 



artery. These branches, together with many others from the sinus terminalis, form 
an arterial network (fig. 34). From the network small veins proceed which unite 
ultimately to form the large vitelline veins, by means of which the blood from the 
yolk-sac is poured into the sinus venosus. The large left and small right vitelline 
arteries and the large vitelline veins are seen in fig. 35. The general scheme of the 
yolk-sac circulation is given in fig. 34, while fig. 22 and text-fig. 5 represent on a 
larger scale the network formed by branches proceeding from the sinus terminalis. 




Text-fig. 5. — Portion of vitelline network near sinus terminalis. x 90. 



In the case of the rabbit and other mammals in which the lower polar region of 
the blastocyst is never invaded by mesoderm, blood-vessels never occur beyond the 
sinus terminalis ; when, however, as in the sheep, the mesoderm extends throughout 
practically the whole of the lower portion of the blastocyst, no definite sinus termin- 
alis appears. In the horse at the end of the third week, though a sinus has been 
established, it does not, as in the rabbit, mark the limit of vascularisation, for, as fig. 22 
and text-fig. 4 indicate, blood-vessels or blood-islands extend some distance beyond 
the sinus. But by the end of the fourth week there are neither blood-vessels nor 
blood-islands beyond the sinus terminalis ; hence the yolk-sac circulation in the horse 
has even a different history from that of the pig, in which a temporary sinus is 
followed by general vascularisation. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 805 



6. The Amnion. 

In Martin's embryo the amnion was only represented by indistinct lateral ridges 
(text-fig. 1, am.) ; in my 21-days embryo the amnion was complete (figs. 33, 34, and 
text-fig. 12). In the sheep and pig the amnion, well advanced on the fifteenth day, 
may be complete on the sixteenth day, i.e. at the stage characterised by from 8 to 
10 mesodermic somites. As there are neither head nor tail folds in the horse on the 
seventeenth day, the amnion is probably only completed on the twenty-first day, i.e. 
at the stage characterised by about twenty somites. It may hence be assumed that 
the amnion appears relatively later in the horse than in the sheep and pig — the early 
development of the amnion in even-toed Ungulates is doubtless correlated with the 
early disappearance of the zona pellucida. Whether in the Equidee the amnion is 
mainly derived from a head fold, as in the chick, or from a tail fold, as in the rabbit, 
will doubtless be ascertained when a more complete series of embryos is available. 
But seeing that the head is sharply bent backwards (fig. 33) at the end of the third 
week, the probability is that in the horse, as in the pig, the head fold contributes 
most. In a longitudinal section of the 21-days embryo the amnion (in contact at 
its origin with the allantoic diverticulum) is seen to arch upwards and forwards over 
the external opening of the spinal cord (fig. 33). In a transverse section on a level 
with the minute diverticulum (fig. 33, cl.) which seems to represent the cloacal chamber, 
the crescent-shaped amniotic cavity is seen to lie immediately above the lateral 
extensions of the allantoic diverticulum (fig. 50, al.d.). In the semi-diagrammatic 
drawing of the blastocyst (fig. 33) the amnion is represented as having a large cavity. 
As a matter of fact, there is very little amniotic fluid at the end of the third week, 
with the result that in transverse sections the amnion is seen to be only separated by 
a narrow space from the embryo (fig. 8). 

The structure and relations of the amnion and the extent of its cavity will be 
gathered from figs. 36 to 53. It will be observed that in the horse, as in the sheep 
and pig, the amnion is directly continuous with the somatopleure, and that in some 
of the sections the mesodermic layer of the amnion is thrown into more or less 
distinct longitudinal ridges (fig. 45). It will be further observed that owing to the 
head projecting into the amnion as into a cowl or sac, the facial portion of the embryo 
is completely enveloped by the amnion (figs. 36 and 37). 

In front of the vitelline veins (figs. 39 and 40) the amnion again assumes the form 
of a sac or hood, with the result that in the most anterior part of the flexed embryo 
the dorsal portion of the amniotic cavity is no longer separated from the ventral 
portion. It will be noticed that many of the sections figured suggest that the one 
and only object of the somatopleure is to provide a water-jacket over the back of 
the embryo.* 

* With a water-jacket (the amnion) above and a water-bed (the yolk-sac) underneath, the embryo horse is as 
well protected from jars and pressure as a chick all but completely surrounded by amniotic fluid. 



306 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 



7. The Allantois. 

In the rabbit the allantois is represented on the eighth day by a mass of mesoderm 
cells at the posterior end of the embryo. On the ninth day a diverticulum from the 
hind-gut extends into this cell mass and soon expands to form the allantoic vesicle. 
In the pig and sheep a similar diverticulum (which extends into a mass of mesoderm 
on or about the fifteenth day) gives rise at a comparatively early stage to a long 
compressed allantoic vesicle (text-fig. 15). If the allantois appeared relatively as soon 
in the horse as in the sheep, one would expect to find allantoic mesoderm investing 
the posterior end of Martin's embryo (fig. 7), but, as already stated, there is no 
indication of an allantoic diverticulum at the middle of the third week. 

In the 21-days embryo the caudal end was surrounded by a large fin-like expansion 
(fig. 11), mainly composed of mesoderm, into which extended a diverticulum from 
the hind end of the intestine (fig. 33). From the series of transverse sections of the 
21-days horse embryo it was impossible to make out the exact form and relations 
of either the allantoic diverticulum, the heart, or the pharynx. These difficulties, 
together with the difficulty of accounting for the difference between Bonnet's and 
Martin's so-called 21-days embryos and the still greater difference between Martin's 
embryo and my 21-days embryo, ultimately led to a deadlock. Repeated attempts 
to obtain 14-days horse embryos failed; nevertheless, progress eventually again 
became possible. With the help of information gained from breeding experiments 
I was in course of time able to account for the differences between my 21-days 
embryo and the so-called 21-days embryos of Bonnet and Martin, and at an 
opportune moment my colleague Professor Robinson was good enough to offer to 
have a model of my 21-days embryo constructed by the wax-plate method. 

This model was in due time completed in the Anatomical Department of the 
University of Edinburgh by Mr A. Gibson, M.B.* 

In the description of the model of the 21-days embryo, t Professor Robinson, in the 
section dealing with the foetal membranes, points out that " the allantoic diverticulum 
is a narrow-necked sac (fig. 33) so flattened dorso-ventrally that its cavity is reduced 
to the dimensions of a narrow cleft" (fig. 52). He further states (a) that the 
diverticulum expands as it passes caudally into the somatic mesoderm beneath the 
caudal part of the amnion fold, unti] it attains a width of 235/a ; (b) that " the endo- 
dermal diverticulum is surrounded laterally, ventrally, and caudally with mesoderm 
(fig. 33), but dorsally it lies in relation with the ectoderm in the region of the caudal 
end of the amnion " ; and (c) that " the allantoic blood-vessels consist of a number of 
dilated capillaries which form a coarse network on each side. Each lateral network 

* Mr Gibson, before leaving Edinburgh to occupy the Chair of Anatomy in the University of Winnipeg, 
was good enough to place at my disposal notes and drawings of the model he made under the supervision of 
Professor Robinson. 

t " Description of a Reconstruction Model of a Horse Embryo Twenty-One Days Old," Trans. Boy. Soc. Edin. 
vol. li, by Arthur Robinson, M.D., Professor of Anatomy, University of Edinburgh. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 307 

receives two branches from the caudal end of the dorsal aorta of the same side, and it 
terminates at the caudal end of the allantoic mass in a terminal transverse sinus from 
which the umbilical veins take their origin" (text-fig. 7). 

That the endodermic diverticulum from the hind-gut (fig. 33, al.d.) is allantoic 
and not simply a portion of the cloacal chamber is suggested by its narrow neck, its 
relation to the vascular and capillary plexus of blood-vessels in the allantoic meso- 
derm, and by its agreement with the diverticulum recognised as the rudiment of 
the allantois in the sheep and pig. 

In the chick the allantois, a small diverticulum at the close of the second day, 
is flask-shaped and half the length of the embryo on the fifth day, while on the ninth 
day it almost completely surrounds both embryo and yolk-sac. In the sheep and pig 
(in which the foetal appendages appear relatively sooner than in the horse) the 
allantois has the form of a small two-horned diverticulum on the sixteenth day and 
of a large double-horned sac on the eighteenth day (text-fig. 15). Nevertheless, the 
time of appearance of the allantois in the horse may be said to closely coincide with 
that in the chick, for, though small at the stage characterised by about twenty-two 
somites, it surrounds two-thirds of the embryo on the twenty-eighth day and nearly 
invests the entire yolk-sac on the sixty-third day, i.e. at the stage in the horse which 
may be said to correspond with the ninth day in the chick. 

C. The Embryo at the End of the Third Week. 

1. Size and External Conformation. 

Martin's embryo (fig. 7), which represents the phase reached in the horse at or 
about the middle of the third week, had a total length of 3 '25 mm., and the greatest 
breadth was I "3 mm. The 21-days embryo, instead of lying, like Martin's, at 
right angles to the long axis of the blastocyst (fig. 4), occupied a position nearly 
parallel to its long axis (fig. 5). Measured round the curve this embryo had a 
length, when fresh, of 11 mm., i.e. it was more than three times the length of 
Martin's embryo. The length of the dorsal portion of the trunk seen in fig. 10 
was 6'25 mm. The length of the head and the adjacent part of the trunk seen in 
fig. 11 was 3 '25 mm., and the greatest breadth 2 mm. 

If Martin's embryo represents the stage reached in the sheep at the fifteenth day 
of gestation, the 21-days horse embryo probably represents the stage reached in the 
sheep at the end of the eighteenth day. In the 21-days embryo horse one especially 
notices : — (l) the curving downwards and backwards of the head and front portion of 
the trunk round the inner ends of the vitelline veins (fig. 8) ; (2) the large pericardial 
sac lying in the space between the branchial region and the vitelline veins (fig. 8) ; 
(3) rudiments of the external gill slits and of the gill pouches, between the branchial 
arches (figs. 8 and 9) ; (4) the openings into the otic sacs (fig. 11) ; (5) the absence of 
a maxillary process from the mandibular arch ; (6) the absence of nasal sacs and of 



308 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

limb rudiments ; (7) the presence of a broad fin-like expansion at the caudal end of 
the embryo (fig. 1 1 ) ; (8) the external opening from the posterior end of the spinal 
cord (fig. 10) ; (9) the broad yolk-stalk connecting the embryo with the yolk-sac 
(fig. 33) ; and (10) the mouth (fig. 33) between the fronto-nasal process and the first 
pair of branchial arches (fig. 9). 

2. The Nervous System and Sense Organs. 

At the middle of the third week the nervous system is represented by a medullary 
groove, shallow at its origin immediately in front of the primitive groove, but deep 
in the region of the mesodermic somites (fig. 7). This groove communicates by 
means of a neurenteric canal with the rudiment of the hind-gut. Before the end of 
the third week the medullary groove is converted into the medullary or neural canal. 
Though at the end of the third week the neural canal still opens to the exterior at 
the caudal end (fig. 33), it is closed in front and the cerebral vesicles are already 
modified to form rudiments of the fore-, mid-, and hind-brain. The fore-brain, 
separated by a shallow groove externally and a faint ridge internally from the 
mid-brain, occupies the greater part of the obliquely directed fronto-nasal process 
(fig. 33). The transverse sections through this process show amongst other things 
the original cavity of the anterior cerebral vesicle and the primary optic vesicles 
(fig. 36). The mid-brain, small and indistinctly separated from the hind-brain, has 
a relatively large oval cavity. In fig. 37 the large cavity of the mid-brain is seen 
also, the notochord lying between the mid-brain and the diverticulum (Seessel's pouch), 
which for a time projects from the roof of the fore-gut immediately within the bucco- 
pharyngeal membrane. 

The hind-brain (figs. 38 to 40), long and tubular, is neither distinctly separated 
from the mid-brain nor the spinal cord. After curving backwards and downwards 
the hind-brain forms a dorsal curve which probably marks the beginning of the spinal 
cord. The chief interest of the hind-brain at the end of the third week is its relation 
to the otic vesicles. These vesicles (fig. 38) lie close to the hind-brain, nearly on a 
level with the second branchial pouch.* 

The spinal cord, in the form of an ectodermic tube with a distinct lumen, extends 
from the hind-brain to the caudal end of the embryo to end in a mass of cells with 
which the notochord and the cloacal diverticulum are intimately related. The rela- 
tion of the spinal cord to the notochord and hind-gut, and the opening of its canal 
to the exterior, are indicated in fig. 33, while in fig. 52 a section of the cord immedi- 
ately in front of the external opening is represented. From the figures of transverse 
sections of the embryo it will be observed that the spinal cord assumes a triangular 
form in the caudal region (figs. 50 to 52), but a more or less oval form throughout 
the greater part of the trunk (figs. 41 to 49). 

* Owing to the slight obliquity of the section, only the external opening of one of the vesicles is seen in 
the figure. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 309 

3. The Alimentary Canal. 

At the end of the third week the alimentary canal is closed in front and behind, 
but the middle portion is in free communication with the yolk-sac (fig. 33). An 
ectodermic involution in front of the fore-gut represents the mouth, while an endo- 
dermic outgrowth from the hind-gut represents the allantois (fig. 33). The mouth 
(stomodseum) is an irregular deep pit between the naso-frontal process and the first 
(mandibular) pair of branchial arches (fig. 8). The floor of the pit which separates 
the embryonic mouth from the pharynx consists of only two layers (fig. 33), a layer of 




Text-fig. 6. — Diagram of branchial pouches and branchial arches, l.b.p. to IV. b. p., the four 
branchial pouches ; I. b. a. to IV. 6. a., the four branchial arches ; l.b.g. and III. b.g., the first 
and third branchial grooves ; l.a.a., first aortic arch ; II. a.a., second aortic arch ; mo., mouth 
pit ; I. , possible lung rudiment ; t. , tuberculum impar. 

ectoderm and a layer of endoderm, the latter intimately related to the notochord and 
the mandibular arches. Immediately behind this partition (the bucco-pharyngeal 
membrane) between the mouth and the pharynx a diverticulum projects upwards 
towards the notochord (fig. 37), which Professor Robinson regards as Seessel's pouch. 
The Fore-gut. — At the end of the third week the pharyngeal part of the fore-gut 
is especially interesting because of the presence of branchial or gill pouches and their 
related branchial arches. In the chick there are during development four pairs of 
pouches and five pairs of arches, and for a time each of the three foremost pouches 
opens to the exterior and thus gives rise to imperfect gill clefts. In man at the end 
of the third week there are four pairs of branchial arches and four pairs of branchial 



310 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

pouches, but only the first two pairs of pouches and the first two pairs of arches (the 
mandibular and hyoid) are well developed, and even the large first pouch has never 
been found opening to the exterior. 

In the 21-days horse the branchial pouches and arches generally agree with the 
corresponding structures in man. The first pouch (figs. 9 and 33 and text-fig. 6) 
projects outwards and upwards between the first (mandibular) and second (hyoid) 
a relies until it is only separated from the first branchial groove (fig. 8 and text-fig. 6) 
by a thin partition (consisting of endoderm and ectoderm) which eventually takes 
part in forming the tympanic membrane. The second branchial pouch (fig. 9 and 
text-fig. 6), though smaller than the first, extends outwards and then upwards 
towards the otic sac (fig. 38). thus filling up the greater part of the space between 
the second (hyoid) and third branchial arches. On the way it approaches the second 
branchial groove (text-fig. 6) ; but this groove is neither as long nor as deep nor 
yet as intimately related to its pouch as the groove between the mandibular and 
hyoid arches. 

The third branchial pouch (figs. 9 and 39), decidedly shorter and narrower than 
the second, extends outwards and slightly upwards towards the space between the 
third and fourth branchial arches (text-fig. 6) to end some distance from the shallow 
third indication of a branchial groove (fig. 8). In the horse, as in man, there is only 
a minute diverticulum (text-fig. 6) representing the fourth branchial pouch of the 
chick, and only at the most a faint indication of a branchial groove lying behind the 
rudimentary fourth branchial arch (text-fig. 6). 

In the floor of the pharynx of man at the end of the third week there is a small 
mesial tubercle (tuberculum impar) between the mandibular and hyoid arches, a 
forked elevation (furcula) between the second and third arches, and furrows lead- 
ing into the branchial pouches ; the tubercle is the first indication of a tongue, 
while the furcula gives rise to the epiglottis. In the 21-days horse there is a 
small mesial prominence in the floor of the pharynx between the first and second 
branchial arches (text-fig. 6), and furrows leading to the branchial pouches, but 
no rudiment of either larynx or epiglottis. It may be mentioned that the fore- 
gut expands behind the fourth branchial pouch and gives off at each side a 
shallow diverticulum (text-fig. 6). These diverticula may represent rudiments of 
the respiratory system. 

The Mid-gut and the Hind-gut.— -The mid-gut, together with the anterior part 
of the hind-gut, communicates with the yolk-sac by means of a broad yolk-stalk (fig. 33 
and text-fig. 12). In the region of the yolk-stalk the cavity of the hind-gut has the 
form of a narrow channel (fig. 50), but behind the yolk-stalk it assumes the form of 
a wide flattened tube (fig. 51), the end of which projects upwards into the mass of 
cells occupying the space between the notochord and the terminal portion of the 
spinal cord : this dorsal diverticulum (figs. 33 and 52) seems to represent the cloacal 
chamber. From the ventral aspect of the hind-gut the allantoic diverticulum (fig. 33) 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 311 

extends backwards and upwards into the thick layer of mesoblast surrounding the 
caudal end of the embryo. 

4. The Notochord. 

From Martin's statements it may be assumed that the notochord in the horse 
agrees in its origin with that of the mole. As in the mole, the endoderm cells under- 
lying the medullary canal in front of the primitive streak are enlarged and arranged 
first to form a groove and then a cord (the chorda dorsalis), the thickened posterior 
end of which may contain a canal continuous with the neurenteric canal. At the 
middle of the third week large cells, continuous with ectodermic and endodermic 
cells at the anterior end of the primitive streak, form, a groove immediately under 
the medullary groove. At the end of the third week the place of this groove is 
occupied by the notochord. In the last fifteen sections through the tail end of the 
embryo there is no indication of a notochord, but in the sixteenth section (fig. 52) 
the notochord, nearly one-third the size of the spinal cord, is seen to the right of the 
middle line : like the spinal cord, it has a distinct central canal. '* Though eccentric 
in position near its origin, the notochord soon occupies the middle line and lies 
immediately below the spinal cord. If the drawings of transverse sections through 
the trunk (figs. 43 to 52) are referred to, it will be observed that the notochord and 
its canal vary both in shape and size. The sections through the head and pharynx 
(figs. 37 to 40) show that the notochord varies in shape and size and is inti- 
mately connected with the endoderm of the anterior third of the roof of the pharynx 
(figs. 33 and 39) and with the hind-brain. 

5. Heart and Blood-vessels. 

The embryo when first exposed was seen to be surrounded by a countless number 
of blood-vessels engaged in carrying blood to and from the yolk-sac (figs. 5, 34 and 35). 
Of these vessels the most obvious were the left vitelline artery, the sinus terminalis, 
and the large vitelline veins proceeding to the large bulging heart occupying the 
space between the pharynx and the middle portion of the trunk (fig. 33). The heart 
in the horse at the end of the third week, like the heart in a 3-day s chick, consists 
of a sinus venosus, an atrium, a ventricle, and a truncus arteriosus."!" In a 3 -days 
chick, as in man about the end of the third week, there are five pairs of aortic arches, 
but in the 3-weeks horse only the first two pairs of arches (text-fig. 7) have made 
their appearance. There were neither rudiments of a heart nor yet of blood-vessels 
in Martin's embryo ; hence it may be assumed that in the horse during the second 
half of the third week there is (l) the vascularisation of the yolk-sac and the 
formation of the vitelline veins ; (2) the fusion of these veins to form a single tubular 

* The notochord al canal, unlike the neural canal, is closed, does not open into the amniotic cavity, 
f Professor Robinson in his description of the model recognises (1) a sinus venosus, (2) a sinu-atrial canal, 
(3) a ventricle, (4) an atrio-ventricular canal, (5) a bulbus cordis, and (6) a truncus aorticus. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN. VOL. LI, PART II (NO. 7). 45 



312 



PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 



heart; (3) the elongation and folding of this heart so that it assumed the form of 
the letter "S"; and (4) its constriction into four more or less distinct chambers. 



laa. 




pcv 



Text-fig. 7. — Diagram of heart and blood-vessels. v.v., right vitelline vein; s.v., sinus venosus ; 
at, atrium; v., ventricle; b., bulbus arteriosus; l.a.a., first aortic arch; ll.a.a., second 
aortic arch ; l.a., left aorta ; r.a., right aorta ; a.o., dorsal aorta ; l.v., left vitelline artery ; 
r.v., right vitelline artery; pi. , plexus in allantoic mesoderm; a.c, anterior cardinal vein; 
p.c.v., posterior cardinal vein ; c.d., duct of Cuvier ; u.v., umbilical vein ; l.b.a. to IV.b.a., four 
branchial arches ; l.b.p. to IV. b.p., four branchial pouches. 



The vitelline veins, which play so important a part during the earlier weeks, are seen 
in figs. 34, 35, and 43 approaching the embryo. Fig. 43 also shows the lateral 
portions of the sinus venosus in the pleuro-peritoneal canals. The intimate relation 
of the sinus to the fore-gut is made evident by fig. 42. The sinus venosus, though 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 313 

formed from the vitelline veins, receives blood from the allantois and the embryo as 
well as from the yolk-sac. The allantoic (umbilical) veins (text-fig. 7), one at each 
side, spring from a transverse sinus in the allantoic mesoderm at the caudal end of 
the embryo (text-fig. 7). The blood from the embryo reaches the sinus by the short 
Cuvierian veins formed by the junction of the anterior and posterior cardinals. Each 
anterior cardinal (primitive jugular) vein (text-fig. 7) begins near the mandibular 
arch ; as it runs backwards it approaches the first two visceral pouches and the otic 
vesicle. Each posterior cardinal vein (text-fig. 7) runs forwards from the caudal end 
of the embryo ; on the way it is intimately related to either the pronephric duct or 
the Wolffian body. The blood flows from the sinus (text-fig. 7) by a wide opening 
into the atrium ; the atrium, separated by a constriction from the sinus, opens by a 
valved aperture into the ventricle — portions of the atrium and ventricle are seen in 
figs. 38 and 40. While the sinus and atrium occupy the uppermost and left portion 
of the space between the pharynx and the middle curved portion of the trunk, the 
ventricle occupies the middle and right portion and lies in contact with the floor of 
the fore-gut and the yolk-stalk (fig. 33). The truncus (bulbus) arteriosus springs 
from that part of the ventricle lying in contact with the floor of the pharynx, and 
runs forwards in contact with the atrium (fig. 39) to reach the middle line and give 
oft* tw T o pairs of aortic arches (text-fig. 7) , a pair to the mandibular arches and a pair 
to the hyoid arches. # As text-fig. 7 indicates, the first aortic arch on the left side 
proceeds backwards in front of the first branchial pouch to meet and unite with the 
smaller second aortic arch and thus form the left aorta. In a like manner the first aortic 
arch on the right side unites with the second arch to form the right aorta. The two 
dorsal aortse as they proceed backwards lie one at each side of the notochord (fig. 42), 
and are also more or less intimately related to the pharynx and gill pouches, the 
spinal cord and otic sacs, the pleuro-peritoneal sinus and the anterior cardinal veins 
(figs. 38 to 41). On nearing the sinus venosus the two aortse approach each other 
and completely fuse, but they again separate when a point about 3 mm. from the 
caudal end is reached (text-fig. 7). 

As the two aortse proceed backwards through the posterior third of the trunk 
they are intimately related to the notochord and the mesodermic somites. On 
reaching the posterior border of the yolk-stalk the distance between the aortse (text- 
fig. 7) becomes greater, and it continues to increase until they end in the allantoic 
mesoderm. As the aortse proceed backwards the left gives off the large left vitelline 
artery (text-fig. 7), which eventually bifurcates to form the sinus terminalis (fig. 34) ; 
the right gives off the small right vitelline artery (text-fig. 7). Before ending 
blindly each aorta gives off branches to the hind-gut ; some of these branches give 
rise to a plexus with which the allantoic (umbilical) veins communicate (text-fig. 7). 

* In only having two pairs of aortic arches the 21 -days horse agrees with a human embryo of about 15 days 
figured by His. In a figure by His of a human embryo of about 3 weeks all five aortic arches are present. If the 
age of these human embryos is approximately accurate, the aortic arches appear later in the horse than in man. 



314 



PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 



D. Early Developmental Stages in the Horse and Sheep.* 

If horses are descended from ancestors allied to Hyracotherium of the London 
Clay, ample time has elapsed to admit of prenatal as well as postnatal variation in 
directions different from those followed by even-toed Ungulates. It is hence probable 
that almost from the outset horse embryos will differ from sheep embryos at a like 
stage in the life-history. 

The Ovum, — In the Eutheria the ova, though always small, vary considerably ; 
they may be under '1 mm. or over '3 mm. in diameter. For example, in deer the 





Text-fig. 8. — Segmenting ovum of sheep with distinct zona pellucida (s.p.). 
Text-fig. 9. — Blastodermic vesicle of sheep, tr., trophoblast ; i.c.m., inner cell mass. Note 
absence of zona pellucida. (After Assheton.) 




Text-fig. 10. — Ovum of deer. The inner cell-mass (text-fig. 9) has differentiated to form 
(1) the embryonic shield {c.s. ) continuous with trophoblast (tr.), and (2) the endoderm 
(end.). At the corresponding stage in the horse there is still a zona pellucida — the line ex- 
ternal to the shield and trophoblast represents the zona in the horse. (After Keibel.) 

ovum may only measure '07 mm. ; on the other hand, the human ovum varies from 
'22 to "32 mm. In sheep the ovum, exclusive of the zona pellucida, measures '15 mm. ; 
in the horse it probably never exceeds '18 mm. In the ripe ovum of the sheep, 
figured by Assheton, there is no indication of a perivitelline space ; but even in the 
unripe ovum shown in fig. 2 from a 6-mm. ovarian follicle of a mare there is a 
distinct space between the vitellus and the zona pellucida. 

In the sheep the zona (text-fig. 8, z.p.), attenuated at the end of the first week, 
ruptures and disappears about the ninth day of gestation. As the amnion is only 
completed at the end of the second or beginning of the third week, it follows that 

* For information about the development of the sheep I am mainly indebted to papers by Assheton and 
Bonnet, more especially to "The Morphology of the Ungulate Placenta," Assheton, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc, 1906; 
"The Segmentation of the Ovum of the Sheep," Assheton, Quart. Jour. Med. Sci., 1898 ; " Beitriige zur Embryologie 
der Wiederkiiuer," R. Bonnet, Archivf. Anat. u. Physiol., Anat. Abth., 1889. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 



315 



for some days sheep embryos come into intimate relation with the lining of the 
uterus. 

In the horse the zona pellucicla, according to Bonnet, has a thickness of 4ju when 
the blastocyst measures 13 mm. (fig. 3), i.e. at the end of the second week. Further, 
during the first half of the third week the blastocyst acquires an albumen coat, which 
at the middle of the third week has a thickness of 3 or 4 mm. (fig. 4, alb.). 

In the sheep as segmentation proceeds it soon becomes evident that certain 
cells will give rise to the trophoblast (text-fig. 9, tr.), and that others will form the 
inner cell-mass (text-fig. 9, i.c.m.) which is eventually differentiated into endoderm 
and embryonic shield. In text-fig. 10 the embryonic shield (e.s.), trophoblast (tr.), 



a-lbn 




Text-fig. 11. — Diagram to indicate the stage reached in the horse about the middle of the third week. 
albn., thick (3-4 mm.) albumen coat; am., amnion fold ; ecd., ectoderm ; end., endoderm ; ms., 
mesoderm ; pr., primitive groove. Albumen layer is lost before end of third week. 



and endoderm (end.) of a deer are represented. Like differentiations and phases 
in all probability occur in the Equidse. 

The Blastocyst. — In the horse the blastocyst, nearly spherical at the end of the 
second week (fig. 3), is egg-shaped at the middle of the third week (fig. 4) and pear- 
shaped at the end of the third week (fig. 5). At this stage it has a length of 
50 mm., and occupies the lower part of one of the uterine horns (fig. 15). 

In the sheep soon after the rupture of the zona pellucida the blastocyst loses its 
spherical outline (text-fig. 13) and soon elongates into a narrow tube which occupies 
both uterine horns. This tubular blastocyst may have a length of 240 mm. at the 
end of the twelfth day, and measure 400 mm. (nearly 16 inches) at the end of the 
third week (text-fig. 16). 

The Trophoblast. — In the horse up to the middle of the third week the tropho- 
blast, except in the vicinity of the embryo (text-fig. 11), is in contact with the 
endoderm, but by the end of the third week, over and immediately beyond the embryo, 
it is in contact with non-vascular somatic mesoderm (text-fig. 12). Beyond the 
exoccelom up to the sinus terminalis the trophoblast forms the outer wall of a space 



316 



PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 



(fig. 28) occupied by the unsplit highly vascular mesoderm ; beyond the sinus it is 
in contact with the yolk-sac endoderm (fig. 34). 

In the sheep, up to the appearance of the amnion folds, the trophoblast, except 
under the embryonic shield, is in contact with a thin imperfect layer of endoderm. 



so 



am 




Text-fig. 12. — Drawing to indicate the stage reached in the horse at the end of the third week, after the albumen coat as 
well as the zona has disappeared, am., amnion, now complete ; ch. , chorion, made up of a layer of trophoblast and a 
layer of somatic mesoderm ; s.c, spinal cord ; d.a., dorsal aorta; sp., splanchnopleure ; tr., trophoblast; incs., unsplit 
vascularised mesoderm ; end., endoderm. 



SO 




TEXT-FIG. 13. — Drawing to indicate the stage reached in the sheep about the middle of the 
third week. In the 21 -days horse the mesoderm is only split in the vicinity of the 
embryo. In the sheep at a corresponding stage the splitting of the mesoderm is com- 
plete ; the inner (splanchnic) layer has united with the endoderm to form a free yolk- 
sac vesicle (y.s.), the outer with the trophoblast to form the chorion (ch. ). am., amnion ; 
s.c, spinal cord ; d.a., dorsal aorta ; sp., splanchnopleure. (After Bonnet.) 



As the splitting of the mesoderm proceeds, the exocoelom extends in all directions, 
with the result that the trophoblast is completely separated from the endoderm and 
provided with a lining of non-vascular mesoderm (text-fig. 13). 

In the horse the trophoblast at the end of the second week seems to consist of 
simple polygonal nucleated cells. At the middle of the third week the cells are 
cubical, but by the end of the third week they are long enough to rank as columnar 
cells. Up to the sinus terminalis there are simple columnar cells (fig. 28) ; beyond 
the sinus, in addition to typical columnar cells, there are very tall columnar cells 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 317 

forming the larger trophoblastic discs (fig. 29) and cells with sac-like processes 
(fig. 30), some of which surround the discs, while others line the shallow areas 
scattered over the distal end of the blastocyst. Up to the end of the third week the 
trophoblast in the horse consists of a single layer of cells, which are either quite free 
or loosely connected with the uterine epithelium. 

In the sheep the trophoblast at the outset consists of a single layer of simple 
polygonal cells ; by the tenth day the cells are wedge-shaped, and by the fourteenth 
cubical. By the eighteenth day the cells which roughly correspond to the coty- 
ledonary burrs projecting from the lining of the uterus, have assumed a columnar 
form.* These columnar cells develop minute ridges which by fitting into slight 
grooves in the cells of the burrs may assist in fixing the blastocyst. 

The Uterus. — In the sheep, when the ovum reaches the uterus " the mucous 
membrane is that typical of an anoestrous period " ; but as development proceeds there 
is a general increase in the complexity of the glands, with increased secretion, an 
invasion of the epithelium by leucocytes, and towards the close of the third week a 
thickening of the stroma. These changes are accompanied by a destruction of the 
uterine epithelium over the cotyledonary areas by means of binucleate trophoblastic 
cells insinuating themselves between the cells of the uterine epithelium to form a 
layer between the epithelium and the sublying stroma. The nourishment for the 
embryo, which mainly consists of " uterine milk," is taken up by the cells of the 
trophoblast lying between the cotyledonary burrs. 

In the mare, even at the end of the third week of gestation the mucous membrane 
is still that typical of the anoestrous period. The glands at the end of the third 
week may be more active, and leucocytes may be more numerous in the uterine 
cavity, but of this there is no evidence, neither is there any indication of erosion of 
the uterine epithelium or of changes in the sublying stroma. f 

Martin states that the mucous membrane of the uterus from which his embryo 
was obtained was congested and spotted. There was neither congestion nor spotting 
of the lining of the uterus from which I removed my 21 -days embryo. In all pro- 
bability, in the Equidse at the end of the third week the whole of the trophoblast 
takes part in procuring nourishment for the embryo. 

Amnion. — In the sheep the lateral folds are conspicuous on the fourteenth day, 
and extend well over the embryo on the following day. By the end of the sixteenth 
day the amnion is complete and connected by a cord to the inner surface of the 
chorion (text-figs. 13 and 14). 

Though in the sheep the amnion is well advanced on the fifteenth day, at the 
stage characterised by two pairs of mesodermic somites (text-fig. 14), there is no indica- 

* Opposite the cotyledonary burrs Assheton says the trophoblast perhaps consists of two layers. 

f The pig closely agrees with sheep during the earlier weeks of gestation. The blastocyst begins to elongate on 
the eleventh day. As it increases in length it is thrown into transverse folds, with the result that, though apparently 
of no great length, it may measure when extended over 1000 mm. at the middle of the third week. The uterine 
epithelium begins to degenerate on the fourteenth day, and is reduced to a thin layer by the eighteenth day. 



318 



PROFESSOR J. COSSAR KWART. 



t ion of the amnion in the horse until the middle of the third week. Even when four 
pairs of somites are present the amnion in the horse is only represented by very 
slight lateral ridges (text-fig. l), but by the twenty-first day the amnion is complete. 






Text-fig. 14. —A 14-days 22-hours sheep embryo with two mesodermic somites (ra.so.), a complete 
amnion (a>n.), and an allantoic diverticulum (al.d.). (After Bonnet.) 

Text-FIG. 15. — A 17-days 23-hours sheep embryo, with about as many somites as a 21-days horse. 
Note the large allautois (all.) in connection with the hind-gut [h.g.), the amnion (am.), and 
the yolk-stalk (y.s.). (After Bonnet.) 



all 





TEXT-FIG. 16. — Diagram of a 21-days sheep embryo and its membranes. Compare with diagram of a 21-days horse embryo 
(fig. 34). A 21-days sheep is at about the same stage of development as a 28-days horse, am,, amnion ; clt., chorion con- 
sisting of a trophoblast (fr. ), and somatic mesoderm (so.m.) ; y.s., yolk-sac ; all., allantois. 

The early rupture of the zona pellucida and the absence of an albumen layer may 
perhaps account for the amnion appearing at an earlier phase in the sheep than in 
the horse. 

Yolk-sac and Mesoderm. — In the sheep the splitting of the mesoderm already 




STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 319 

begun at the end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth day is completed 
at or about the end of the sixteenth day. When the yolk-sac endoderm is completely 
invested by splanchnic mesoderm a typical yolk-sac (i.e. a free vesicle separated by 
a distinct space from the chorion) is the result (text-fig. 13). As the blastocyst 
assumes a tubular form the yolk-sac elongates : by the twenty-first day it may reach 
a length of over 350 mm. (14 inches) (text-fig. 16). As the mesoderm splits the 
splanchnic layer undergoes vascularisation, without, hoivever, a sinus terminalis being 
established. 

In the horse the splitting of the mesoderm begins on the seventeenth or eighteenth 
day, but proceeds so slowly that it has only extended a short distance beyond the 
embryo on the twenty-first day (text-fig. 12). As the unsplit mesoderm extends 
between the trophoblast and endoderm it undergoes vascularisation, and the left 
vitelline artery bifurcates at an early stage to form a sinus terminalis (fig. 34). # As 
the splitting of the mesoderm is never complete in the horse, the most distal part of 
the yolk-sac endoderm retains throughout foetal life a slight connection with the 
trophoblast. This implies that the yolk-sac in the horse is never, as in the sheep, a 
free vesicle. 

In the horse at the end of the third week tubercles project into the cavity of the 
yolk-sac (fig. 32), each endodermic tubercle being related to a trophoblastic disc. 
There are apparently neither trophoblastic discs nor endodermic tubercles in the sheep. 

Allantois. — In the sheep there is a rudiment of the allantois at the end of the 
second week (text-fig. 14) ; a like stage is not reached in the horse until the end of 
the third week (fig. 33). On the sixteenth day the allantois in the sheep is a two- 
horned sac 27 mm. in width; on the seventeenth day it measures 16 mm. (text- 
fig. 15) ; the following day the width is nearly double ; and on the twenty-first day, 
as text-fig. 16 shows, it has a length of nearly 300 mm. (nearly 12 inches). 

In the horse at the end of the third week the allantois is still a minute diverti- 
culum 235/a in width ; in the sheep at a corresponding stage of development the width 
between the horns is over 30 mm. 

The Embryo. — The youngest sheep embryo figured by Bonnet was 3 mm. in 
length (text-fig. 14). It represents the phase reached 14 days and 22 hours after 
service, and is characterised by two pairs of mesodermic somites. In Bonnet's figure 
(text-fig. 14) the mesodermic somites, primitive streak, neural groove, allantoic rudi- 
ment, and parts of the amnion are represented. 

The horse embryo figured by Martin (fig. 7) differs but little from Bonnet's 
14-days 22-hours sheep embryo (text-fig. 14). Martin's embryo, which represents the 
stage reached at the middle of the third week, measured 3'25 mm. in length and had 
four mesodermic somites. Though in this embryo the primitive and neural grooves 

* Id the pig, in which the yolk-sac is a free vesicle as in the sheep, there is a temporary sinus terminalis followed 
by general vascularisation ; hence in a sense the arrangement of the yolk-sac vessels in the pig is intermediate between 
that of the sheep and that of the horse. 

TRANS. ROY. SOC. EDIN., VOL. LI, PART II (NO. 7). 46 



320 



PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 



are distinct, there is no rudiment of an allantois, and the amnion is represented by two 
hardly perceptible lateral ridges ; as the mesoderm is not split under these ridges, 



A llantois 

Cloaca 




HORSE 

Text-fig. 17. — Diagram of the endoderm of a 21 -days horse embryo. Note the gill pouches in connection with 
the fore-gut, the wide yolk-stalk leading into the pear-shaped yolk-sac, the cloaca, and the minute allantoic 
diverticulum projecting from the hind-gut. 




Yr>/A -Sbc 



Yo/A-Sac 



SHEEP 

Text-fig. 18. — Diagram of the endoderm of a sheep at about the same stage of development as a 21 -days horse. 
Note the large crescent-shaped allantois and the long tubular yolk-sac which extends into both uterine horns. 



one is perhaps hardly justified in regarding them as rudiments of the amnion. 
Martin and Bonnet believed this 3"25 mm. embryo was 21 days old, but I have given 
reasons for regarding it as representing the stage reached on the seventeenth or 
eighteenth day of gestation. 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 



321 



During the fifteenth and sixteenth days marked progress is made by sheep 
embryos. The 16-days 22-hours embryo figured by Bonnet has ten mesodermic 
somites, a long deep neural groove, rudiments of the fore-, mid-, and hind-gut, and 
two branchial arches ; the primitive streak is still distinct, the amnion is complete, 
and there is a crescent-shaped allantois. 

In 1840 Hausmann figured a 19-days horse embryo with ten or eleven meso- 
dermic somites. While generally agreeing with Bonnet's 16-days 22-hours sheep 
embryo, Hausmann's 19-days horse embryo (text-fig. 19) has apparently no rudiment 
of an allantois, and very little progress has been made in the development of either 
the nervous system, gut, or branchial arches.* 

In a 17-days sheep embryo there are over twenty somites, the greater part of the 
neural groove is converted into a canal, and there are indications of otic as well as of 





19. 



Text-fig. 19.- 
Text-fig. 20.- 
Text-fig. 21. ■ 



20. 

-Hausmann's figure of a 19-days 45-minutes horse embryo. 
„ ,, 19-days 7-hours ,, 

,, ,, 19-days 26-hours ,, 




cerebral vesicles ; the fore- and hind-gut have assumed a definite form, and the 
allantois has a width of 16 mm. ; further, there are branchial arches, a three-chambered 
heart, two aortae, and a rudiment of the notochord (text-fig. 15). 

In a sheep embryo at the beginning of the nineteenth day there are more than 
twenty mesodermic somites, and the development of the nervous system has advanced 
so far that the three regions of the brain are easily recognised ; there are distinct optic 
as well as otic vesicles, a three-chambered heart, a maxillary process from the first, 
visceral arch, and a large allantois in connection with a well-developed hind-gut. 

The 21 -days horse embryo is in some respects intermediate between a 17-days 
and a 19-days sheep embryo, but it obviously differs in shape, in the less-developed 
condition of the hind-gut, and especially in the blastocyst, yolk-sac, allantois, and the 
structure of the trophoblast. 

For some years it has been assumed that the rate of development in the horse 
varies greatly during the first three weeks. This assumption is the result -of Bonnet 
stating in 1891 that a 21 -days blastocyst varies from 13 mm. to 35 mm.f Now 

* Hausmann's 19-days horse embryo lends strong support to the view that Martin's so-called 21 -days embryo 
represents the stage reached at the middle of the third week. 

f "Eier vom 21-Tage schwanken zwischen 1-3 cm.-35 cm. Lange," Bonnet, Grundriss des Entwickelungsgeschichle, 
1891, p. 240. 



322 PROFESSOR J. COSSAR EWART. 

that a 21-days blastocyst 50 mm. in length has been described, presumably Bonnet 
would state that in the horse the blastocyst at the end of the third week varies from 
13 mm. to 50 mm. 

By studying the oestrous period in the mare and the condition of the ovaries 
before and after service, I arrived at the conclusion that the difference between my 
50-mm. blastocyst and Bonnet's 13-mm. blastocyst was not due to arrested develop- 
ment but to a difference in age — a conclusion supported by drawings of horse 
embryos (text-figs. 19-21) published in 1840 by Hausmann. 

Further, it has been taken for granted that during the earlier weeks the horse 
closely agrees in its development with other typical Ungulates. It is conceivable 
that up to the end of segmentation, perhaps up to the formation of the embryonic 
shield, there may be almost complete agreement between even-toed and odd-toed 
Ungulates ; but by comparing young horse embryos with sheep embryos at a corre- 
sponding stage, evidence has been obtained in support of the view that from the 
time the mesodermic somites make their appearance the two main groups of the 
modern hoofed mammals follow different routes — the sheep, pig, and other even-toed 
Ungulates especially differing at the end of the third week from the horse in the form 
of the blastocyst, yolk-sac, and allantois, and in the structure and relations of the 
trophoblast. 

E. Summary. 

During the last fifty years so much progress has been made in clearing up the 
pedigree of the horse that we are now familiar with every chapter in the ancestral 
history between the 14-inch four-toed Hyracotherium of the London Clay and the 
60-inch Equus sivalensis of the Indian Pliocene. 

But while our knowledge of the remote ancestors of the Equidse is well-nigh com- 
plete, we still know surprisingly little about the more interesting chapters of the life- 
history of the horses now living under domestication. We are acquainted with the 
ancestral history because Cope, March, Osborn, Scott, and other American 
palaeontologists made a systematic and exhaustive study of " fossil " horses ; we know 
little about the more interesting phases of the life-history of the living Equidee 
because embryologists have not yet succeeded in working out the development of 
either horses, asses, or zebras. 

In America several expeditions have been sent out in search of material for 
the study of extinct horses, but until recently only one serious attempt seems to 
have been made to obtain material for a systematic study of the development of 
recent horses. 

Unfortunately, this attempt (made in Hanover by Hausmann some eighty years 
ago) yielded meagre results. Professor Bonnet of Giessen, famous for his memoirs 
on the development of domestic animals, when referring in 1889 to previous work 
on the fastal membranes of the horse, pointed out that about the first stages of 



STUDIES ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HORSE. 323 

development we have nothing to depend on except the statements and drawings of 
Hausmann, who had a stud including fifty-two mares at his disposal for his researches. 
These statements, which relate to the development at the end of the third week, 
owing to the mistaken views of their author about the ovum and its membranes, 
Bonnet points out, have caused more confusion than enlightenment, while the 
drawings which illustrate Hausmann's contributions are almost incomprehensible 
and worthless. 

In the home of the thoroughbred racehorse no systematic attempt has been 
made by embryologists to work out the life-history of the Equidse, and sporadic 
attempts to elucidate special points in the early history have hitherto been well- 
nigh as fruitless in England as the ambitious attempt made in the 'thirties of last 
century in Hanover. 

From first to last the difficulty in England has been lack of material. This was 
especially true of an attempt made by Huxley to find rudiments of the second and 
fourth digits. When preparing the lecture on fossil horses delivered in 1876 in 
New York, it occurred to Huxley that strong evidence in support of the fact of 
evolution would be forthcoming if it were proved that the modern horse passes 
through a Hipparion or 3-toed stage during development. 

Armed with all the available material Sir William Flower could place at his 
disposal, Huxley proceeded to search for rudiments of the phalanges of the second 
and fourth digits. To Huxley's great disappointment the search was in vain. 
Huxley failed, not because- the 3-toed stage is absent in the recent horse, but because 
it appears, comes and goes, much earlier than he expected. Up to the end of the 
Miocene period all horses had throughout life three complete toes both in front and 
behind. For this reason it seems to have been assumed that the 3-toed phase, if 
it actually occurred in the modern horse, would persist for a considerable time and 
be preceded by a 5 -toed phase. As a matter o